List of birds of Sudan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Sudan. The avifauna of Sudan includes a total of 1013 species, of which 3 are endemic, 1 has been introduced by humans, and 4 are rare or accidental. 10 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Sudan.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sudan.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Sudan.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Sudan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.

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Ostriches

Order: StruthioniformesFamily: Struthionidae

The Ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.

*Ostrich "Struthio camelus"

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"
*Eared Grebe "Podiceps nigricollis"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Leach's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Red-billed Tropicbird "Phaethon aethereus"

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Great White Pelican "Pelecanus onocrotalus"
*Pink-backed Pelican "Pelecanus rufescens"

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Masked Booby "Sula dactylatra"
*Red-footed Booby "Sula sula"
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Socotra Cormorant "Phalacrocorax nigrogularis"
*Long-tailed Cormorant "Phalacrocorax africanus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Darter "Anhinga melanogaster"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Sudan.

*Gray Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Black-headed Heron "Ardea melanocephala"
*Goliath Heron "Ardea goliath"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Black Heron "Egretta ardesiaca"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*Western Reef-Heron "Egretta gularis"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Squacco Heron "Ardeola ralloides"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*White-backed Night-Heron "Gorsachius leuconotus"
*Dwarf Bittern "Ixobrychus sturmii"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"

Hammerkop

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Scopidae

The Hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is a drab brown all over.

*Hamerkop "Scopus umbretta"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Sudan.

*Yellow-billed Stork "Mycteria ibis"
*African Openbill "Anastomus lamelligerus"
*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*Abdim's Stork "Ciconia abdimii"
*Woolly-necked Stork "Ciconia episcopus"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"
*Saddle-billed Stork "Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis"
*Marabou Stork "Leptoptilos crumeniferus"

hoebill

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Balaenicipididae

The Shoebill is a large bird related to the storks. It derives its name from its massive shoe-shaped bill.

*Shoebill "Balaeniceps rex"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Sudan.

*Sacred Ibis "Threskiornis aethiopicus"
*Waldrapp "Geronticus eremita"
*Hadada Ibis "Bostrychia hagedash"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*Eurasian Spoonbill "Platalea leucorodia"
*African Spoonbill "Platalea alba"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Greater Flamingo "Phoenicopterus roseus"
*Lesser Flamingo "Phoenicopterus minor"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in Sudan.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*White-backed Duck "Thalassornis leuconotus" (A)
*Greater White-fronted Goose "Anser albifrons"
*Egyptian Goose "Alopochen aegyptiacus"
*Ruddy Shelduck "Tadorna ferruginea"
*Common Shelduck "Tadorna tadorna"
*Spur-winged Goose "Plectropterus gambensis"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*Hartlaub's Duck "Pteronetta hartlaubii"
*African Pygmy-goose "Nettapus auritus"
*African Black Duck "Anas sparsa"
*Eurasian Wigeon "Anas penelope"
*Gadwall "Anas strepera"
*Eurasian Teal "Anas crecca"
*Cape Teal "Anas capensis"
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Yellow-billed Duck "Anas undulata"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Red-billed Duck "Anas erythrorhyncha"
*Hottentot Teal "Anas hottentota"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Red-crested Pochard "Netta rufina"
*Southern Pochard "Netta erythrophthalma"
*Common Pochard "Aythya ferina"
*Ferruginous Pochard "Aythya nyroca"
*Tufted Duck "Aythya fuligula"
*Maccoa Duck "Oxyura maccoa"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 61 species which occur in Sudan. Sudan has the greatest diversity of raptors of any country on earth.

*African Cuckoo-Hawk "Aviceda cuculoides"
*European Honey-buzzard "Pernis apivorus"
*Bat Hawk "Macheiramphus alcinus"
*Black-shouldered Kite "Elanus caeruleus"
*Scissor-tailed Kite "Chelictinia riocourii"
*Red Kite "Milvus milvus"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*African Fish-Eagle "Haliaeetus vocifer"
*Palm-nut Vulture "Gypohierax angolensis"
*Hooded Vulture "Necrosyrtes monachus"
*Lammergeier "Gypaetus barbatus"
*Egyptian Vulture "Neophron percnopterus"
*White-backed Vulture "Gyps africanus"
*Rueppell's Griffon "Gyps rueppellii"
*Eurasian Griffon "Gyps fulvus"
*Cinereous Vulture "Aegypius monachus"
*Lappet-faced Vulture "Torgos tracheliotus"
*White-headed Vulture "Trigonoceps occipitalis"
*Beaudouin's Snake-Eagle "Circaetus beaudouini"
*Black-breasted Snake-Eagle "Circaetus pectoralis"
*Brown Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinereus"
*Banded Snake-Eagle "Circaetus cinerascens"
*Bateleur "Terathopius ecaudatus"
*Congo Serpent-Eagle "Dryotriorchis spectabilis"
*Western Marsh-Harrier "Circus aeruginosus"
*African Marsh-Harrier "Circus ranivorus"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Pallid Harrier "Circus macrourus"
*Montagu's Harrier "Circus pygargus"
*African Harrier-Hawk "Polyboroides typus"
*Lizard Buzzard "Kaupifalco monogrammicus"
*Dark Chanting-Goshawk "Melierax metabates"
*Gabar Goshawk "Micronisus gabar"
*Red-chested Goshawk "Accipiter toussenelii"
*African Goshawk "Accipiter tachiro"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius"
*Levant Sparrowhawk "Accipiter brevipes"
*Little Sparrowhawk "Accipiter minullus"
*Eurasian Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk "Accipiter rufiventris"
*Black Goshawk "Accipiter melanoleucus"
*Long-tailed Hawk "Urotriorchis macrourus"
*Grasshopper Buzzard "Butastur rufipennis"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Mountain Buzzard "Buteo oreophilus"
*Long-legged Buzzard "Buteo rufinus"
*Red-necked Buzzard "Buteo auguralis"
*Augur Buzzard "Buteo augur"
*Lesser Spotted Eagle "Aquila pomarina"
*Greater Spotted Eagle "Aquila clanga"
*Tawny Eagle "Aquila rapax"
*Steppe Eagle "Aquila nipalensis"
*Imperial Eagle "Aquila heliaca"
*Wahlberg's Eagle "Aquila wahlbergi"
*Verreaux's Eagle "Aquila verreauxii"
*African Hawk-Eagle "Aquila spilogaster"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"
*Ayres's Hawk-Eagle "Aquila ayresii"
*Martial Eagle "Polemaetus bellicosus"
*Long-crested Eagle "Lophaetus occipitalis"
*Crowned Hawk-Eagle "Stephanoaetus coronatus"

ecretary-bird

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Sagittariidae

The Secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by it long crane-like legs.

*Secretary-bird "Sagittarius serpentarius"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Sudan.

*Pygmy Falcon "Polihierax semitorquatus"
*Lesser Kestrel "Falco naumanni"
*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Fox Kestrel "Falco alopex"
*Gray Kestrel "Falco ardosiaceus"
*Red-necked Falcon "Falco chicquera"
*Red-footed Falcon "Falco vespertinus"
*Eleonora's Falcon "Falco eleonorae"
*Sooty Falcon "Falco concolor"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*African Hobby "Falco cuvierii"
*Lanner Falcon "Falco biarmicus"
*Saker Falcon "Falco cherrug"
*Barbary Falcon "Falco pelegrinoides"
*Taita Falcon "Falco fasciinucha"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Sudan.

*Sand Partridge "Ammoperdix heyi"
*Schlegel's Francolin "Francolinus schlegelii"
*Forest Francolin "Francolinus lathami"
*Crested Francolin "Francolinus sephaena"
*Ring-necked Francolin "Francolinus streptophorus"
*Red-winged Francolin "Francolinus levaillantii"
*Orange River Francolin "Francolinus levaillantoides"
*Scaly Francolin "Francolinus squamatus"
*Heuglin's Francolin "Francolinus icterorhynchus"
*Clapperton's Francolin "Francolinus clappertoni"
*Yellow-necked Francolin "Francolinus leucoscepus"
*Red-necked Francolin "Francolinus afer"
*Erckel's Francolin "Francolinus erckelii"
*Common Quail "Coturnix coturnix"
*Harlequin Quail "Coturnix delegorguei"
*Blue Quail "Coturnix adansonii"
*Stone Partridge "Ptilopachus petrosus"

Guineafowl

Order: GalliformesFamily: Numididae

Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Helmeted Guineafowl "Numida meleagris"
*Crested Guineafowl "Guttera pucherani"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"
*Quail-plover "Ortyxelos meiffrenii"

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Black Crowned-Crane "Balearica pavonina"
*Demoiselle Crane "Anthropoides virgo"
*Common Crane "Grus grus"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Sudan.

*White-spotted Flufftail "Sarothrura pulchra"
*Buff-spotted Flufftail "Sarothrura elegans"
*Striped Flufftail "Sarothrura affinis"
*African Rail "Rallus caerulescens"
*African Crake "Crecopsis egregia"
*Corn Crake "Crex crex"
*Black Crake "Amaurornis flavirostris"
*Little Crake "Porzana parva"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Spotted Crake "Porzana porzana"
*Purple Swamphen "Porphyrio porphyrio"
*Allen's Gallinule "Porphyrio alleni"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Lesser Moorhen "Gallinula angulata"
*Eurasian Coot "Fulica atra"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*African Finfoot "Podica senegalensis"

Bustards

Order: GruiformesFamily: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Sudan.

*Arabian Bustard "Ardeotis arabs"
*Kori Bustard "Ardeotis kori"
*Houbara Bustard "Chlamydotis undulata"
*Stanley Bustard "Neotis denhami"
*Nubian Bustard "Neotis nuba"
*White-bellied Bustard "Eupodotis senegalensis"
*Savile's Bustard "Eupodotis savilei"
*Buff-crested Bustard "Eupodotis gindiana"
*Black-bellied Bustard "Lissotis melanogaster"
*Hartlaub's Bustard "Lissotis hartlaubii"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Lesser Jacana "Microparra capensis"
*African Jacana "Actophilornis africanus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Crab Plover

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Dromadidae

The Crab Plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black and white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

*Crab Plover "Dromas ardeola"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Eurasian Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta"

Thick-knees

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Eurasian Thick-knee "Burhinus oedicnemus"
*Senegal Thick-knee "Burhinus senegalensis"
*Spotted Thick-knee "Burhinus capensis"

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Sudan.

*Egyptian Plover "Pluvianus aegyptius"
*Cream-colored Courser "Cursorius cursor"
*Temminck's Courser "Cursorius temminckii"
*Bronze-winged Courser "Rhinoptilus chalcopterus"
*Collared Pratincole "Glareola pratincola"
*Black-winged Pratincole "Glareola nordmanni"
*Rock Pratincole "Glareola nuchalis"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Sudan. Sudan has the greatest diversity of this family of any country on earth.

*Northern Lapwing "Vanellus vanellus"
*Long-toed Lapwing "Vanellus crassirostris"
*Spur-winged Plover "Vanellus spinosus"
*Black-headed Lapwing "Vanellus tectus"
*White-headed Lapwing "Vanellus albiceps"
*Black-winged Lapwing "Vanellus melanopterus"
*Crowned Lapwing "Vanellus coronatus"
*Wattled Lapwing "Vanellus senegallus"
*Sociable Lapwing "Vanellus gregarius"
*White-tailed Lapwing "Vanellus leucurus"
*Pacific Golden-Plover "Pluvialis fulva"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Kittlitz's Plover "Charadrius pecuarius"
*Three-banded Plover "Charadrius tricollaris"
*Forbes's Plover "Charadrius forbesi"
*White-fronted Plover "Charadrius marginatus"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Lesser Sandplover "Charadrius mongolus"
*Greater Sandplover "Charadrius leschenaultii"
*Caspian Plover "Charadrius asiaticus"
*Eurasian Dotterel "Charadrius morinellus"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 27 species which occur in Sudan.

*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus"
*African Snipe "Gallinago nigripennis"
*Great Snipe "Gallinago media"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Slender-billed Curlew "Numenius tenuirostris"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Broad-billed Sandpiper "Limicola falcinellus"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Sudan.

*White-eyed Gull "Larus leucophthalmus"
*Sooty Gull "Larus hemprichii"
*Herring Gull "Larus argentatus"
*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus"
*Caspian Gull "Larus cachinnans"
*Armenian Gull "Larus armenicus"
*Great Black-headed Gull "Larus ichthyaetus"
*Gray-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus"
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus"
*Slender-billed Gull "Larus genei"
*Mediterranean Gull "Larus melanocephalus"
*Little Gull "Larus minutus"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Sudan.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Lesser Crested Tern "Sterna bengalensis"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Royal Tern "Sterna maxima"
*Great Crested Tern "Sterna bergii"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Saunders's Tern "Sterna saundersi"
*White-cheeked Tern "Sterna repressa"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger" (A)
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"

kimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*African Skimmer "Rynchops flavirostris"

andgrouse

Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse "Pterocles exustus"
*Spotted Sandgrouse "Pterocles senegallus"
*Crowned Sandgrouse "Pterocles coronatus"
*Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse "Pterocles lichtensteinii"
*Four-banded Sandgrouse "Pterocles quadricinctus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Sudan.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia"
*Speckled Pigeon "Columba guinea"
*Afep Pigeon "Columba unicincta"
*Rameron Pigeon "Columba arquatrix"
*White-naped Pigeon "Columba albinucha"
*Delegorgue's Pigeon "Columba delegorguei"
*Bronze-naped Pigeon "Columba iriditorques"
*Lemon Dove "Columba larvata"
*Eurasian Turtle Dove "Streptopelia turtur"
*Dusky Turtle Dove "Streptopelia lugens"
*African Collared Dove "Streptopelia roseogrisea"
*African Mourning Dove "Streptopelia decipiens"
*Red-eyed Dove "Streptopelia semitorquata"
*Ring-necked Dove "Streptopelia capicola"
*Vinaceous Dove "Streptopelia vinacea"
*Laughing Dove "Streptopelia senegalensis"
*Emerald-spotted Wood Dove "Turtur chalcospilos"
*Black-billed Wood Dove "Turtur abyssinicus"
*Blue-spotted Wood Dove "Turtur afer"
*Tambourine Dove "Turtur tympanistria"
*Namaqua Dove "Oena capensis"
*Bruce's Green Pigeon "Treron waalia"
*African Green Pigeon "Treron calva"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*Rose-ringed Parakeet "Psittacula krameri"
*Red-headed Lovebird "Agapornis pullarius"
*Gray Parrot "Psittacus erithacus"
*Meyer's Parrot "Poicephalus meyeri"
*Niam-Niam Parrot "Poicephalus crassus"

Turacos

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Musophagidae

The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured birds, usually blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Sudan.

*Great Blue Turaco "Corythaeola cristata"
*Black-billed Turaco "Tauraco schuettii"
*White-crested Turaco "Tauraco leucolophus"
*White-cheeked Turaco "Tauraco leucotis"
*Ross's Turaco "Musophaga rossae"
*White-bellied Go-away-bird "Corythaixoides leucogaster"
*Eastern Plantain-eater "Crinifer zonurus"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Sudan.

*Pied Cuckoo "Clamator jacobinus"
*Levaillant's Cuckoo "Clamator levaillantii"
*Great Spotted Cuckoo "Clamator glandarius"
*Thick-billed Cuckoo "Pachycoccyx audeberti"
*Red-chested Cuckoo "Cuculus solitarius"
*Black Cuckoo "Cuculus clamosus"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus"
*African Cuckoo "Cuculus gularis"
*Yellow-throated Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx flavigularis"
*Klaas's Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx klaas"
*African Emerald Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx cupreus"
*Dideric Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx caprius"
*Yellowbill "Ceuthmochares aereus"
*Black Coucal "Centropus grillii"
*Blue-headed Coucal "Centropus monachus"
*Senegal Coucal "Centropus senegalensis"
*White-browed Coucal "Centropus superciliosus"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Sudan.

*African Scops-Owl "Otus senegalensis"
*European Scops-Owl "Otus scops"
*Northern White-faced Owl "Ptilopsis leucotis"
*Eurasian Eagle-Owl "Bubo bubo"
*Pharaoh Eagle-Owl "Bubo ascalaphus"
*Spotted Eagle-Owl "Bubo africanus"
*Grayish Eagle-Owl "Bubo cinerascens"
*Verreaux's Eagle-Owl "Bubo lacteus"
*Pel's Fishing-Owl "Scotopelia peli"
*African Wood-Owl "Strix woodfordii"
*Pearl-spotted Owlet "Glaucidium perlatum"
*Little Owl "Athene noctua"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"
*Marsh Owl "Asio capensis"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Sudan.

*Eurasian Nightjar "Caprimulgus europaeus"
*Sombre Nightjar "Caprimulgus fraenatus"
*Rufous-cheeked Nightjar "Caprimulgus rufigena"
*Egyptian Nightjar "Caprimulgus aegyptius"
*Nubian Nightjar "Caprimulgus nubicus"
*Golden Nightjar "Caprimulgus eximius"
*Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar "Caprimulgus donaldsoni"
*Black-shouldered Nightjar "Caprimulgus nigriscapularis"
*Fiery-necked Nightjar "Caprimulgus pectoralis"
*Abyssinian Nightjar "Caprimulgus poliocephalus"
*Swamp Nightjar "Caprimulgus natalensis"
*Plain Nightjar "Caprimulgus inornatus"
*Star-spotted Nightjar "Caprimulgus stellatus"
*Freckled Nightjar "Caprimulgus tristigma"
*Long-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus climacurus"
*Slender-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus clarus"
*Pennant-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx vexillarius"
*Standard-winged Nightjar "Macrodipteryx longipennis"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Sudan.

*Scarce Swift "Schoutedenapus myoptilus"
*African Palm-Swift "Cypsiurus parvus"
*Alpine Swift "Tachymarptis melba"
*Mottled Swift "Tachymarptis aequatorialis"
*Common Swift "Apus apus"
*Pallid Swift "Apus pallidus"
*Little Swift "Apus affinis"
*Horus Swift "Apus horus"
*White-rumped Swift "Apus caffer"

Mousebirds

Order: ColiiformesFamily: Coliidae

The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic, and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Sudan.

*Speckled Mousebird "Colius striatus"
*Blue-naped Mousebird "Urocolius macrourus"

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Narina Trogon "Apaloderma narina"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Sudan.

*Common Kingfisher "Alcedo atthis"
*Half-collared Kingfisher "Alcedo semitorquata"
*Shining-blue Kingfisher "Alcedo quadribrachys"
*Malachite Kingfisher "Alcedo cristata"
*African Pygmy-Kingfisher "Ispidina picta"
*Dwarf Kingfisher "Ispidina lecontei"
*Chocolate-backed Kingfisher "Halcyon badia"
*Gray-headed Kingfisher "Halcyon leucocephala"
*Woodland Kingfisher "Halcyon senegalensis"
*Blue-breasted Kingfisher "Halcyon malimbica"
*Striped Kingfisher "Halcyon chelicuti"
*Collared Kingfisher "Todirhamphus chloris"
*Giant Kingfisher "Megaceryle maximus"
*Pied Kingfisher "Ceryle rudis"

Bee-eaters

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Sudan.

*Red-throated Bee-eater "Merops bulocki"
*Little Bee-eater "Merops pusillus"
*Blue-breasted Bee-eater "Merops variegatus"
*Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater "Merops oreobates"
*Swallow-tailed Bee-eater "Merops hirundineus"
*Black-headed Bee-eater "Merops breweri"
*Somali Bee-eater "Merops revoilii"
*White-throated Bee-eater "Merops albicollis"
*Green Bee-eater "Merops orientalis"
*Blue-cheeked Bee-eater "Merops persicus"
*Madagascar Bee-eater "Merops superciliosus"
*European Bee-eater "Merops apiaster"
*Northern Carmine Bee-eater "Merops nubicus"

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*European Roller "Coracias garrulus"
*Abyssinian Roller "Coracias abyssinica"
*Rufous-crowned Roller "Coracias naevia"
*Blue-bellied Roller "Coracias cyanogaster"
*Broad-billed Roller "Eurystomus glaucurus"

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Woodhoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Phoeniculidae

The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoe. They most resemble the last species with their long curved bills, used for probing for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*Green Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus purpureus"
*Black-billed Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus somaliensis"
*White-headed Woodhoopoe "Phoeniculus bollei"
*Black Scimitar-bill "Rhinopomastus aterrimus"
*Abyssinian Scimitar-bill "Rhinopomastus minor"

Hornbills

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Sudan.

*Black Dwarf Hornbill "Tockus hartlaubi"
*Red-billed Dwarf Hornbill "Tockus camurus"
*Red-billed Hornbill "Tockus erythrorhynchus"
*Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill "Tockus flavirostris"
*Jackson's Hornbill "Tockus jacksoni"
*Crowned Hornbill "Tockus alboterminatus"
*African Pied Hornbill "Tockus fasciatus"
*Hemprich's Hornbill "Tockus hemprichii"
*African Gray Hornbill "Tockus nasutus"
*Piping Hornbill "Ceratogymna fistulator"
*Silvery-cheeked Hornbill "Ceratogymna brevis"
*Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna subcylindricus"
*Brown-cheeked Hornbill "Ceratogymna cylindricus"
*White-thighed Hornbill "Ceratogymna albotibialis"
*Black-casqued Hornbill "Ceratogymna atrata"
*Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill "Bucorvus abyssinicus"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Sudan.

*Gray-throated Barbet "Gymnobucco bonapartei"
*Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus bilineatus"
*Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus chrysoconus"
*Red-fronted Tinkerbird "Pogoniulus pusillus"
*Yellow-spotted Barbet "Buccanodon duchaillui"
*Hairy-breasted Barbet "Tricholaema hirsuta"
*Red-fronted Barbet "Tricholaema diademata"
*Spot-flanked Barbet "Tricholaema lachrymosa"
*Black-throated Barbet "Tricholaema melanocephala"
*Vieillot's Barbet "Lybius vieilloti"
*White-headed Barbet "Lybius leucocephalus"
*Black-billed Barbet "Lybius guifsobalito"
*Double-toothed Barbet "Lybius bidentatus"
*Bearded Barbet "Lybius dubius"
*Black-breasted Barbet "Lybius rolleti"
*Yellow-billed Barbet "Trachyphonus purpuratus"
*Yellow-breasted Barbet "Trachyphonus margaritatus"
*Red-and-yellow Barbet "Trachyphonus erythrocephalus"
*D'Arnaud's Barbet "Trachyphonus darnaudii"

Honeyguides

Order: PiciformesFamily: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Sudan.

*Spotted Honeyguide "Indicator maculatus"
*Scaly-throated Honeyguide "Indicator variegatus"
*Greater Honeyguide "Indicator indicator"
*Lesser Honeyguide "Indicator minor"
*Willcock's Honeyguide "Indicator willcocksi"
*Least Honeyguide "Indicator exilis"
*Cassin's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus insignis"
*Wahlberg's Honeyguide "Prodotiscus regulus"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Sudan.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla"
*Rufous-necked Wryneck "Jynx ruficollis"
*Fine-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera punctuligera"
*Nubian Woodpecker "Campethera nubica"
*Golden-tailed Woodpecker "Campethera abingoni"
*Green-backed Woodpecker "Campethera cailliautii"
*Buff-spotted Woodpecker "Campethera nivosa"
*Brown-eared Woodpecker "Campethera caroli"
*Little Gray Woodpecker "Dendropicos elachus"
*Speckle-breasted Woodpecker "Dendropicos poecilolaemus"
*Cardinal Woodpecker "Dendropicos fuscescens"
*Bearded Woodpecker "Dendropicos namaquus"
*Golden-crowned Woodpecker "Dendropicos xantholophus"
*Gray Woodpecker "Dendropicos goertae"
*Gray-headed Woodpecker "Dendropicos spodocephalus"
*Brown-backed Woodpecker "Dendropicos obsoletus"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Sudan.

*Singing Bushlark "Mirafra cantillans"
*White-tailed Lark "Mirafra albicauda"
*Kordofan Lark "Mirafra cordofanica"
*Red-winged Lark "Mirafra hypermetra"
*Rufous-naped Lark "Mirafra africana"
*Flappet Lark "Mirafra rufocinnamomea"
*Rusty Lark "Mirafra rufa"
*Pink-breasted Lark "Calendulauda poecilosterna"
*Rufous-rumped Lark "Pinarocorys erythropygia"
*Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix leucotis"
*Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix nigriceps"
*Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark "Eremopterix signata"
*Bar-tailed Lark "Ammomanes cincturus"
*Desert Lark "Ammomanes deserti"
*Greater Hoopoe-Lark "Alaemon alaudipes"
*Bimaculated Lark "Melanocorypha bimaculata"
*Greater Short-toed Lark "Calandrella brachydactyla"
*Dunn's Lark "Eremalauda dunni"
*Crested Lark "Galerida cristata"
*Sun Lark "Galerida modesta"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Sudan.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Plain Martin "Riparia paludicola"
*Banded Martin "Riparia cincta"
*Gray-rumped Swallow "Pseudhirundo griseopyga"
*Eurasian Crag-Martin "Ptyonoprogne rupestris"
*Rock Martin "Ptyonoprogne fuligula"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Ethiopian Swallow "Hirundo aethiopica"
*Wire-tailed Swallow "Hirundo smithii"
*Lesser Striped-Swallow "Cecropis abyssinica"
*Rufous-chested Swallow "Cecropis semirufa"
*Mosque Swallow "Cecropis senegalensis"
*Red-rumped Swallow "Cecropis daurica"
*Red Sea Swallow "Petrochelidon perdita"
*Common House-Martin "Delichon urbica"
*White-headed Sawwing "Psalidoprocne albiceps"
*Blue Sawwing "Psalidoprocne pristoptera"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Sudan.

*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*African Pied Wagtail "Motacilla aguimp"
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Gray Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Golden Pipit "Tmetothylacus tenellus"
*Yellow-throated Longclaw "Macronyx croceus"
*Plain-backed Pipit "Anthus leucophrys"
*African Pipit "Anthus cinnamomeus"
*Tawny Pipit "Anthus campestris"
*Long-billed Pipit "Anthus similis"
*Tree Pipit "Anthus trivialis"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"

Cuckoo-shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina pectoralis"
*Gray Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina caesia"
*Black Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga flava"
*Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga phoenicea"
*Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike "Campephaga quiscalina"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Sudan.

*Common Bulbul "Pycnonotus barbatus"
*Little Greenbul "Andropadus virens"
*Plain Greenbul "Andropadus curvirostris"
*Slender-billed Greenbul "Andropadus gracilirostris"
*Yellow-whiskered Bulbul "Andropadus latirostris"
*Honeyguide Greenbul "Baeopogon indicator"
*Spotted Greenbul "Ixonotus guttatus"
*Simple Greenbul "Chlorocichla simplex"
*Yellow-throated Greenbul "Chlorocichla flavicollis"
*Joyful Greenbul "Chlorocichla laetissima"
*Leaf-love "Phyllastrephus scandens"
*Cabanis's Greenbul "Phyllastrephus cabanisi"
*Fischer's Greenbul "Phyllastrephus fischeri"
*Northern Brownbul "Phyllastrephus strepitans"
*Toro Olive-Greenbul "Phyllastrephus hypochloris"
*White-throated Greenbul "Phyllastrephus albigularis"
*Common Bristlebill "Bleda syndactyla"
*Green-tailed Bristlebill "Bleda eximia"
*Yellow-spotted Nicator "Nicator chloris"
*Red-tailed Greenbul "Criniger calurus"

Grey Hypocolius

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hypocoliidae

The Grey Hypocolius is a small Middle Eastern bird. They are mainly a uniform grey color, with males having a black triangular mask around the eyes, and with the shape and soft plumage of the waxwings.

*Hypocolius "Hypocolius ampelinus"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Sudan.

*Rufous Flycatcher-Thrush "Neocossyphus fraseri"
*Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush "Monticola saxatilis"
*Little Rock-Thrush "Monticola rufocinereus"
*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Abyssinian Ground-Thrush "Zoothera piaggiae"
*Spotted Ground-Thrush "Zoothera guttata"
*Olive Thrush "Turdus olivaceus"
*African Thrush "Turdus pelios"
*Ring Ouzel "Turdus torquatus"
*Eurasian Blackbird "Turdus merula"
*Song Thrush "Turdus philomelos"
*Brown-chested Alethe "Alethe poliocephala"
*Fire-crested Alethe "Alethe diademata"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 36 species which occur in Sudan.

*Red-faced Cisticola "Cisticola erythrops"
*Singing Cisticola "Cisticola cantans"
*Whistling Cisticola "Cisticola lateralis"
*Rock-loving Cisticola "Cisticola aberrans"
*Boran Cisticola "Cisticola bodessa"
*Rattling Cisticola "Cisticola chiniana"
*Ashy Cisticola "Cisticola cinereolus"
*Red-pate Cisticola "Cisticola ruficeps"
*Winding Cisticola "Cisticola galactotes"
*Stout Cisticola "Cisticola robustus"
*Croaking Cisticola "Cisticola natalensis"
*Siffling Cisticola "Cisticola brachypterus"
*Foxy Cisticola "Cisticola troglodytes"
*Tiny Cisticola "Cisticola nana"
*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Desert Cisticola "Cisticola aridulus"
*Black-necked Cisticola "Cisticola eximius"
*Wing-snapping Cisticola "Cisticola ayresii"
*Graceful Prinia "Prinia gracilis"
*Tawny-flanked Prinia "Prinia subflava"
*Pale Prinia "Prinia somalica"
*White-chinned Prinia "Prinia leucopogon"
*Red-winged Prinia "Prinia erythroptera"
*Red-winged Gray Warbler "Drymocichla incana"
*Cricket Longtail "Spiloptila clamans"
*Black-collared Apalis "Apalis pulchra"
*Black-throated Apalis "Apalis jacksoni"
*Yellow-breasted Apalis "Apalis flavida"
*Buff-throated Apalis "Apalis rufogularis"
*Gray Apalis "Apalis cinerea"
*Red-fronted Warbler "Urorhipis rufifrons"
*Gray-capped Warbler "Eminia lepida"
*Green-backed Camaroptera "Camaroptera brachyura"
*Yellow-browed Camaroptera "Camaroptera superciliaris"
*Olive-green Camaroptera "Camaroptera chloronota"
*Gray Wren-Warbler "Calamonastes simplex"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 56 species which occur in Sudan.

*African Bush-Warbler "Bradypterus baboecala"
*Bamboo Scrub-Warbler "Bradypterus alfredi"
*Cinnamon Bracken-Warbler "Bradypterus cinnamomeus" (E)
*Black-faced Rufous-Warbler "Bathmocercus rufus"
*Moustached Grass-Warbler "Melocichla mentalis"
*Grasshopper Warbler "Locustella naevia"
*Eurasian River Warbler "Locustella fluviatilis"
*Savi's Warbler "Locustella luscinioides"
*Sedge Warbler "Acrocephalus schoenobaenus"
*Eurasian Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus scirpaceus"
*African Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus baeticatus"
*Marsh Warbler "Acrocephalus palustris"
*Great Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus arundinaceus"
*Clamorous Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus stentoreus"
*Basra Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus griseldis"
*Greater Swamp-Warbler "Acrocephalus rufescens"
*Lesser Swamp-Warbler "Acrocephalus gracilirostris"
*Eastern Olivaceous Warbler "Hippolais pallida"
*Upcher's Warbler "Hippolais languida"
*Olive-tree Warbler "Hippolais olivetorum"
*Icterine Warbler "Hippolais icterina"
*African Yellow Warbler "Chloropeta natalensis"
*Mountain Yellow Warbler "Chloropeta similis"
*Buff-bellied Warbler "Phyllolais pulchella"
*Yellow-bellied Eremomela "Eremomela icteropygialis"
*Senegal Eremomela "Eremomela pusilla"
*Green-backed Eremomela "Eremomela canescens"
*Rufous-crowned Eremomela "Eremomela badiceps"
*Green Crombec "Sylvietta virens"
*Northern Crombec "Sylvietta brachyura"
*Red-faced Crombec "Sylvietta whytii"
*Yellow Longbill "Macrosphenus flavicans"
*Green Hylia "Hylia prasina"
*Brown Woodland-Warbler "Phylloscopus umbrovirens"
*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Common Chiffchaff "Phylloscopus collybita"
*Mountain Chiffchaff "Phylloscopus sindianus" (A)
*Western Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus bonelli"
*Eastern Bonelli's Warbler "Phylloscopus orientalis"
*Wood Warbler "Phylloscopus sibilatrix"
*Yellow-bellied Hyliota "Hyliota flavigaster"
*Fan-tailed Grassbird "Schoenicola brevirostris"
*Blackcap "Sylvia atricapilla"
*Garden Warbler "Sylvia borin"
*Greater Whitethroat "Sylvia communis"
*Lesser Whitethroat "Sylvia curruca"
*African Desert Warbler "Sylvia deserti"
*Barred Warbler "Sylvia nisoria"
*Western Orphean Warbler "Sylvia hortensis"
*Red Sea Warbler "Sylvia leucomelaena"
*Rueppell's Warbler "Sylvia rueppelli"
*Subalpine Warbler "Sylvia cantillans"
*Sardinian Warbler "Sylvia melanocephala"
*Cyprus Warbler "Sylvia melanothorax"
*Menetries's Warbler "Sylvia mystacea"
*Brown Warbler "Parisoma lugens"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 62 species which occur in Sudan.

*Silverbird "Empidornis semipartitus"
*Pale Flycatcher "Bradornis pallidus"
*African Gray Flycatcher "Bradornis microrhynchus"
*White-eyed Slaty-Flycatcher "Melaenornis fischeri"
*Northern Black-Flycatcher "Melaenornis edolioides"
*Spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa striata"
*Gambaga Flycatcher "Muscicapa gambagae"
*Sooty Flycatcher "Muscicapa infuscata"
*Swamp Flycatcher "Muscicapa aquatica"
*African Dusky Flycatcher "Muscicapa adusta"
*Dusky-blue Flycatcher "Muscicapa comitata"
*Ashy Flycatcher "Muscicapa caerulescens"
*Gray Tit-Flycatcher "Myioparus plumbeus"
*European Pied Flycatcher "Ficedula hypoleuca"
*Collared Flycatcher "Ficedula albicollis"
*Semicollared Flycatcher "Ficedula semitorquata"
*Red-breasted Flycatcher "Ficedula parva"
*White-starred Robin "Pogonocichla stellata"
*Forest Robin "Stiphrornis erythrothorax"
*Equatorial Akalat "Sheppardia aequatorialis"
*Thrush Nightingale "Luscinia luscinia"
*Common Nightingale "Luscinia megarhynchos"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica"
*White-throated Robin "Irania gutturalis"
*Cape Robin-Chat "Cossypha caffra"
*Blue-shouldered Robin-Chat "Cossypha cyanocampter"
*Gray-winged Robin-Chat "Cossypha polioptera"
*Rueppell's Robin-Chat "Cossypha semirufa"
*White-browed Robin-Chat "Cossypha heuglini"
*Red-capped Robin-Chat "Cossypha natalensis"
*Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha niveicapilla"
*White-crowned Robin-Chat "Cossypha albicapilla"
*Spotted Morning-Thrush "Cichladusa guttata"
*Red-backed Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas leucophrys"
*Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas galactotes"
*African Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas minor"
*Black Scrub-Robin "Cercotrichas podobe"
*Black Redstart "Phoenicurus ochruros"
*Common Redstart "Phoenicurus phoenicurus"
*White-winged Redstart "Phoenicurus erythrogaster"
*Siberian Stonechat "Saxicola maura"
*Whinchat "Saxicola rubetra"
*European Stonechat "Saxicola rubicola"
*African Stonechat "Saxicola torquata"
*White-tailed Wheatear "Oenanthe leucopyga"
*Hooded Wheatear "Oenanthe monacha"
*Northern Wheatear "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Mourning Wheatear "Oenanthe lugens"
*Pied Wheatear "Oenanthe pleschanka"
*Cyprus Wheatear "Oenanthe cypriaca"
*Black-eared Wheatear "Oenanthe hispanica"
*Red-tailed Wheatear "Oenanthe xanthoprymna"
*Desert Wheatear "Oenanthe deserti"
*Isabelline Wheatear "Oenanthe isabellina"
*Heuglin's Wheatear "Oenanthe heuglini"
*Familiar Chat "Cercomela familiaris"
*Brown-tailed Chat "Cercomela scotocerca"
*Blackstart "Cercomela melanura"
*Northern Anteater-Chat "Myrmecocichla aethiops"
*Sooty Chat "Myrmecocichla nigra"
*White-fronted Black-Chat "Myrmecocichla albifrons"
*Mocking Cliff-Chat "Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris"

Wattle-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Platysteiridae

The wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Sudan.

*African Shrike-flycatcher "Megabyas flammulatus"
*Black-and-white Shrike-flycatcher "Bias musicus"
*Brown-throated Wattle-eye "Platysteira cyanea"
*Chestnut Wattle-eye "Platysteira castanea"
*Jameson's Wattle-eye "Platysteira jamesoni"
*Chinspot Batis "Batis molitor"
*Gray-headed Batis "Batis orientalis"
*Black-headed Batis "Batis minor"
*Pygmy Batis "Batis perkeo"

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Sudan.

*African Blue-Flycatcher "Elminia longicauda"
*Dusky Crested-Flycatcher "Elminia nigromitrata"
*Blue-headed Crested-Flycatcher "Trochocercus nitens"
*African Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone viridis"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Sudan.

*Scaly-breasted Illadopsis "Illadopsis albipectus"
*Puvel's Illadopsis "Illadopsis puveli"
*Pale-breasted Illadopsis "Illadopsis rufipennis"
*Brown Illadopsis "Illadopsis fulvescens"
*African Hill Babbler "Illadopsis abyssinica"
*Thrush Babbler "Ptyrticus turdinus"
*Fulvous Chatterer "Turdoides fulvus"
*Rufous Chatterer "Turdoides rubiginosus"
*Dusky Babbler "Turdoides tenebrosus"
*White-rumped Babbler "Turdoides leucopygius"
*Cretzschmar's Babbler "Turdoides leucocephalus"
*Brown Babbler "Turdoides plebejus"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 4 species which occur in Sudan.

*White-shouldered Black-Tit "Melaniparus guineensis"
*White-bellied Tit "Melaniparus albiventris"
*White-backed Black-Tit "Melaniparus leuconotus"
*Dusky Tit "Melaniparus funereus"

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Spotted Creeper "Salpornis spilonotus"

Penduline tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Sennar Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus punctifrons"
*Mouse-colored Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus musculus"
*Yellow Penduline-Tit "Anthoscopus parvulus"

unbirds and Spiderhunters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Sudan.

*Western Violet-backed Sunbird "Anthreptes longuemarei"
*Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird "Anthreptes orientalis"
*Little Green Sunbird "Anthreptes seimundi"
*Green Sunbird "Anthreptes rectirostris"
*Collared Sunbird "Hedydipna collaris"
*Pygmy Sunbird "Hedydipna platura"
*Nile Valley Sunbird "Hedydipna metallica"
*Green-headed Sunbird "Cyanomitra verticalis"
*Eastern Olive-Sunbird "Cyanomitra olivacea"
*Green-throated Sunbird "Chalcomitra rubescens"
*Amethyst Sunbird "Chalcomitra amethystina"
*Scarlet-chested Sunbird "Chalcomitra senegalensis"
*Hunter's Sunbird "Chalcomitra hunteri"
*Tacazze Sunbird "Nectarinia tacazze"
*Malachite Sunbird "Nectarinia famosa"
*Olive-bellied Sunbird "Cinnyris chloropygius"
*Northern Double-collared Sunbird "Cinnyris preussi"
*Beautiful Sunbird "Cinnyris pulchellus"
*Mariqua Sunbird "Cinnyris mariquensis"
*Red-chested Sunbird "Cinnyris erythrocerca"
*Palestine Sunbird "Cinnyris oseus"
*Shining Sunbird "Cinnyris habessinicus"
*Splendid Sunbird "Cinnyris coccinigaster"
*Johanna's Sunbird "Cinnyris johannae"
*Variable Sunbird "Cinnyris venustus"
*Copper Sunbird "Cinnyris cupreus"

White-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*African Yellow White-eye "Zosterops senegalensis"
*Broad-ringed White-eye "Zosterops poliogastrus"
*White-breasted White-eye "Zosterops abyssinicus"

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Sudan.

*Eurasian Golden Oriole "Oriolus oriolus"
*African Golden Oriole "Oriolus auratus"
*Western Black-headed Oriole "Oriolus brachyrhynchus"
*African Black-headed Oriole "Oriolus larvatus"
*Black-winged Oriole "Oriolus nigripennis"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Sudan.

*Red-backed Shrike "Lanius collurio"
*Rufous-tailed Shrike "Lanius isabellinus"
*Brown Shrike "Lanius cristatus" (A)
*Emin's Shrike "Lanius gubernator"
*Southern Gray Shrike "Lanius meridionalis"
*Lesser Gray Shrike "Lanius minor"
*Gray-backed Fiscal "Lanius excubitoroides"
*Taita Fiscal "Lanius dorsalis"
*Somali Fiscal "Lanius somalicus"
*Common Fiscal "Lanius collaris"
*Masked Shrike "Lanius nubicus"
*Woodchat Shrike "Lanius senator"
*Yellow-billed Shrike "Corvinella corvina"
*White-rumped Shrike "Eurocephalus rueppelli"

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Sudan.

*Brubru "Nilaus afer"
*Northern Puffback "Dryoscopus gambensis"
*Pink-footed Puffback "Dryoscopus angolensis"
*Marsh Tchagra "Tchagra minuta"
*Black-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra senegala"
*Brown-crowned Tchagra "Tchagra australis"
*Three-streaked Tchagra "Tchagra jamesi"
*Red-naped Bushshrike "Laniarius ruficeps"
*Luehder's Bushshrike "Laniarius luehderi"
*Tropical Boubou "Laniarius aethiopicus"
*Black-headed Gonolek "Laniarius erythrogaster"
*Slate-colored Boubou "Laniarius funebris"
*Sooty Boubou "Laniarius leucorhynchus"
*Rosy-patched Bushshrike "Rhodophoneus cruentus"
*Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike "Telophorus sulfureopectus"
*Gray-headed Bushshrike "Malaconotus blanchoti"

Helmetshrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*White Helmetshrike "Prionops plumatus"

Drongos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Sudan.

*Square-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus ludwigii"
*Fork-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus adsimilis"
*Velvet-mantled Drongo "Dicrurus modestus"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Sudan.

*Piapiac "Ptilostomus afer"
*House Crow "Corvus splendens"
*Cape Crow "Corvus capensis"
*Pied Crow "Corvus albus"
*Brown-necked Raven "Corvus ruficollis"
*Somali Crow "Corvus edithae"
*Fan-tailed Raven "Corvus rhipidurus"
*White-necked Raven "Corvus albicollis"
*Thick-billed Raven "Corvus crassirostris"

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Sudan.

*Wattled Starling "Creatophora cinerea"
*Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalybaeus"
*Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chloropterus"
*Bronze-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis chalcurus"
*Splendid Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis splendidus"
*Purple Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis purpureus"
*Rueppell's Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis purpuropterus"
*Long-tailed Glossy-Starling "Lamprotornis caudatus"
*Superb Starling "Lamprotornis superbus"
*Shelley's Starling "Lamprotornis shelleyi"
*Chestnut-bellied Starling "Lamprotornis pulcher"
*Violet-backed Starling "Cinnyricinclus leucogaster"
*Red-winged Starling "Onychognathus morio"
*Chestnut-winged Starling "Onychognathus fulgidus"
*Waller's Starling "Onychognathus walleri"
*Bristle-crowned Starling "Onychognathus salvadorii"
*White-billed Starling "Onychognathus albirostris"
*Neumann's Starling "Onychognathus neumanni"
*Stuhlmann's Starling "Poeoptera stuhlmanni"
*Sharpe's Starling "Pholia sharpii"
*Magpie Starling "Speculipastor bicolor"
*Red-billed Oxpecker "Buphagus erythrorhynchus"
*Yellow-billed Oxpecker "Buphagus africanus"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in Sudan.

*White-billed Buffalo-Weaver "Bubalornis albirostris"
*Red-billed Buffalo-Weaver "Bubalornis niger"
*White-headed Buffalo-Weaver "Dinemellia dinemelli"
*Speckle-fronted Weaver "Sporopipes frontalis"
*White-browed Sparrow-Weaver "Plocepasser mahali"
*Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-Weaver "Plocepasser superciliosus"
*Gray-headed Social-Weaver "Pseudonigrita arnaudi"
*Baglafecht Weaver "Ploceus baglafecht"
*Slender-billed Weaver "Ploceus pelzelni"
*Little Weaver "Ploceus luteolus"
*Lesser Masked-Weaver "Ploceus intermedius"
*Spectacled Weaver "Ploceus ocularis"
*Black-necked Weaver "Ploceus nigricollis"
*Black-billed Weaver "Ploceus melanogaster"
*Rueppell's Weaver "Ploceus galbula"
*Heuglin's Masked-Weaver "Ploceus heuglini"
*Northern Masked-Weaver "Ploceus taeniopterus"
*Vitelline Masked-Weaver "Ploceus vitellinus"
*Village Weaver "Ploceus cucullatus"
*Vieillot's Weaver "Ploceus nigerrimus"
*Black-headed Weaver "Ploceus melanocephalus"
*Golden-backed Weaver "Ploceus jacksoni"
*Cinnamon Weaver "Ploceus badius" (E)
*Chestnut Weaver "Ploceus rubiginosus"
*Yellow-mantled Weaver "Ploceus tricolor"
*Forest Weaver "Ploceus bicolor"
*Brown-capped Weaver "Ploceus insignis"
*Compact Weaver "Pachyphantes superciliosus"
*Red-bellied Malimbe "Malimbus erythrogaster"
*Gray's Malimbe "Malimbus nitens"
*Red-headed Malimbe "Malimbus rubricollis"
*Red-headed Weaver "Anaplectes rubriceps"
*Cardinal Quelea "Quelea cardinalis"
*Red-headed Quelea "Quelea erythrops"
*Red-billed Quelea "Quelea quelea"
*Yellow-crowned Bishop "Euplectes afer"
*Black Bishop "Euplectes gierowii"
*Black-winged Bishop "Euplectes hordeaceus"
*Orange Bishop "Euplectes franciscanus"
*Red Bishop "Euplectes orix"
*Yellow Bishop "Euplectes capensis"
*Fan-tailed Widowbird "Euplectes axillaris"
*Yellow-shouldered Widowbird "Euplectes macrourus"
*White-winged Widowbird "Euplectes albonotatus"
*Red-collared Widowbird "Euplectes ardens"
*Grosbeak Weaver "Amblyospiza albifrons"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 35 species which occur in Sudan.

*Gray-headed Negrofinch "Nigrita canicapilla"
*Gray-headed Oliveback "Nesocharis capistrata"
*Orange-winged Pytilia "Pytilia afra"
*Red-winged Pytilia "Pytilia phoenicoptera"
*Green-winged Pytilia "Pytilia melba"
*Green-backed Twinspot "Mandingoa nitidula"
*Abyssinian Crimson-wing "Cryptospiza salvadorii"
*Black-bellied Seedcracker "Pyrenestes ostrinus"
*Red-headed Bluebill "Spermophaga ruficapilla"
*Brown Twinspot "Clytospiza monteiri"
*Dybowski's Twinspot "Euschistospiza dybowskii"
*Bar-breasted Firefinch "Lagonosticta rufopicta"
*Red-billed Firefinch "Lagonosticta senegala"
*Black-bellied Firefinch "Lagonosticta rara"
*African Firefinch "Lagonosticta rubricata"
*Jameson's Firefinch "Lagonosticta rhodopareia"
*Black-faced Firefinch "Lagonosticta larvata"
*Red-cheeked Cordonbleu "Uraeginthus bengalus"
*Blue-capped Cordonbleu "Uraeginthus cyanocephalus"
*Purple Grenadier "Uraeginthus ianthinogaster"
*Yellow-bellied Waxbill "Estrilda quartinia"
*Fawn-breasted Waxbill "Estrilda paludicola"
*Crimson-rumped Waxbill "Estrilda rhodopyga"
*Black-rumped Waxbill "Estrilda troglodytes"
*Common Waxbill "Estrilda astrild"
*Black-crowned Waxbill "Estrilda nonnula"
*Red-rumped Waxbill "Estrilda charmosyna"
*Zebra Waxbill "Sporaeginthus subflavus"
*Black-faced Quailfinch "Ortygospiza atricollis"
*African Silverbill "Euodice cantans"
*Gray-headed Silverbill "Odontospiza griseicapilla"
*Bronze Mannikin "Spermestes cucullatus"
*Black-and-white Mannikin "Spermestes bicolor"
*Magpie Mannikin "Spermestes fringilloides"
*Cut-throat "Amadina fasciata"

Indigobirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Viduidae

The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. There are 20 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Sudan.

*Village Indigobird "Vidua chalybeata"
*Jambandu Indigobird "Vidua raricola"
*Baka Indigobird "Vidua larvaticola"
*Quailfinch Indigobird "Vidua nigeriae"
*Variable Indigobird "Vidua funerea"
*Pale-winged Indigobird "Vidua wilsoni"
*Cameroon Indigobird "Vidua camerunensis"
*Steel-blue Whydah "Vidua hypocherina"
*Straw-tailed Whydah "Vidua fischeri"
*Pin-tailed Whydah "Vidua macroura"
*Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah "Vidua interjecta"
*Eastern Paradise-Whydah "Vidua paradisaea"
*Northern Paradise-Whydah "Vidua orientalis"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Sudan.

*Parasitic Weaver "Anomalospiza imberbis"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 10 species which occur in Sudan.

*Rock Bunting "Emberiza cia"
*Cinereous Bunting "Emberiza cineracea"
*Ortolan Bunting "Emberiza hortulana"
*Cretzschmar's Bunting "Emberiza caesia"
*House Bunting "Emberiza striolata"
*Cinnamon-breasted Bunting "Emberiza tahapisi"
*Golden-breasted Bunting "Emberiza flaviventris"
*Somali Bunting "Emberiza poliopleura"
*Brown-rumped Bunting "Emberiza affinis"
*Cabanis's Bunting "Emberiza cabanisi"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Sudan.

*Oriole Finch "Linurgus olivaceus"
*Eurasian Linnet "Carduelis cannabina"
*Cape Canary "Serinus canicollis"
*African Citril "Serinus citrinelloides"
*Southern Citril "Serinus hyposticutus"
*White-rumped Seedeater "Serinus leucopygius"
*Black-throated Canary "Serinus atrogularis"
*Reichenow's Seedeater "Serinus reichenowi"
*Yellow-fronted Canary "Serinus mozambicus"
*White-bellied Canary "Serinus dorsostriatus"
*Reichard's Seedeater "Serinus reichardi"
*Streaky-headed Seedeater "Serinus gularis"
*Streaky Seedeater "Serinus striolatus"
*Trumpeter Finch "Bucanetes githaginea"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Sudan. Sudan has the greatest diversity of sparrows of any country on earth.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus" (I)
*Spanish Sparrow "Passer hispaniolensis"
*Shelley's Rufous Sparrow "Passer shelleyi"
*Kordofan Rufous Sparrow "Passer cordofanicus" (E)
*Gray-headed Sparrow "Passer griseus"
*Swainson's Sparrow "Passer swainsonii"
*Parrot-billed Sparrow "Passer gongonensis"
*Desert Sparrow "Passer simplex"
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow "Passer montanus"
*Sudan Golden-Sparrow "Passer luteus"
*Chestnut Sparrow "Passer eminibey"
*Yellow-spotted Petronia "Petronia pyrgita"
*Bush Petronia "Petronia dentata"
*Pale Rockfinch "Carpospiza brachydactyla"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=sd&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Sudan
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880


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