List of birds of Lesotho

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Lesotho. The avifauna of Lesotho includes a total of 339 species, of which 2 have been introduced by humans, and 3 are rare or accidental. 1 species listed is extirpated in Lesotho and is not included in the species count. 10 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Lesotho.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Lesotho.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Lesotho as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.
* (Ex) Extirpated A species that no longer occurs in Lesotho although populations exist elsewhere.

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Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"
*Great Crested Grebe "Podiceps cristatus"
*Black-necked Grebe "Podiceps nigricollis"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Long-tailed Cormorant "Phalacrocorax africanus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*African Darter "Anhinga rufa"

Bitterns, herons and egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Grey Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Black-headed Heron "Ardea melanocephala"
*Goliath Heron "Ardea goliath"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Squacco Heron "Ardeola ralloides"
*Rufous-bellied Heron "Ardeola rufiventris"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"

Hammerkop

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Scopidae

The Hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is a drab brown all over.

*Hamerkop "Scopus umbretta"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Yellow-billed Stork "Mycteria ibis"
*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*Abdim's Stork "Ciconia abdimii"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Sacred Ibis "Threskiornis aethiopicus"
*Bald Ibis "Geronticus calvus"
*Hadada Ibis "Bostrychia hagedash"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*African Spoonbill "Platalea alba"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Greater Flamingo "Phoenicopterus roseus"
*Lesser Flamingo "Phoenicopterus minor"

Ducks, geese and swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Fulvous Whistling Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*White-backed Duck "Thalassornis leuconotus"
*Egyptian Goose "Alopochen aegyptiacus"
*South African Shelduck "Tadorna cana"
*Spur-winged Goose "Plectropterus gambensis"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*African Pygmy-goose "Nettapus auritus"
*African Black Duck "Anas sparsa"
*Cape Teal "Anas capensis"
*Yellow-billed Duck "Anas undulata"
*Red-billed Duck "Anas erythrorhyncha"
*Hottentot Teal "Anas hottentota"
*Cape Shoveler "Anas smithii"
*Southern Pochard "Netta erythrophthalma"
*Maccoa Duck "Oxyura maccoa"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Eagles, kites and allies

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Honey Buzzard "Pernis apivorus"
*Black-shouldered Kite "Elanus caeruleus"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*African Fish-Eagle "Haliaeetus vocifer"
*Palm-nut Vulture "Gypohierax angolensis"
*Lammergeier "Gypaetus barbatus"
*Egyptian Vulture "Neophron percnopterus" (A)
*Cape Griffon "Gyps coprotheres"
*Black-chested Snake-eagle "Circaetus pectoralis"
*Bateleur "Terathopius ecaudatus"
*African Marsh-Harrier "Circus ranivorus"
*Black Harrier "Circus maurus"
*Pallid Harrier "Circus macrourus"
*Montagu's Harrier "Circus pygargus"
*African Harrier-Hawk "Polyboroides typus"
*Pale Chanting-Goshawk "Melierax canorus"
*Gabar Goshawk "Micronisus gabar"
*African Goshawk "Accipiter tachiro"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius"
*Little Sparrowhawk "Accipiter minullus"
*Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk "Accipiter rufiventris"
*Black Goshawk "Accipiter melanoleucus"
*common Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Jackal Buzzard "Buteo rufofuscus"
*Tawny Eagle "Aquila rapax"
*Verreaux's Eagle "Aquila verreauxii"
*African Hawk-Eagle "Aquila spilogaster"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"

ecretary-bird

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Sagittariidae

The Secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by it long crane-like legs.

*Secretary-bird "Sagittarius serpentarius"

Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Lesser Kestrel "Falco naumanni"
*Common Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Greater Kestrel "Falco rupicoloides"
*Red-footed Falcon "Falco vespertinus"
*Amur Falcon "Falco amurensis"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*Lanner Falcon "Falco biarmicus"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Pheasants and partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Red-winged Francolin "Francolinus levaillantii"
*Grey-winged Francolin "Francolinus africanus"
*Orange River Francolin "Francolinus levaillantoides"
*Swainson's Francolin "Francolinus swainsonii"
*Common Quail "Coturnix coturnix"
*Harlequin Quail "Coturnix delegorguei"

Guineafowl

Order: GalliformesFamily: Numididae

Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Helmeted Guineafowl "Numida meleagris"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails.The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Grey Crowned Crane "Balearica regulorum"
*Blue Crane "Grus paradisea"
*Wattled Crane "Bugeranus carunculatus"

Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Striped Flufftail "Sarothrura affinis"
*African Rail "Rallus caerulescens"
*African Crake "Crecopsis egregia"
*Corn Crake "Crex crex"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Spotted Crake "Porzana porzana"
*Purple Swamphen "Porphyrio porphyrio"
*Allen's Gallinule "Porphyrio alleni"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Lesser Moorhen "Gallinula angulata"
*Red-knobbed Coot "Fulica cristata"

Bustards

Order: GruiformesFamily: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Kori Bustard "Ardeotis kori"
*Ludwig's Bustard "Neotis ludwigii"
*Stanley Bustard "Neotis denhami"
*White-bellied Bustard "Eupodotis senegalensis"
*Blue Bustard "Eupodotis caerulescens"
*Karoo Bustard "Eupodotis vigorsii"
*Black Bustard "Eupodotis afra"
*White-quilled Bustard "Eupodotis afraoides"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*African Jacana "Actophilornis africanus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Avocets and stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta"

Thick-knees

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Spotted Thick-knee "Burhinus capensis"

Pratincoles and coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Burchell's Courser "Cursorius rufus"
*Temminck's Courser "Cursorius temminckii"
*Double-banded Courser "Smutsornis africanus"
*Collared Pratincole "Glareola pratincola" (A)
*Black-winged Pratincole "Glareola nordmanni"

Plovers and lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Blacksmith Plover "Vanellus armatus"
*Black-winged Lapwing "Vanellus melanopterus"
*Crowned Lapwing "Vanellus coronatus"
*Wattled Lapwing "Vanellus senegallus"
*Grey Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Kittlitz's Plover "Charadrius pecuarius"
*Three-banded Plover "Charadrius tricollaris"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Lesotho.

*African Snipe "Gallinago nigripennis"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Grey-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"

andgrouse

Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Namaqua Sandgrouse "Pterocles namaqua"

Pigeons and doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia" (I)
*Speckled Pigeon "Columba guinea"
*Rameron Pigeon "Columba arquatrix"
*Red-eyed Dove "Streptopelia semitorquata"
*Ring-necked Dove "Streptopelia capicola"
*Laughing Dove "Streptopelia senegalensis"
*Namaqua Dove "Oena capensis"

Cuckoos

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Pied Cuckoo "Clamator jacobinus"
*Great Spotted Cuckoo "Clamator glandarius"
*Red-chested Cuckoo "Cuculus solitarius"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus"
*Dideric Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx caprius"
*White-browed Coucal "Centropus superciliosus"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*African Grass-Owl "Tyto capensis"
*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Lesotho.

*African Scops-Owl "Otus senegalensis"
*Cape Eagle-Owl "Bubo capensis"
*Spotted Eagle-Owl "Bubo africanus"
*Verreaux's Eagle-Owl "Bubo lacteus" (Ex)
*Marsh Owl "Asio capensis"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Eurasian Nightjar "Caprimulgus europaeus"
*Freckled Nightjar "Caprimulgus tristigma"
*Square-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus fossii"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Alpine Swift "Tachymarptis melba"
*Common Swift "Apus apus"
*African Swift "Apus barbatus"
*Little Swift "Apus affinis"
*Horus Swift "Apus horus"
*White-rumped Swift "Apus caffer"

Mousebirds

Order: ColiiformesFamily: Coliidae

The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic, and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Speckled Mousebird "Colius striatus"
*White-backed Mousebird "Colius colius"
*Red-faced Mousebird "Urocolius indicus"

Trogons

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Narina Trogon "Apaloderma narina"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Malachite Kingfisher "Alcedo cristata"
*Giant Kingfisher "Megaceryle maximus"
*Pied Kingfisher "Ceryle rudis"

Bee-eaters

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*European Bee-eater "Merops apiaster"

Typical rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*European Roller "Coracias garrulus"
*Lilac-breasted Roller "Coracias caudata"

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Red-fronted Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus pusillus"
*Pied Barbet "Tricholaema leucomelas"
*Black-collared Barbet "Lybius torquatus"

Honeyguides

Order: PiciformesFamily: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Greater Honeyguide "Indicator indicator"
*Lesser Honeyguide "Indicator minor"
*Wahlberg's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus regulus"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Rufous-necked Wryneck "Jynx ruficollis"
*Ground Woodpecker "Geocolaptes olivaceus"
*Cardinal Woodpecker "Dendropicos fuscescens"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Rufous-naped Lark "Mirafra africana"
*Cape Clapper Lark "Mirafra apiata"
*Rudd's Lark "Heteromirafra ruddi"
*Spike-heeled Lark "Chersomanes albofasciata"
*Chestnut-backed Sparrow-lark "Eremopterix leucotis"
*Grey-backed Sparrow-lark "Eremopterix verticalis"
*Red-capped Lark "Calandrella cinerea"
*Pink-billed Lark "Spizocorys conirostris"
*Long-billed Lark "Galerida magnirostris"

wallows and martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Sand Martin "Riparia riparia"
*Plain Martin "Riparia paludicola"
*Banded Martin "Riparia cincta"
*Rock Martin "Ptyonoprogne fuligula"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*White-throated Swallow "Hirundo albigularis"
*Blue Swallow "Hirundo atrocaerulea"
*Pearl-breasted Swallow "Hirundo dimidiata"
*Greater Striped-Swallow "Cecropis cucullata"
*Lesser Striped-Swallow "Cecropis abyssinica"
*South African Swallow "Petrochelidon spilodera"
*House Martin "Delichon urbica"

Wagtails and pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Lesotho.

*African Pied Wagtail "Motacilla aguimp"
*Cape Wagtail "Motacilla capensis"
*Orange-throated Longclaw "Macronyx capensis"
*Yellow-breasted Pipit "Hemimacronyx chloris"
*Yellow-tufted Pipit "Anthus crenatus"
*Mountain Pipit "Anthus hoeschi"
*Plain-backed Pipit "Anthus leucophrys"
*Buffy Pipit "Anthus vaalensis"
*African Pipit "Anthus cinnamomeus"
*Long-billed Pipit "Anthus similis"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.There are 130 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Black-fronted Bulbul "Pycnonotus nigricans"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Cape Rock-Thrush "Monticola rupestris"
*Sentinel Rock-Thrush "Monticola explorator"
*Olive Thrush "Turdus olivaceus"
*Kurrichane Thrush "Turdus libonyanus"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Wailing Cisticola "Cisticola lais"
*Tinkling Cisticola "Cisticola tinniens"
*Piping Cisticola "Cisticola fulvicapillus"
*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Desert Cisticola "Cisticola aridulus"
*Cloud Cisticola "Cisticola textrix"
*Wing-snapping Cisticola "Cisticola ayresii"
*Tawny-flanked Prinia "Prinia subflava"
*Black-chested Prinia "Prinia flavicans"
*Karoo Prinia "Prinia maculosa"
*Drakensberg Prinia "Prinia hypoxantha"
*Namaqua Prinia "Prinia substriata" (A)
*Bar-throated Apalis "Apalis thoracica"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Lesotho.

*African Bush-Warbler "Bradypterus baboecala"
*African Scrub-Warbler "Bradypterus barratti"
*Cape Grassbird "Sphenoeacus afer"
*Sedge Warbler "Acrocephalus schoenobaenus"
*Eurasian Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus scirpaceus"
*African Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus baeticatus"
*Great Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus arundinaceus"
*Lesser Swamp-Warbler "Acrocephalus gracilirostris"
*Yellow-bellied Eremomela "Eremomela icteropygialis"
*Cape Crombec "Sylvietta rufescens"
*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Greater Whitethroat "Sylvia communis"
*Layard's Warbler "Parisoma layardi"
*Rufous-vented Warbler "Parisoma subcaeruleum"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Fiscal Flycatcher "Sigelus silens"
*Spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa striata"
*African Dusky Flycatcher "Muscicapa adusta"
*Fairy Flycatcher "Stenostira scita"
*Cape Robin-Chat "Cossypha caffra"
*Karoo Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas coryphaeus"
*African Stonechat "Saxicola torquata"
*Buff-streaked Bushchat "Saxicola bifasciata"
*Mountain Wheatear "Oenanthe monticola"
*Capped Wheatear "Oenanthe pileata"
*Sicklewing Chat "Cercomela sinuata"
*Familiar Chat "Cercomela familiaris"
*Southern Anteater-chat "Myrmecocichla formicivora"
*Mocking Cliff-Chat "Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris"

Wattle-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Platysteiridae

The wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Cape Batis "Batis capensis"
*Chinspot Batis "Batis molitor"

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*African Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone viridis"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Orange-breasted Rockjumper "Chaetops aurantius"
*Rufous Rockjumper "Chaetops frenatus"

Tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Ashy Tit "Melaniparus cinerascens"
*Grey Tit "Melaniparus afer"

unbirds and spiderhunters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Malachite Sunbird "Nectarinia famosa"
*Greater Double-collared Sunbird "Cinnyris afer"

White-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Cape White-eye "Zosterops pallidus"

ugarbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Promeropidae

The sugarbirds resemble large sunbirds in general appearance and habits, but are possibly more closely related to the Australian honeyeaters. They have brownish plumage, the long downcurved bill typical of passerine nectar feeders, and long tail feathers. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Gurney's Sugarbird "Promerops gurneyi"

Old World orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Eurasian Golden Oriole "Oriolus oriolus"
*Black-headed Oriole "Oriolus larvatus"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Red-backed Shrike "Lanius collurio"
*Lesser Grey Shrike "Lanius minor"
*Common Fiscal "Lanius collaris"

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Black-backed Puffback "Dryoscopus cubla"
*Southern Boubou "Laniarius ferrugineus"
*Bokmakierie "Telophorus zeylonus"

Drongos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Fork-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus adsimilis"

Crows and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Cape Crow "Corvus capensis"
*Pied Crow "Corvus albus"
*White-necked Raven "Corvus albicollis"

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Wattled Starling "Creatophora cinerea"
*Cape Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis nitens"
*Violet-backed Starling "Cinnyricinclus leucogaster"
*African Pied Starling "Spreo bicolor"
*Red-winged Starling "Onychognathus morio"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Lesotho.

*White-browed Sparrow-Weaver "Plocepasser mahali"
*Spectacled Weaver "Ploceus ocularis"
*Cape Weaver "Ploceus capensis"
*Southern Masked-Weaver "Ploceus velatus"
*Village Weaver "Ploceus cucullatus"
*Red-billed Quelea "Quelea quelea"
*Yellow-crowned Bishop "Euplectes afer"
*Red Bishop "Euplectes orix"
*Yellow Bishop "Euplectes capensis"
*Fan-tailed Widowbird "Euplectes axillaris"
*White-winged Widowbird "Euplectes albonotatus"
*Red-collared Widowbird "Euplectes ardens"
*Long-tailed Widowbird "Euplectes progne"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Red-billed Firefinch "Lagonosticta senegala"
*Swee Waxbill "Estrilda melanotis"
*Common Waxbill "Estrilda astrild"
*Zebra Waxbill "Sporaeginthus subflavus"
*African Quailfinch "Ortygospiza fuscocrissa"
*Red-headed Finch "Amadina erythrocephala"

Indigobirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Viduidae

The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Village Indigobird "Vidua chalybeata"
*Pin-tailed Whydah "Vidua macroura"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Lesotho.

*Parasitic Weaver "Anomalospiza imberbis"

Buntings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 4 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Lark-like Bunting "Emberiza impetuani"
*Cinnamon-breasted Bunting "Emberiza tahapisi"
*Cape Bunting "Emberiza capensis"
*Golden-breasted Bunting "Emberiza flaviventris"

Finches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Lesotho.

*Cape Canary "Serinus canicollis"
*Black-throated Canary "Serinus atrogularis"
*Yellow-fronted Canary "Serinus mozambicus"
*Yellow Canary "Serinus flaviventris"
*Brimstone Canary "Serinus sulphuratus"
*White-throated Canary "Serinus albogularis"
*Streaky-headed Seedeater "Serinus gularis"
*Drakensberg Siskin "Pseudochloroptila symonsi"
*Black-headed Canary "Alario alario"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Lesotho.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus" (I)
*Great Rufous Sparrow "Passer motitensis"
*Cape Sparrow "Passer melanurus"
*Southern Grey-headed Sparrow "Passer diffusus"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=ls&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Lesotho
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880


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