Gerald Vincent Bull (
March 9, 1928- March 22, 1990) was a Canadian engineer who developed long range artillery. He moved from project to project in his quest to economically launch a satelliteusing a huge artillery piece. To this end he designed the Project Babylon" supergun" for the Iraqi government. He was shot outside his home in Brussels, Belgium.
Bull was born in
North Bay, Ontario, part of the large family of George Bull and Gertrude Isabelle LaBrosse. Bull was from a family based in the Trenton area and had moved to North Bay in 1903 to start a law firm. LaBrosse was from a family that had helped open the mining areas in the Sudbury and North Bay area, but as a Catholic the two would normally be forbidden from marrying, as Bull was Anglican. The diocese of Sudbury contains a record showing Bull converted to Catholicism on 20 February 1909, and the two married three days later. As a result of these events, Bull's family disowned their errant son for decades. Over the next few years the couple had a number of children, Bernice Gwendolyn Florence, Henry, Philis, Charles Esmond, Clyde, Vivian, Ronald, Frank, Gerald, and finally Gordon.
Bull's firm was successful in North Bay, and he was offered the position of
King's Counselon 9 March 1928. His personal wealth was further increased by the inheritance of several family properties in Trenton. The family was well off in spite of being so large, and Bull was able to make investments for their future. All of this was wiped out in the Wall Street Crash of 1929and following Great Depression. Northern Ontario, having only recently "opened" through mining, suffered the crash particularly hard, and 80% of the businesses in North Bay failed. Within a year the loans Bull had taken to buy stocks on margin were called in, and the family was forced to move to Toronto to look for work.
The next year Bernice suffered complications while giving birth to Gordon, and she fell ill. Five weeks later she died on 1 April 1931. George suffered a nervous breakdown and started to drink heavily, returning to Trenton and having his sister Laura, a retired nurse, care for the children. As George kicked the drinking and started looking for work again, Laura fell victim to cancer and died in the summer of 1934. The next year the banks foreclosed on the family home. The same year, George, at the age of 58, met and married Rose Bleeker, and moved back to Toronto with her, giving up the children to various relatives, Gerald ending up with his older sister, Bernice.
In the summer of 1938 Gerald was sent to spend the holidays with another set of relatives, Philip and Edith LeBrosse. Edith had won the Irish Sweepstakes in 1931 and the couple was relatively well off. Gerald professed little memory of the family, but evidence suggests he wanted to remain with them after the holidays. They had already planned a vacation, however, so Gerald was sent to all all-boys school run by the Jesuit order, Regiopolis College in
Kingston, Ontario. Although too young to attend, for some unrecorded reason (likely a large donation) he started attending in 1938, returning to spend the summers with the LeBrosses. During this time he took up the hobby of building balsa woodairplanes, eventually of his own design, and was a member of the school's modeling club. The LeBrosses moved to Toronto and Gerry went to a local Catholic school for one term, but returned to board at Regiopolis until graduating in 1944.
After graduating, Bull entered
Queen's University, with an eye to eventually entering officer's training school. Philip LeBrosse had bigger plans, and visited the University of Torontowith an eye to having Bull placed there. He wrote to Bull, who was in Kingston, having found room in the medical school. Bull declined the offer and instead asked LeBrosse if a position in the new aeronautical engineering course was available. Brand-new, the department had few hard and fast rules for entrance, and were willing to interview Bull even though he was only sixteen years old. After meeting him in person he was accepted into the undergraduate program. Records and recollections of both classmates and his professors show little in the way of brilliance; one professor noted "He certainly didn't stand out".Grant, p. 22] Graduating in 1948 with marks that were described as "strictly average", Bull took a drafting job at A.V. Roe Canada.
Later that year the University opened a new Institute of Aerodynamics (now the Institute for Aerospace Studies) under the direction of Dr. Gordon Patterson. The Institute operated on a shoestring budget and could only afford to employ twelve students, accepting three a year for a four year period funded by the
Defence Research Board(DRB). Bull applied and was accepted at Patterson's personal recommendation, as he felt that any lack in academics was made up for by Bull's tremendous energy. Bull was soon partnered up with fellow student Doug Henshaw, and the two were given the task of building a supersonic wind tunnel, at that time a relatively rare device. The two ran out of room to build in, and soon knocked a hole into Patterson's office, slowly encroaching on his space and eventually having to stand on his desk to adjust the device.
Matters improved when the
Royal Canadian Air Forcedonated land adjacent to RCAF Station Downsview to the Institute and the operations were quickly moved. During construction, Bull used the device as the basis for his 15 September 1949 Master's thesis, on the design and construction of advanced wind tunnels. The tunnel was to be featured prominently during the opening of the new Institute grounds, leading to an all-night rush to get it fully operational in time for the presentation, which included Dean Kenneth Tupper who joined after driving by and seeing the lights on. The work was finally completed at 3:30 am, but the team was too exhausted to test it. The next day Air Marshal Curtis pushed the button and nothing happened, but Patterson quickly reached around, pushed harder, and to everyone's relief it worked perfectly.
Bull had at this time largely finished his PhD thesis, on the same topic, when a 1950 request from the DRB asking that the Institute provide an aerodynamicist to help on their
Velvet Glove missileproject. No money was available for paying the "volunteer", who would have to remain on their normal PhD stipend. Patterson selected Bull for the position. This would lead to a fruitful period of work at the Canadian Armament and Research Development Establishment, or CARDE.
CARDE, the Canadian Armament and Research Development Establishment, was formed as a joint Canadian-British operation studying artillery and ballistics, in an effort to harness the intellectual resources of Canada, as well as place developing British technology outside of German reach during
World War II. Formed up on a Military training area and artillery range outside Valcartier, northwest of Quebec City, CARDE was one of a number of research divisions of the DRB that were well funded in the immediate post-war era. CARDE was researching supersonicflight and a variety of rocket and missile projects when Bull was asked to join. Bull asked to build a wind tunnel for this research, but his suggestions were dismissed as too expensive and he had to do all of his work on paper.
Falling increasingly behind in their calculations, the artillerymen at CARDE suggested that they could solve their problems by firing models out of existing guns in order to gather real-world data. This was Bull's introduction to artillery. A former
Ordnance QF 25 pounder(almost certainly a Canadian-built version) was bored out to produce a six-inch smoothbore. [The 6-inch number appears in "Wilderness" p. 36-37, but given the original 3.5 inch bore of the 25 pounder, this is unlikely. More likely candidates are the BL 5.5 inch Medium Gunor 6 inch 26 cwt howitzer. Another possibility is that the 6" number is incorrect, a 4" would have been possible with the 25-pdr.] Borrowing an idea developed in England in 1916, cards were placed on holders along the range and scaled models of the missile fired through them. In some ways this technique was superior to wind tunnels, as it allowed for the direct measurement of real-world influences on the trajectory, something that could only be calculated otherwise. On the downside, reducing the collected data to a mathematical trajectory for checking against the theoretical calculations is difficult. The range eventually developed into a 1000-foot long walled and covered trench with cards hung every ten feet down its length.
Bull was at CARDE briefly before returning to the University to defend his thesis in March 1951, at 23 years old becoming the youngest PhD graduate in the Institute's history — a record that remains to this day. He returned to CARDE, now on the DRB's payroll, and continued working on the instrumented guns. On one of these trips, in 1953, he and a friend stopped in Charny after a fishing trip to drop off some of their catch at a local doctor's house. Bull met Noemi "Mimi" Gilbert, the doctor's daughter, and the two soon started dating. Given Bull's work schedule they were rarely able to see each other, but they became engaged in February 1954, and married on 15 July. Dr. Gilbert gave the couple a small house as a wedding gift. Mimi gave birth to their first son, Phillippe, on 3 July 1955, and a second, Michael, in November 1956.
In 1954 Bull decided that a wind tunnel was too important to ignore, even if he could not arrange for funding through the DRB. Instead, he gained the ear of professors at
Laval Universityin Quebec City, and Bull and a number of graduate students started work on a tunnel similar to the one he had earlier built at the UofT. It opened in the summer of 1955 and was capable of speeds up to Mach 4, but cost only $6000, the result of using scrap for most of its parts.
Bull's work was brought to the public's attention in a 20 May 1955
Toronto Telegramheadline article, "Unveil Canadian Gun that Fires 4,550 M.P.H. Missiles". Around this time Bull further improved the data-collection capabilities of the system by developing a telemetry system that could be fit in the models. DRB staff thought the idea was unworkable and worked against having it funded, but Bull shuffled his own department's funding and went ahead and developed it anyway. All the parts of Bull's future efforts, smoothbore high-velocity guns, sabots for increasing performance, and hardened electronics, were now complete.
Work on the Velvet Glove ended in 1956, and the DRB turned its attention to
anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs). Bull's gun system was not fast enough to be useful in this role, so it was adapted to use a " sabot" to improve its performance. Bull then moved on to hyper-sonics research and the study of infraredand radar cross sections for detection. But as the UK's own research efforts wound down in the Post-War political environment, CARDE's joint UK-Canadian funding was dramatically curtailed, eventually being handed over to the Canadians entirely. Further cuts made by the Canadian government followed. Bull was vocal about this turn of events, calling the Liberal government of the day "second-rate lawyers and jumped-up real-estate salesmen". [Grant, pp. 42]
During this period CARDE was visited by a US team, including Lieutenant General Arthur Trudeau, who was extremely impressed with Bull's work. Trudeau was director of US Army Research and Development, and he quickly set up a similar effort at the
Aberdeen Proving Groundunder the direction of Dr. Charles Murphy. They built an analog of Bull's gun using a convert|5|in|mm|sing=on gun and started test firing it over the Atlantic in 1961. The team used a fire-control radar from a Nike Herculesmissile battery to track the shells, which released a cloud of chaffat altitudes up to 130,000.
Around the same time, Bull and Murphy started discussing the idea of firing scale aircraft models from their guns. Both started working on the idea, but Bull beat Murphy when he successfully fired a model of the
Gloster Javelinfrom his gun and managed to take shadowgraph photos of it clearly showing supersonic shock cones. Bull then used the same method to work on the Avro Arrow, discovering an instability that led to the use of a stability augmentation system. However, work on the Arrow was soon cancelled in infamous fashion, which angered Bull.
With attention turning to space after the launch of
Sputnikin 1957, Bull leaked a story that Canada would soon match this feat by placing a high-velocity gun in the nose of a US Army Redstone missile. The story was a complete fabrication, but caused a major stir when it hit the papers on 22 April 1958. [Grant, pp. 52-53] After the story broke Prime Minister John Diefenbakerwas besieged in the House of Commons press scrum, later dismissing it stating that "There is no foundation whatsoever to the story, not a scintilla of truth to it".Grant, pp. 53] A major flap broke out as a result, leading to the dressing down of several of Bull's superiors. When the press was invited to visit CADRE, the Canadian Broadcasting Companybroadcast a piece covering much of the work at CADRE on May 11th, including lengthy sections on Bull's gun and their work on infrareddetection and anti-ballistic missilesystems. [ [http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/national_security/clips/3353/ A supersonic scientist] , CBC, May 11, 1958]
On 1 April 1961 Bull got into an argument with his direct superior over paperwork. Bull wrote out his resignation. A report prepared after his departure stated "...his tempestuous nature and strong dislike for administration and red tape constantly led him into trouble with senior management." [Grant, pp. 55]
High Altitude Research Program
Bull had long prepared for this event, and soon re-appeared as a professor at
McGill University, which was in the process of building up a large engineering department under the direction of Donald Mordell. Mordell had long maintained links with CADRE and became one of Bulls' ardent supporters, in spite of what other professors saw as "second-rate attempts at manipulation" and that " [Mordell] always supported Bull's work… I think sometimes he got pretty tired of supporting Bull." [Grant pp. 59] Bull, for his part, appeared to enjoy the new position, and later described it as "a marriage made in heaven." Bull remained in contact with his counterparts in the US and the University of Toronto, and set about equipping the University with the instrumentation it would need to be a leader in the field of aerodynamics.
Several years earlier, while still working at CADRE, Gerald and Mimi had purchased a convert|2000|acre|km2|sing=on plot of land on the Québec-Vermont border. Bull donated the land to be used by McGill and turned into a new ballistics lab, a private analog of the CADRE site. Renamed to become "Highwater Station" due to the local village of Highwater, the site was quickly developed under the direction of former
British Armycolonel Robert Stacy, who bulldozed large sections, built various test facilities and ran power to the site. There they began working with 5" and 7" artillery pieces.
In the fall of 1961 Bull visited Murphy and Trudeau at Aberdeen and was able to interest them in the idea using guns to loft missile components for re-entry research, a task that was otherwise very expensive and time-consuming aboard rockets. They arranged funding for the work under Project HARP (for "High Altitude Research Program", not to be confused with
HAARP). The US Navy supplied a surplus 16" battleship gun, and a contract from the Office of Naval Researchpaid for the gun to be re-bored into a 16.4" smoothbore. The entire contract, excluding shipping, was only $2,000. [Grant, pp. 61]
The performance of the gun was so great that the Highwater site was too small to support it. McGill had long been running a meteorological station on
Barbadosand had close connections with the new Democratic Labour Party (DLP), and suggested that it would make an idea location for the gun to be set up. Bull met with Prime Minister Errol Barrowwho became an enthusiastic supporter of HARP, and arranged for a firing site in Foul Bay, on the south-west corner of the island near the Seawell Airport. The guns arrived in early 1962 but could not be put ashore at the site and had to be offloaded convert|7|mi|km down the coast, and then transported overland via a purpose-built railway that employed hundreds of locals. As the project continued, this figure grew to over 300 permanently employed with the project, and it became a major reason for Barrow's continued support. [Grant pp. 62] Bull encouraged the locals to use the project as a stepping-stone to a science or engineering degree of their own, and his efforts were widely lauded in the press.
In January 1962 the first test shot was carried out, firing an empty sabot. The test was completely successful, so a further two similar firings were abandoned and the second firing was made with a dart-like finned projectile named "Martlet" (after the mythical bird without feet on the McGill University crest). These tests demonstrated several problems, including poor shot-to-shot performance of the decades-old gunpowder, and the fact that the projectile left the barrel so quickly that the powder didn't have time to burn completely. New charges using modern powder were soon supplied, and by November 1962 the 150 kilogram Martlets were being fired at over 10,000 ft/s (3048 m/s) and reaching altitudes of convert|215000|ft|m|abbr=on.
The Martlets evolved through this period, growing in size and sophistication. As Bull later put it:
cquote2|quotetext=Marlett 2A was the first high-altitude projectile. It weighted 225 pounds. The forebody carried electronics, the aftbody carried chemical payloads. It was five inches (127 mm) in diameter, and had a very heavy pusher plate. The actual all-up weight was around 400 to 450 pounds. Then what happened was the Martlet 2C. [It] was the big workhorse, still a five inch (127 mm) . Then, towards the end, we came up with the 350 pound vehicle, the same thing, only seven inches in diameter.
The idea was to find out what happens in the atmosphere from sunset to sunrise. Remember, nobody gave us grants. We had to produce tropical atmospheric meteorological [data] for the army research office, that's how we got our money. We were trying to measure everything to the top of the atmosphere, which we labeled as a nominal two hundred kilometers.
The cost of a launch was about $5,000. We did up to eight a night. We used to do three nights in a row to try to get the data.|personquoted=Gerald Bull|quotesource= [Grant, pp. 65]
The Martlet's electronics triggered the release of the chemical markers at a set altitude. This left a sort of "smoke trail" through the atmosphere that could be used to measure winds aloft by visual means. The chemical was typically
triethylaluminum, which burns on contact with air. Loading the shells was a dangerous job that required special handling. The Martlet were also used to release chaffinstead of chemicals, allowing tracking via radar. Some shots used additional electronics to measure the magnetic field. Similar firings in support of the upper atmosphere research were made using 5" and 7" guns at Highwater, Alaska, and Wallops Island Virginia." [http://www.astronautix.com/articles/abroject.htm A Brief History of the HARP Project] ", Richard K Graf] By the time the program ran down, about 1,000 firings had taken place, and the data collected during HARP represents half of all the upper-atmospheric data to this day. [Grant, pp. 66]
The Martlet-2 was only a stepping-stone on the way to Bull's real interest, a gun-launched rocket that could reach low-earth orbit. In the spring of 1963 HARP started experimenting with the "Martlet-3", a 7" diameter "full bore" projectile designed to test the basic problems of launching a solid-fuel rocket from guns. Solid rocket fuel has the consistency of soft rubber and is cut into a pattern that is open in the middle, so on firing the "grain" would tend to collapse into the cavity. This problem was solved by filling the cavity with zinc bromide, a liquid that had a density close to the fuel which prevented the collapse and was then drained out after firing to allow the rocket to light. Test firings began at the US
Ballistic Research Laboratoryin Aberdeen using a bored-out 175 mm gun from the M107. This program proved the basic concept and shots of the Martlet-3 reached altitudes of convert|155|mi|km.
The ultimate goal of the program was the "Martlet-4", a three-stage 16.4" rocket that would be fired from a lengthened gun at Barbados and would reach orbit. In 1964 Donald Mordell was able to convince the Canadian government of the value of the HARP project as a low-cost method for Canada to enter the space-launch business, and arranged a joint Canadian-US funding program of $3 million a year for three years, with the Canadians supplying $2.5 million of that. Another 16.4" gun, mounted horizontally, was being tested at the Highwater range, and was extended by cutting the breach off the end of one gun and welding it to the end of another to produce a new gun over 110 ft long. The extension allowed the powered to be contained for a longer period of time, slowing down the acceleration and loads on the airframe, while also offering higher overall performance. Once the system had been tested at Highwater, a second barrel was shipped to Foul Bay, attached and strengthened with external bracing to allow it to be raised up from the horizontal. This gun was extensively tested in 1965 and 66. [Grant, pp. 75]
The orbital project faced a constant race with its own budget. Originally guaranteed three years of funding, the money was handled by the DRB, who was less than impressed with its former "star" going on to greater things while their own funding was being dramatically cut. Although the money was allocated for 1964, the DRB managed to delay delivery for ten months, forcing McGill to cover salaries in the interim. These problems did not go unnoticed in the US Army, and in order to ensure that firings would not be interrupted by problems on the Canadian side, a third double-length gun was built at the
Yuma Proving Grounds to continue the high-altitude measurements. On November 18, 1966 this gun launched a Martlet-2 to 180 km, a world record that still stands today.
By 1967 it was becoming clear that the Martlet-4 would not be ready by the time the funding ran out in 1968. An effort started to build a simplified version, the GLO-1A (Gun-launched Orbiter, Version 1A), based on the Martlet-2G. [ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/maret2g1.htm Martlet 2G-1] ] Continued budget pressures, changing public attitudes towards military affairs, negative reviews from the press and other researchers in Canada and a change of government all conspired to ensure that Canadian funding was not renewed in 1967. Bull had been working on a last-ditch effort to launch a Canadian flag into orbit in time for the
Canadian Centennial, but nothing ever came of this plan. [Grant, pp. 79]
pace Research Corporation
Bull returned to his Highwater range, and managed to get HARPs assets transferred to a new company by invoking a clause in the original contract with McGill that required them to return the range to its original natural condition. Faced with hundreds of thousands of dollars in construction costs to wind down a project that could not garner funding, McGill was left with little choice but to trade Bull for title to the Highwater equipment. Setting up a new company,
Space Research Corporation(SRC), Bull became an international artillery consultant. Incorporated in both Quebec and Vermont, a number of contracts from both the Canadian and US military research arms helped the company get started.
At SRC Bull continued the development of his high-velocity artillery, adapting the HARP smoothbore into a new "reverse rifled" design where the lands of a conventional rifling were replaced by grooves cut into the barrel to make a slightly larger gun also capable of firing existing ammunition. Normally artillery shells are sealed into the rifling by a
driving bandof soft metal like copper, which demands that the shell be shaped so that it balances at its widest point, where the band is located. This is not ideal for ballistics, especially supersonically where a higher fineness ratiois desirable. Bull solved this problem by using an addition set of nub "fins" near the front of the shell to keep it centered in the barrel, allowing the driving band to be greatly reduced in size, and located wherever was convenient. Re-shaping the shell for better supersonic performance provided dramatically improved range and accuracy, up to double in both cases, when compared to a similar gun using older-style ammunition. He called the new shell design "Extended Range, Full Bore" (ERFB).
Starting in 1975, Bull designed a new gun based on the common US 155/39
M109 howitzer, extending it slightly to 45 calibres through modifications that could be applied to existing weapons, calling the resulting weapon the GC-45 howitzer. Bull also purchased the base bleedtechnology being developed in Belgium, which allowed for further improvements in range. With ERFB round the GC-45 could routinely place rounds into 10 m circles at ranges up to 30 km, extending this to 38 km with some loss in accuracy. The gun offered ranges far in excess of even the longest-ranged heavy artillery in a gun only slightly larger than common medium-weight guns.
SRC's first major sales success was the sale of 50,000 ERFB shells to Israel in 1973 for use in American-supplied artillery pieces. The Israelis successfully used a number of 175 mm M107 guns in the counter-battery role against its Soviet counterpart, the
130 mm towed field gun M1954 (M-46), but the introduction of long range rockets fired from Lebanonoutranged them. The ERFB shells extended the range of this already formidable weapon to as much as 50 km, allowing the guns to counter-battery even the longest range rockets. Bull was rewarded for success of this program by a Congressional bill, sponsored by Senator Barry Goldwater, making him retroactively eligible for a decade of American citizenship and high-level American nuclear security clearance.
Another early success for SRC was the sale of 30,000 artillery shells, gun barrels, and plans for the GC-45 to Armscor of
Pretoria, South Africa. The South African army was using older weapons, notably the British . WWII Ordnance QF 25 pounder, that were completely outperformed by Soviet-supplied artillery during the Operation Savannah in 1975-1976, which completely shut down their offensive and resulted in a rout. In order to ensure this would not happen again, they went shopping for longer-ranged weapons and were put in touch with SRC by CIApersonnel, their partners in Operation Savannah. Armscor designed a new mounting to allow increased powder loads and added an auxiliary power unitto improve its capabilities in the field by helping automate various tasks and move the gun short distances. The resulting G5 howitzerwas vital to the South African campaign against Cuban military forces in Angola, allowing them to stop any attempt to conduct military actions of any size in the border area.
With the change of administration in 1977, the US's policies on arms sales changed dramatically. Combatting communism was no longer the only consideration, and the
human rightsrecord of the South African apartheidsystem became a major concern. Enforcing rules that had always been "on the books", Bull was arrested for illegal arms dealing in violation of the UN arms embargo. Expecting a slap on the wrist, Bull was surprised to find himself spending six months in a US jail in 1980. On his return to Quebeche was sued and fined in the amount of $55,000 for arms dealing.
European Poudreries Réunies de Belgique
Bull left Canada and moved to
Brussels, where a subsidiary of SRC called European Poudreries Réunies de Belgique was based. Bull continued working with the ERFB ammunition design, developing a range of munitions that could be fired from existing weapons. A number of companies designed upgrades to work with older weapons, like the M114 155 mm howitzer, combining a new barrel from the M109 with Bull's ERFB ammunition to produce an improved weapon for relatively low cost.
Bull also continued working with the GC-45 design, and soon secured work with The
People's Republic of China, and then Iraq. He designed two artillery pieces for the Iraqis: the 155 mm "Al-Majnoonan", an updated version of the G5, and a similar set of adaptations applied to the 203 mm US M110 howitzerto produce the 210 mm Al-Faowith a maximum range of 56 km (35 miles) without base bleed. Although it appears the Al-Fao was not put into production, the Al-Majnoonan started replacing Soviet designs as quickly as they could be delivered. When deliveries could not be made quickly enough, additional barrels were delivered from South Africa.
The guns were built and sold through
Bull then convinced the Iraqis that they would never be a real power without the capability for space launches. He offered to build a cannon capable of such launches, basically an even largerversion of the original HARP design.
Saddam Husseinwas interested, and work started on " Project Babylon".
A smaller 45 meters, 350 mm caliber gun was completed for testing purposes, and Bull then started work on the "real" "PC-2" machine, a gun that was 150 meters long, weighed 2100 tonnes, with a bore of one meter (39 inches). It was to be capable of placing a 2000 kilogram projectile into orbit. The Iraqis then told Bull they would only go ahead with the project if he would also help with development of their longer ranged
Scud-based missile project. Bull agreed.
Construction of the individual sections of the new gun started in
Englandat Sheffield Forgemastersand Matrix Churchill as well as in Spain, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.
Bull concurrently worked on the
Scudproject, making calculations for the new nose-cone needed for the higher re-entry speeds and temperatures the missile would face. At this point someone started "warning" him to stop working on the missiles. Over a period of a few months his apartment was broken into several times but nothing was stolen. He nevertheless continued to work on the project, and in March 1990 he was shot five times in the back of the neck while opening the door of his apartment in Brussels.Fact|date=March 2008
The most common theories are that either the Israeli
Mossadwas responsible (due to the small-caliber, sound-suppressed pistolused), or that it was Iranian Intelligence VEVAK.Fact|date=March 2008 Both Mossad and VEVAK had the capacity and motive to stop Saddam from acquiring such a weapon.Or|date=March 2008 A fictionalized story in the movie "Doomsday Gun" suggests that the Mossad is happy to be blamed, as this scares off others who may try to help enemy regimes. There is also a theory as speculated in the Frederick Forsythnovel The Fist of God, that Bull was assassinated by Iraqi agents of the Mukhabaratunder the direct order of the Iraqi president, Saddam Husseinthrough the chief of the foreign intelligence wing of the Mukhabarart, Dr. Ismail Ubaidi. The theory suggests that the motive was to prevent Bull from leaking crucial intelligence about Project Babylonto either the Americans or the Israelis. The assassination was only conducted after Bull had outlived his usefulness and had to be disposed of.
Gerald Bull had worked for so many parties in so many critical defence projects that he became an asset and a liability for several powerful groups at the same time. [ [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-74-626/people/gerald_bull/ Dr. Gerald Bull: Scientist, Weapons Maker, Dreamer] at CBC.ca]
The supergun project was stopped when its parts were seized by Customs in the
United Kingdomin November 1990, and most of Bull's staff returned to Canada. The smaller test gun was later broken up after the Gulf War.
The Fist of God", a related novel by Frederick Forsyth
List of assassinated persons
Science and technology in Canada
*Murphy CH, Bull GV: A review of Project HARP. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1966; vol.140(A1): pp.337-
*Murphy CH, Bull GV, Edwards HD: Ionospheric winds measured by gun-launched projectiles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1966; vol.71(19): 4535-
*Murphy CH, Bull GV, Wright JW: Motions of an electron-ion cloud released at 100 kilometers from a gun-launched projectile. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1967; vol.72(13): 3511-
*Murphy CH, Bull GV: Inonospheric winds over Yuma Arizona measured by gun-launched projectiles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1968; vol.73(9): 3005-
*Murphy CH, Bull GV: Gun-launched probes over Barbados. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1968; vol.49(6): 640-Murphy CH, Boyer ED, Bull GV: Gun-launched sounding rockets and projectiles. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1972 Jan.25; vol.187: 304-
*Murphy, CH, Bull GV, Paris Kanonen-The Paris Guns
*William Lowther, "Arms and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull, Iraq, and the Supergun" (Presidio, Novato, 1991) (now Doubleday Canada Ltd) Published in England as:
*William Lowther, "Iraq and the Supergun: Gerald Bull: the true story of Saddam Hussein's Dr Doom" (Macmillan, London 1991) (Pan paperback, London 1992) ISBN 0 330 32119 6
*James Adams, "Bull's Eye: The Assassination and Life of Supergun Inventor Gerald Bull" (Times Books, New York, 1992)
*David Michaels, "Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell" (Rubicon, New York, 2004)
* [http://www.caribusiness.com/thecentury'sballistician "The Century's Ballistician"] (
Caribbean OPC 2003,Angela Cole, Barbados)
* [http://www.navyseals.com/community/articles/article.cfm?id=3001&page=1 "The Guns of Saddam: America Shrugged While Gerald Bull Designed the Ultimate Cannon and Sold It to Iraq"] -(
Washington Post, February 10, 1991. William Scott Malone, David Halevy, Sam Hemingway)
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/programs/transcripts/911.html "The Man Who Made The Supergun"] -(
PBS Frontline, February 12, 1991)
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-74-626/people/gerald_bull/ Dr. Gerald Bull: Scientist, Weapons Maker, Dreamer] - excellent multimedia history from the CBC archives.
* [http://www.upi.com/archive/view.php?archive=1&StoryID=20030115-035849-6156r United Press International: Israel to kill in U.S., allied nations] .
* [http://www.haaretzdaily.com Haaretz] -
* [http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=248432&contrassID=1&subContrassID=8&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y New evidence of Mossad involvement in Belgian murder case] .
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0109650/ Doomsday gun] (a TV movie) at the
Internet Movie Database
* [http://www.eff.org/Misc/Publications/Bruce_Sterling/FSF_columns/fsf.03 Think of The Prestige] - article by
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Canadian artillery engineer, entrepreneur
DATE OF BIRTH=
March 8, 1928
PLACE OF BIRTH=
North Bay, Ontario, Canada
DATE OF DEATH=
March 22, 1990
PLACE OF DEATH=
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Gerald Bull — Nacimiento Marzo 9,1928 North Bay, Ontario Fallecimiento … Wikipedia Español
Gerald Bull — Gerald Vincent Bull (* 9. März 1928 in Ontario, Kanada; † 22. März 1990 in Brüssel, Belgien) war ein kanadischer Ingenieur, der durch seine Arbeiten an Artilleriegeschützen bekannt wurde. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Erste Forschungen 2 Überschallflug … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gerald Bull — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bull (homonymie). Gerald Bull, né le 9 mars 1928 à North Bay en Ontario, mort le 22 mars 1990 à Bruxelles en Belgique, était un ingénieur canadien, spécialiste en balistique qui a opéré pour… … Wikipédia en Français
Bull — (englisch für: „Bulle“, „Stier“) bezeichnet: ein französisches Unternehmen, siehe Bull (Computerhersteller) ein Kartenspiel, siehe Schwimmen (Kartenspiel) Bull steht für: John Bull, Personifikation des Vereinigten Königreichs John Bull… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bull — A Bull is an adult male of various large mammal species including elk, moose, bovines (especially cattle), elephants, whales, seals, and sea lions.Bull may also refer to:* A man who has sex with a woman in another relationship, thus making the… … Wikipedia
Bull (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Bull est un mot anglais qui désigne un taureau mais également un mâle adulte dans un grand nombre d espèces de mammifères. Ce mot a été repris dans d… … Wikipédia en Français
Gerald Baumgartner — Spielerinformationen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gerald Alfred Mulligan — Nacimiento 1928 Residencia Canadá Nacionalidad canadiense Campo botánico, pteridólogo … Wikipedia Español
Gerald Tsai — Jr. Born March 10, 1929(1929 03 10) Shanghai Died July 9, 2008(2008 07 09) (aged 79) New York City Nation … Wikipedia
Gerald P. Carr — Gerald Paul Carr NASA Astronaut Nationality American Status Retired Born … Wikipedia