List of birds of Panama


List of birds of Panama

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Panama. The avifauna of Panama includes a total of 972 species, of which 12 are endemic, 6 have been introduced by humans, and 120 are rare or accidental. 20 species are globally threatened. The total figure includes a number of species whose occurrence in the country is considered hypothetical: no specimen or photograph has been taken in the country and they are known only from sight records.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) mainly follows the conventions of Clements's 5th edition although a few species have been split or lumped to correspond with the Panama Audubon Society checklist. [Montañez, Darién (2007). " [http://www.geocities.com/xenornis/panamachecklist.pdf The Birds of Panama: a printable checklist including 972 species] ". Retrieved on November 7 2007.] The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Panama.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Panama.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Panama.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Panama as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.

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Tinamous

Order: TinamiformesFamily: Tinamidae

The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family Tinamidae within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emu, and kiwi. There are 47 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*Great Tinamou "Tinamus major"
*Highland Tinamou "Nothocercus bonapartei"
*Little Tinamou "Crypturellus soui"
*Choco Tinamou "Crypturellus kerriae"

Penguins

Order: SphenisciformesFamily: Spheniscidae

The penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Galapagos Penguin "Spheniscus mendiculus" (A)

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Least Grebe "Tachybaptus dominicus"
*Pied-billed Grebe "Podilymbus podiceps"

Albatrosses

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 21 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Panama.

*Wandering Albatross "Diomedea exulans" (A)
*Waved Albatross "Phoebastria irrorata" (A)
*Gray-headed Albatross "Thalassarche chrysostoma" (A)

hearwaters and petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Panama.

*Galapagos Petrel "Pterodroma phaeopygia" (A)
*Parkinson's Petrel "Procellaria parkinsoni" (A)
*Cory's Shearwater "Calonectris diomedea" (A)
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater "Puffinus pacificus" (A)
*Sooty Shearwater "Puffinus griseus"
*Christmas Shearwater "Puffinus navitatis" (A)
*Manx Shearwater "Puffinus puffinus" (A)
*Townsend's Shearwater "Puffinus auricularis" (A)
*Audubon's Shearwater "Puffinus lherminieri"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Panama.

*Wilson's Storm-Petrel "Oceanites oceanicus" (A)
*White-vented Storm-Petrel "Oceanites gracilis" (A)
*Least Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma microsoma"
*Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma tethys"
*Markham's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma markhami" (A)
*Black Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma melania"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Red-billed Tropicbird "Phaethon aethereus"
*White-tailed Tropicbird "Phaethon lepturus" (A)

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*American White Pelican "Pelecanus erythrorhynchos" (A)
*Brown Pelican "Pelecanus occidentalis"

Boobies

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Panama.

*Blue-footed Booby "Sula nebouxii"
*Peruvian Booby "Sula variegata"
*Masked Booby "Sula dactylatra"
*Nazca Booby "Sula granti"
*Red-footed Booby "Sula sula"
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Neotropic Cormorant "Phalacrocorax brasilianus"
*Guanay Cormorant "Phalacrocorax bougainvillii" (A)

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Anhinga "Anhinga anhinga"

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Magnificent Frigatebird "Fregata magnificens"
*Great Frigatebird Fregata minor (A)

Bitterns, herons and egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Panama.

*Capped Heron "Pilherodius pileatus"
*Great Blue Heron "Ardea herodias"
*Cocoi Heron "Ardea cocoi"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Reddish Egret "Egretta rufescens" (A)
*Tricolored Heron "Egretta tricolor"
*Little Blue Heron "Egretta caerulea"
*Snowy Egret "Egretta thula"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Green Heron "Butorides virescens"
*Agami Heron "Agamia agami"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron "Nyctanassa violacea"
*Boat-billed Heron "Cochlearius cochlearius"
*Bare-throated Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma mexicanum"
*Fasciated Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma fasciatum"
*Rufescent Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma lineatum"
*Least Bittern "Ixobrychus exilis"
*American Bittern "Botaurus lentiginosus" (A)

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Wood Stork "Mycteria americana"
*Jabiru "Jabiru mycteria" (A)

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Panama.

*Buff-necked Ibis "Theristicus caudatus" (A)
*Green Ibis "Mesembrinibis cayennensis"
*White Ibis "Eudocimus albus"
*Scarlet Ibis "Eudocimus ruber" (A)
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus" (A)
*Roseate Spoonbill "Platalea ajaja"

Ducks

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Panama.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor" (A)
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata" (A)
*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna autumnalis"
*Muscovy Duck "Cairina moschata"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*American Wigeon "Anas americana"
*Green-winged Teal "Anas carolinensis" (A)
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos" (A)
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta" (A)
*White-cheeked Pintail "Anas bahamensis" (A)
*Blue-winged Teal "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal "Anas cyanoptera" (A)
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata" (A)
*Ring-necked Duck "Aythya collaris"
*Lesser Scaup "Aythya affinis"
*Masked Duck "Nomonyx dominica"

New World vultures

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*Black Vulture "Coragyps atratus"
*Turkey Vulture "Cathartes aura"
*Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture "Cathartes burrovianus"
*King Vulture "Sarcoramphus papa"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, kites and eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 41 species which occur in Panama.

*Gray-headed Kite "Leptodon cayanensis"
*Hook-billed Kite "Chondrohierax uncinatus"
*Swallow-tailed Kite "Elanoides forficatus"
*Pearl Kite "Gampsonyx swainsonii"
*White-tailed Kite "Elanus leucurus"
*Snail Kite "Rostrhamus sociabilis" (A)
*Slender-billed Kite "Rostrhamus hamatus" (A)
*Double-toothed Kite "Harpagus bidentatus"
*Mississippi Kite "Ictinia mississippiensis"
*Plumbeous Kite "Ictinia plumbea"
*Long-winged Harrier "Circus buffoni" (A)
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Tiny Hawk "Accipiter superciliosus"
*Sharp-shinned Hawk "Accipiter striatus"
*Cooper's Hawk "Accipiter cooperii" (A)
*Bicolored Hawk "Accipiter bicolor"
*Crane Hawk "Geranospiza caerulescens"
*Plumbeous Hawk "Leucopternis plumbeus"
*Barred Hawk "Leucopternis princeps"
*Semiplumbeous Hawk "Leucopternis semiplumbeus"
*White Hawk "Leucopternis albicollis"
*Common Black-Hawk "Buteogallus anthracinus"
*Mangrove Black-Hawk "Buteogallus subtilis"
*Great Black-Hawk "Buteogallus urubitinga"
*Savanna Hawk "Buteogallus meridionalis"
*Harris's Hawk "Parabuteo unicinctus"
*Black-collared Hawk "Busarellus nigricollis"
*Solitary Eagle "Harpyhaliaetus solitarius"
*Gray Hawk "Asturina nitida"
*Roadside Hawk "Buteo magnirostris"
*Broad-winged Hawk "Buteo platypterus"
*Short-tailed Hawk "Buteo brachyurus"
*Swainson's Hawk "Buteo swainsoni"
*White-tailed Hawk "Buteo albicaudatus"
*Zone-tailed Hawk "Buteo albonotatus"
*Red-tailed Hawk "Buteo jamaicensis"
*Crested Eagle "Morphnus guianensis"
*Harpy Eagle "Harpia harpyja"
*Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle "Spizastur melanoleucus"
*Black Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus tyrannus"
*Ornate Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus ornatus"

Caracaras and falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Panama.

*Red-throated Caracara "Ibycter americanus"
*Crested Caracara "Caracara cheriway"
*Yellow-headed Caracara "Milvago chimachima"
*Laughing Falcon "Herpetotheres cachinnans"
*Barred Forest-Falcon "Micrastur ruficollis"
*Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon "Micrastur mirandollei"
*Collared Forest-Falcon "Micrastur semitorquatus"
*American Kestrel "Falco sparverius"
*Aplomado Falcon "Falco femoralis"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Bat Falcon "Falco rufigularis"
*Orange-breasted Falcon "Falco deiroleucus" (A)
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Guans, chachalacas and allies

Order: GalliformesFamily: Cracidae

The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. There are 50 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*Gray-headed Chachalaca "Ortalis cinereiceps"
*Crested Guan "Penelope purpurascens"
*Black Guan "Chamaepetes unicolor"
*Great Curassow "Crax rubra"

New World quails

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 7 species which occur in Panama.

*Crested Bobwhite "Colinus cristatus"
*Marbled Wood-Quail "Odontophorus gujanensis"
*Black-eared Wood-Quail "Odontophorus melanotis"
*Tacarcuna Wood-Quail "Odontophorus dialeucos"
*Black-breasted Wood-Quail "Odontophorus leucolaemus"
*Spotted Wood-Quail "Odontophorus guttatus"
*Tawny-faced Quail "Rhynchortyx cinctus"

Limpkins

Order: GruiformesFamily: Aramidae

The Limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab brown plumage and a greyer head and neck.

*Limpkin "Aramus guarauna"

Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Panama.

*Ruddy Crake "Laterallus ruber" (A)
*White-throated Crake "Laterallus albigularis"
*Gray-breasted Crake "Laterallus exilis"
*Black Rail "Laterallus jamaicensis"
*Clapper Rail "Rallus longirostris"
*Rufous-necked Wood-Rail "Aramides axillaris"
*Gray-necked Wood-Rail "Aramides cajanea"
*Uniform Crake "Amaurolimnas concolor"
*Sora "Porzana carolina"
*Yellow-breasted Crake "Porzana flaviventer"
*Colombian Crake "Neocrex colombianus"
*Paint-billed Crake "Neocrex erythrops"
*Spotted Rail "Pardirallus maculatus"
*Purple Gallinule "Porphyrio martinica"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*American Coot "Fulica americana"

ungrebe

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Sungrebe "Heliornis fulica"

unbittern

Order: GruiformesFamily: Eurypygidae

The Sunbittern is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas, and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga.

*Sunbittern "Eurypyga helias"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Northern Jacana "Jacana spinosa"
*Wattled Jacana "Jacana jacana"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*American Oystercatcher "Haematopus palliatus"

Avocets and stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-necked Stilt "Himantopus mexicanus"
*American Avocet "Recurvirostra americana" (A)

Plovers and lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Panama.

*Southern Lapwing "Vanellus chilensis"
*American Golden-Plover "Pluvialis dominica"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Semipalmated Plover "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Wilson's Plover "Charadrius wilsonia"
*Killdeer "Charadrius vociferus"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus" (A)
*Collared Plover "Charadrius collaris"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Panama.

*Wilson's Snipe "Gallinago delicata"
*Short-billed Dowitcher "Limnodromus griseus"
*Long-billed Dowitcher "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Hudsonian Godwit "Limosa haemastica" (A)
*Marbled Godwit "Limosa fedoa"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Long-billed Curlew "Numenius americanus" (A)
*Upland Sandpiper "Bartramia longicauda"
*Greater Yellowlegs "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs "Tringa flavipes"
*Solitary Sandpiper "Tringa solitaria"
*Spotted Sandpiper "Actitis macularia"
*Wandering Tattler "Heterosceles incanus" (A)
*Willet "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Surfbird "Aphriza virgata"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper "Calidris pusilla"
*Western Sandpiper "Calidris mauri"
*Least Sandpiper "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper "Calidris fuscicollis"
*Baird's Sandpiper "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper "Calidris melanotos"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina" (A)
*Stilt Sandpiper "Calidris himantopus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax" (A)
*Wilson's Phalarope "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"

kuas and jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*South Polar Skua "Stercorarius maccormicki"
*Pomarine Jaeger "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger "Stercorarius longicaudus" (A)

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Panama.

*Belcher's Gull "Larus belcheri" (A)
*Gray Gull "Larus modestus" (A)
*Ring-billed Gull "Larus delawarensis"
*Kelp Gull "Larus dominicanus" (A)
*Lesser Black-backed Gull "Larus fuscus" (A)
*American Herring Gull "Larus smithsonianus"
*Gray-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus" (A)
*Bonaparte's Gull "Larus philadelphia" (A)
*Laughing Gull "Larus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull "Larus pipixcan"
*Sabine's Gull "Xema sabini"
*Swallow-tailed Gull "Creagrus furcatus" (A)

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Panama.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Elegant Tern "Sterna elegans"
*Sandwich Tern "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Royal Tern "Sterna maxima"
*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea" (A)
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Forster's Tern "Sterna forsteri" (A)
*Least Tern "Sterna antillarum"
*Yellow-billed Tern "Sterna superciliaris" (A)
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger"
*Large-billed Tern "Phaetusa simplex" (A)
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"
*Black Noddy "Anous minutus" (A)
*White Tern "Gygis alba" (A)
*Inca Tern "Larosterna inca" (A)

kimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Black Skimmer "Rynchops niger" (A)

Pigeons and doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Panama.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia" (I)
*White-crowned Pigeon "Patagioenas leucocephala"
*Scaled Pigeon "Patagioenas speciosa"
*Band-tailed Pigeon "Patagioenas fasciata"
*Pale-vented Pigeon "Patagioenas cayennensis"
*Plumbeous Pigeon "Patagioenas plumbea"
*Short-billed Pigeon "Patagioenas nigrirostris"
*Ruddy Pigeon "Patagioenas subvinacea"
*Dusky Pigeon "Patagioenas goodsoni"
*Mourning Dove "Zenaida macroura"
*Eared Dove "Zenaida auriculata" (A)
*White-winged Dove "Zenaida asiatica"
*Common Ground-Dove "Columbina passerina"
*Plain-breasted Ground-Dove "Columbina minuta"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove "Columbina talpacoti"
*Blue Ground-Dove "Claravis pretiosa"
*Maroon-chested Ground-Dove "Claravis mondetoura"
*White-tipped Dove "Leptotila verreauxi"
*Gray-headed Dove "Leptotila plumbeiceps"
*Brown-backed Dove "Leptotila battyi" (E)
*Gray-chested Dove "Leptotila cassini"
*Purplish-backed Quail-Dove "Geotrygon lawrencii"
*Buff-fronted Quail-Dove "Geotrygon costaricensis"
*Russet-crowned Quail-Dove "Geotrygon goldmani"
*Rufous-breasted Quail-Dove "Geotrygon chiriquensis"
*Olive-backed Quail-Dove "Geotrygon veraguensis"
*Violaceous Quail-Dove "Geotrygon violacea"
*Ruddy Quail-Dove "Geotrygon montana"

Parrots, macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Panama.

*Blue-and-yellow Macaw "Ara ararauna"
*Great Green Macaw "Ara ambigua"
*Scarlet Macaw "Ara macao"
*Red-and-green Macaw "Ara chloroptera"
*Chestnut-fronted Macaw "Ara severa"
*Crimson-fronted Parakeet "Aratinga finschi"
*Brown-throated Parakeet "Aratinga pertinax"
*Olive-throated Parakeet "Aratinga nana"
*Azuero Parakeet "Pyrrhura eisenmanni" (E)
*Sulphur-winged Parakeet "Pyrrhura hoffmanni"
*Barred Parakeet "Bolborhynchus lineola"
*Spectacled Parrotlet "Forpus conspicillatus"
*Orange-chinned Parakeet "Brotogeris jugularis"
*Red-fronted Parrotlet "Touit costaricensis"
*Blue-fronted Parrotlet "Touit dilectissima"
*Brown-hooded Parrot "Pionopsitta haematotis"
*Saffron-headed Parrot "Pionopsitta pyrilia"
*Blue-headed Parrot "Pionus menstruus"
*White-crowned Parrot "Pionus senilis"
*Red-lored Amazon "Amazona autumnalis"
*Yellow-crowned Amazon "Amazona ochrocephala"
*Mealy Amazon "Amazona farinosa"

Cuckoos and anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Panama.

*Dwarf Cuckoo "Coccyzus pumilus" (A)
*Black-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus erythropthalmus"
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus americanus"
*Mangrove Cuckoo "Coccyzus minor"
*Dark-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus melacoryphus" (A)
*Gray-capped Cuckoo "Coccyzus lansbergi" (A)
*Squirrel Cuckoo "Piaya cayana"
*Little Cuckoo "Piaya minuta"
*Greater Ani "Crotophaga major"
*Smooth-billed Ani "Crotophaga ani"
*Groove-billed Ani "Crotophaga sulcirostris"
*Striped Cuckoo "Tapera naevia"
*Pheasant Cuckoo "Dromococcyx phasianellus"
*Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo "Neomorphus geoffroyi"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Panama.

*Tropical Screech-Owl "Megascops choliba"
*Bare-shanked Screech-Owl "Megascops clarkii"
*Vermiculated Screech-Owl "Megascops vermiculatus"
*Great Horned Owl "Bubo virginianus" (A)
*Mottled Owl "Ciccaba virgata"
*Black-and-white Owl "Ciccaba nigrolineata"
*Crested Owl "Lophostrix cristata"
*Spectacled Owl "Pulsatrix perspicillata"
*Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium costaricanum"
*Central American Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium griseiceps"
*Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium brasilianum"
*Burrowing Owl "Athene cunicularia" (A)
*Unspotted Saw-whet Owl "Aegolius ridgwayi" (A)
*Striped Owl "Pseudoscops clamator"

Oilbird

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Steatornithidae

The Oilbird is a slim, long-winged bird related to the nightjars. It is nocturnal and a specialist feeder on the fruit of the Oil palm.

*Oilbird "Steatornis caripensis" (A)

Potoos

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Nyctibiidae

The potoos (sometimes called Poor-Me-Ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. There are 5 species, all of which are from the South American tropical region, and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Great Potoo "Nyctibius grandis"
*Common Potoo "Nyctibius griseus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Panama.

*Short-tailed Nighthawk "Lurocalis semitorquatus"
*Lesser Nighthawk "Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk "Chordeiles minor"
*Pauraque "Nyctidromus albicollis"
*Ocellated Poorwill "Nyctiphrynus ocellatus" (A)
*Chuck-will's-widow "Caprimulgus carolinensis"
*Rufous Nightjar "Caprimulgus rufus"
*Whip-poor-will "Caprimulgus vociferus" (A)
*Dusky Nightjar "Caprimulgus saturatus"
*White-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus cayennensis"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Panama.

*Black Swift "Cypseloides niger" (A)
*White-chinned Swift "Cypseloides cryptus" (A)
*Chestnut-collared Swift "Streptoprocne rutila"
*White-collared Swift "Streptoprocne zonaris"
*Band-rumped Swift "Chaetura spinicaudus"
*Gray-rumped Swift "Chaetura cinereiventris"
*Chimney Swift "Chaetura pelagica"
*Vaux's Swift "Chaetura vauxi"
*Chapman's Swift "Chaetura chapmani" (A)
*Short-tailed Swift "Chaetura brachyura"
*Ashy-tailed Swift "Chaetura andrei" (A)
*Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift "Panyptila cayennensis"
*Costa Rican Swift "Chaetura fumosa"

Hummingbirds

Order: TrochiliformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 59 species which occur in Panama.

*White-tipped Sicklebill "Eutoxeres aquila"
*Rufous-breasted Hermit "Glaucis hirsuta"
*Bronzy Hermit "Glaucis aenea"
*Band-tailed Barbthroat "Threnetes ruckeri"
*White-whiskered Hermit "Phaethornis yaruqui"
*Green Hermit "Phaethornis guy"
*Western Long-tailed Hermit "Phaethornis longirostris"
*Pale-bellied Hermit "Phaethornis anthophilus"
*Stripe-throated Hermit "Phaethornis striigularis"
*Tooth-billed Hummingbird "Androdon aequatorialis"
*Green-fronted Lancebill "Doryfera ludovicae"
*Scaly-breasted Hummingbird "Phaeochroa cuvierii"
*Violet Sabrewing "Campylopterus hemileucurus"
*White-necked Jacobin "Florisuga mellivora"
*Brown Violet-ear "Colibri delphinae"
*Green Violet-ear "Colibri thalassinus"
*Green-breasted Mango "Anthracothorax prevostii"
*Black-throated Mango "Anthracothorax nigricollis"
*Veraguan Mango "Anthracothorax veraguensis" (E)
*Ruby-topaz Hummingbird "Chrysolampis mosquitus" (A)
*Violet-headed Hummingbird "Klais guimeti"
*Rufous-crested Coquette "Lophornis delattrei"
*White-crested Coquette "Lophornis adorabilis"
*Green Thorntail "Discosura conversii"
*Garden Emerald "Chlorostilbon assimilis"
*Fiery-throated Hummingbird "Panterpe insignis"
*White-tailed Emerald "Elvira chionura"
*Stripe-tailed Hummingbird "Eupherusa eximia"
*Black-bellied Hummingbird "Eupherusa nigriventris"
*Rufous-cheeked Hummingbird "Goethalsia bella"
*Violet-capped Hummingbird "Goldmania violiceps"
*Violet-crowned Woodnymph "Thalurania colombica"
*Green-crowned Woodnymph "Thalurania fannyi"
*Violet-bellied Hummingbird "Damophila julie"
*Sapphire-throated Hummingbird "Lepidopyga coeruleogularis"
*Blue-throated Goldentail "Hylocharis eliciae"
*Humboldt's Sapphire "Hylocharis humboldtii"
*Rufous-tailed Hummingbird "Amazilia tzacatl"
*Escudo Hummingbird "Amazilia handleyi" (E)
*Blue-chested Hummingbird "Polyerata amabilis"
*Charming Hummingbird "Polyerata decora"
*Snowy-bellied Hummingbird "Saucerottia edward"
*Snowcap "Microchera albocoronata"
*White-vented Plumeleteer "Chalybura buffonii"
*Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer "Chalybura urochrysia"
*White-bellied Mountain-gem "Lampornis hemileucus"
*White-throated Mountain-gem "Lampornis castaneoventris"
*Purple-throated Mountain-gem "Lampornis calolaema"
*Green-crowned Brilliant "Heliodoxa jacula"
*Magnificent Hummingbird "Eugenes fulgens"
*Greenish Puffleg "Haplophaedia aureliae"
*Purple-crowned Fairy "Heliothryx barroti"
*Long-billed Starthroat "Heliomaster longirostris"
*Magenta-throated Woodstar "Calliphlox bryantae"
*Purple-throated Woodstar "Calliphlox mitchellii"
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird "Archilochus colubris" (A)
*Scintillant Hummingbird "Selasphorus scintilla"
*Glow-throated Hummingbird "Selasphorus ardens" (E)
*Volcano Hummingbird "Selasphorus flammula"

Trogons and quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Panama.

*White-tailed Trogon "Trogon viridis"
*Baird's Trogon "Trogon bairdii"
*Violaceous Trogon "Trogon violaceus"
*Collared Trogon "Trogon collaris"
*Orange-bellied Trogon "Trogon aurantiiventris"
*Black-throated Trogon "Trogon rufus"
*Black-tailed Trogon "Trogon melanurus"
*Slaty-tailed Trogon "Trogon massena"
*Lattice-tailed Trogon "Trogon clathratus"
*Resplendent Quetzal "Pharomachrus mocinno"
*Golden-headed Quetzal "Pharomachrus auriceps"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Panama.

*Belted Kingfisher "Ceryle alcyon"
*Ringed Kingfisher "Ceryle torquatus"
*Amazon Kingfisher "Chloroceryle amazona"
*Green Kingfisher "Chloroceryle americana"
*Green-and-rufous Kingfisher "Chloroceryle inda"
*American Pygmy Kingfisher "Chloroceryle aenea"

Motmots

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: MomotidaeThe motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails, which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft, and creating a racket-shaped tail. There are 10 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*Tody Motmot "Hylomanes momotula"
*Blue-crowned Motmot "Momotus momota"
*Rufous Motmot "Baryphthengus martii"
*Broad-billed Motmot "Electron platyrhynchum"

Jacamars

Order: PiciformesFamily: Galbulidae

The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, with a range that extends up to Mexico. They are glossy elegant birds with long bills and tails, which feed on insects caught on the wing. In appearance and behaviour they show resemblances to the Old World bee-eaters, although they are more closely related to woodpeckers. There are 18 species and 3 species that occur in Panama.

*Dusky-backed Jacamar "Brachygalba salmoni"
*Rufous-tailed Jacamar "Galbula ruficauda"
*Great Jacamar "Jacamerops aureus"

Puffbirds

Order: PiciformesFamily: Bucconidae

The puffbirds are related to the jacamars, and have the same range, but lack the iridescent colours of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous or grey, with large heads and flattened bills with a hooked tip. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English common name of the family. There are 34 species and 8 species which occur in Panama.

*White-necked Puffbird "Notharchus macrorhynchos"
*Black-breasted Puffbird "Notharchus pectoralis"
*Pied Puffbird "Notharchus tectus"
*Barred Puffbird "Nystalus radiatus"
*White-whiskered Puffbird "Malacoptila panamensis"
*Lanceolated Monklet "Micromonacha lanceolata"
*Gray-cheeked Nunlet "Nonnula frontalis"
*White-fronted Nunbird "Monasa morphoeus"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Panama.

*Spot-crowned Barbet "Capito maculicoronatus"
*Red-headed Barbet "Eubucco bourcierii"
*Prong-billed Barbet "Semnornis frantzii"

Toucans

Order: PiciformesFamily: Ramphastidae

Toucans are near passerine birds from the neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colourful bills which in some species may amount to half their body length. There are 40 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Panama.

*Collared Aracari "Pteroglossus torquatus"
*Fiery-billed Aracari "Pteroglossus frantzii"
*Yellow-eared Toucanet "Selenidera spectabilis"
*Keel-billed Toucan "Ramphastos sulfuratus"
*Choco Toucan "Ramphastos brevis"
*Black-mandibled Toucan "Ramphastos ambiguus"
*Blue-throated Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus caeruleogularis"
*Violet-throated Toucanet "Aulacorhynchus cognatus"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Panama.

*Olivaceous Piculet "Picumnus olivaceus"
*Acorn Woodpecker "Melanerpes formicivorus"
*Golden-naped Woodpecker "Melanerpes chrysauchen"
*Black-cheeked Woodpecker "Melanerpes pucherani"
*Red-crowned Woodpecker "Melanerpes rubricapillus"
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker "Sphyrapicus varius"
*Hairy Woodpecker "Picoides villosus"
*Smoky-brown Woodpecker "Veniliornis fumigatus"
*Red-rumped Woodpecker "Veniliornis kirkii"
*Rufous-winged Woodpecker "Piculus simplex"
*Stripe-cheeked Woodpecker "Piculus callopterus" (E)
*Golden-green Woodpecker "Piculus chrysochloros"
*Golden-olive Woodpecker "Piculus rubiginosus"
*Spot-breasted Woodpecker "Colaptes punctigula"
*Cinnamon Woodpecker "Celeus loricatus"
*Chestnut-colored Woodpecker "Celeus castaneus"
*Lineated Woodpecker "Dryocopus lineatus"
*Crimson-bellied Woodpecker "Campephilus haematogaster"
*Crimson-crested Woodpecker "Campephilus melanoleucos"
*Pale-billed Woodpecker "Campephilus guatemalensis"

Ovenbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Furnariidae

Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. There are 243 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Panama.

*Pale-breasted Spinetail "Synallaxis albescens"
*Slaty Spinetail "Synallaxis brachyura"
*Red-faced Spinetail "Cranioleuca erythrops"
*Coiba Spinetail "Cranioleuca dissita" (E)
*Double-banded Graytail "Xenerpestes minlosi"
*Spotted Barbtail "Premnoplex brunnescens"
*Ruddy Treerunner "Margarornis rubiginosus"
*Beautiful Treerunner "Margarornis bellulus" (E)
*Plain Xenops "Xenops minutus"
*Streaked Xenops "Xenops rutilans"
*Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner "Anabacerthia variegaticeps"
*Buffy Tuftedcheek "Pseudocolaptes lawrencii"
*Streak-breasted Treehunter "Thripadectes rufobrunneus"
*Lineated Foliage-gleaner "Syndactyla subalaris"
*Striped Woodhaunter "Hyloctistes subulatus"
*Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner "Philydor rufus"
*Slaty-winged Foliage-gleaner "Philydor fuscipennis"
*Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner "Automolus ochrolaemus"
*Ruddy Foliage-gleaner "Automolus rubiginosus"
*Tawny-throated Leaftosser "Sclerurus mexicanus"
*Gray-throated Leaftosser "Sclerurus albigularis"
*Scaly-throated Leaftosser "Sclerurus guatemalensis"
*Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper "Lochmias nematura"

Woodcreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dendrocolaptidae

The Dendrocolaptidae are brownish birds and maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. There are 57 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Panama.

*Tawny-winged Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla anabatina"
*Plain-brown Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla fuliginosa"
*Ruddy Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla homochroa"
*Long-tailed Woodcreeper "Deconychura longicauda"
*Olivaceous Woodcreeper "Sittasomus griseicapillus"
*Wedge-billed Woodcreeper "Glyphorynchus spirurus"
*Strong-billed Woodcreeper "Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus"
*Northern Barred-Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae"
*Black-banded Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes picumnus"
*Cocoa Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus susurrans"
*Black-striped Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus"
*Spotted Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus erythropygius"
*Straight-billed Woodcreeper "Dendroplex picus"
*Streak-headed Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes souleyetii"
*Spot-crowned Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes affinis"
*Red-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus trochilirostris"
*Brown-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus pusillus"

Typical antbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thamnophilidae

The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds, and tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat the small invertebrates that leave hiding to flee the ants.Many species lack bright colour; brown, black and white being the dominant tones. There are about 212 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Panama.

*Fasciated Antshrike "Cymbilaimus lineatus"
*Great Antshrike "Taraba major"
*Barred Antshrike "Thamnophilus doliatus"
*Black-hooded Antshrike "Thamnophilus bridgesi"
*Black Antshrike "Thamnophilus nigriceps"
*Western Slaty-Antshrike "Thamnophilus atrinucha"
*Speckled Antshrike "Xenornis setifrons"
*Russet Antshrike "Thamnistes anabatinus"
*Plain Antvireo "Dysithamnus mentalis"
*Spot-crowned Antvireo "Dysithamnus puncticeps"
*Moustached Antwren "Myrmotherula ignota"
*Pacific Antwren "Myrmotherula pacifica"
*Checker-throated Antwren "Myrmotherula fulviventris"
*White-flanked Antwren "Myrmotherula axillaris"
*Slaty Antwren "Myrmotherula schisticolor"
*Rufous-winged Antwren "Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus"
*Dot-winged Antwren "Microrhopias quixensis"
*White-fringed Antwren "Formicivora grisea"
*Rufous-rumped Antwren "Terenura callinota"
*Dusky Antbird "Cercomacra tyrannina"
*Jet Antbird "Cercomacra nigricans"
*Bare-crowned Antbird "Gymnocichla nudiceps"
*White-bellied Antbird "Myrmeciza longipes"
*Chestnut-backed Antbird "Myrmeciza exsul"
*Dull-mantled Antbird "Myrmeciza laemosticta"
*Immaculate Antbird "Myrmeciza immaculata"
*Bicolored Antbird "Gymnopithys leucaspis"
*Wing-banded Antbird "Myrmornis torquata"
*Spotted Antbird "Hylophylax naevioides"
*Ocellated Antbird "Phaenostictus mcleannani"

Antthrushes and antpittas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Formicariidae

The ground antbirds are a family comprising the antthrushes and antpittas. Antthrushes resemble small rails while antpittas resemble the true pittas with longish strong legs, very short tails and stout bills. There are about 63 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-headed Antthrush "Formicarius nigricapillus"
*Black-faced Antthrush "Formicarius analis"
*Rufous-breasted Antthrush "Formicarius rufipectus"
*Black-crowned Antpitta "Pittasoma michleri"
*Scaled Antpitta "Grallaria guatimalensis"
*Streak-chested Antpitta "Hylopezus perspicillatus"
*Fulvous-bellied Antpitta "Hylopezus dives"
*Ochre-breasted Antpitta "Grallaricula flavirostris"

Tapaculos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Rhinocryptidae

The tapaculos are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found in South America. They are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed towards the head. There are 56 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Panama.

*Pale-throated Tapaculo "Scytalopus panamensis"
*Silvery-fronted Tapaculo "Scytalopus argentifrons"
*Choco Tapaculo "Scytalopus chocoensis"

Cotingas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cotingidae

The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges of tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles. There are 71 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Panama

*Sharpbill "Oxyruncus cristatus"
*Rufous Piha "Lipaugus unirufus"
*Lovely Cotinga "Cotinga amabilis" (A)
*Turquoise Cotinga "Cotinga ridgwayi"
*Blue Cotinga "Cotinga nattererii"
*Black-tipped Cotinga "Carpodectes hopkei"
*Yellow-billed Cotinga "Carpodectes antoniae"
*Snowy Cotinga "Carpodectes nitidus"
*Purple-throated Fruitcrow "Querula purpurata"
*Bare-necked Umbrellabird "Cephalopterus glabricollis"
*Three-wattled Bellbird "Procnias tricarunculata"

Manakins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pipridae

The manakins are a family bird species of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly coloured, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects. There are 57 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Panama.

*Green Manakin "Chloropipo holochlora"
*White-collared Manakin "Manacus candei"
*Orange-collared Manakin "Manacus aurantiacus"
*Golden-collared Manakin "Manacus vitellinus"
*White-ruffed Manakin "Corapipo altera"
*Lance-tailed Manakin "Chiroxiphia lanceolata"
*White-crowned Manakin "Dixiphia pipra"
*Blue-crowned Manakin "Lepidothrix coronata"
*Golden-headed Manakin "Pipra erythrocephala"
*Red-capped Manakin "Pipra mentalis"
*Gray-headed Piprites "Pipirites griseiceps"
*Sapayoa "Sapayoa aenigma"
*Thrush-like Schiffornis "Schiffornis turdinus"

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas and 103 species which occur in Panama.

*Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet "Ornithion semiflavum"
*Brown-capped Tyrannulet "Ornithion brunneicapillus"
*Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet "Camptostoma obsoletum"
*Mouse-colored Tyrannulet "Phaeomyias murina"
*Yellow Tyrannulet "Capsiempis flaveola"
*Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet "Tyrannulus elatus"
*Forest Elaenia "Myiopagis gaimardii"
*Gray Elaenia "Myiopagis caniceps"
*Greenish Elaenia "Myiopagis viridicata"
*Yellow-bellied Elaenia "Elaenia flavogaster"
*Lesser Elaenia "Elaenia chiriquensis"
*Mountain Elaenia "Elaenia frantzii"
*Torrent Tyrannulet "Serpophaga cinerea"
*Ochre-bellied Flycatcher "Mionectes oleagineus"
*Olive-striped Flycatcher "Mionectes olivaceus"
*Sepia-capped Flycatcher "Leptopogon amaurocephalus"
*Slaty-capped Flycatcher "Leptopogon superciliaris"
*Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant "Pseudotriccus pelzelni"
*Yellow-green Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes flavovirens" (E)
*Rufous-browed Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes superciliaris"
*White-fronted Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias zeledoni"
*Sooty-headed Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias griseiceps"
*Paltry Tyrannulet "Zimmerius vilissimus"
*Northern Scrub-Flycatcher "Sublegatus arenarum"
*Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant "Myiornis atricapillus"
*Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant "Lophotriccus pileatus"
*Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant "Atalotriccus pilaris"
*Northern Bentbill "Oncostoma cinereigulare"
*Southern Bentbill "Oncostoma olivaceum"
*Slate-headed Tody-Tyrant "Poecilotriccus sylvia"
*Common Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum cinereum"
*Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum nigriceps"
*Brownish Flycatcher "Cnipodectes subbrunneus"
*Eye-ringed Flatbill "Rhynchocyclus brevirostris"
*Olivaceous Flatbill "Rhynchocyclus olivaceus"
*Yellow-olive Flycatcher "Tolmomyias sulphurescens"
*Yellow-margined Flycatcher "Tolmomyias assimilis"
*Yellow-breasted Flycatcher "Tolmomyias flaviventris"
*Stub-tailed Spadebill "Platyrinchus cancrominus"
*Golden-crowned Spadebill "Platyrinchus coronatus"
*White-throated Spadebill "Platyrinchus mystaceus"
*Northern Royal-Flycatcher "Onychorhynchus mexicanus"
*Bran-colored Flycatcher "Myiophobus fasciatus"
*Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher "Terenotriccus erythrurus"
*Tawny-breasted Flycatcher "Myiobius villosus"
*Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher "Myiobius sulphureipygius"
*Black-tailed Flycatcher "Myiobius atricaudus"
*Black-billed Flycatcher "Aphanotriccus audax"
*Tufted Flycatcher "Mitrephanes phaeocercus"
*Olive-sided Flycatcher "Contopus cooperi"
*Dark Pewee "Contopus lugubris"
*Ochraceous Pewee "Contopus ochraceus"
*Western Wood-Pewee "Contopus sordidulus"
*Eastern Wood-Pewee "Contopus virens"
*Tropical Pewee "Contopus cinereus"
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher "Empidonax flaviventris"
*Acadian Flycatcher "Empidonax virescens"
*Alder Flycatcher "Empidonax alnorum"
*Willow Flycatcher "Empidonax traillii"
*White-throated Flycatcher "Empidonax albigularis"
*Least Flycatcher "Empidonax minimus" (A)
*Hammond's Flycatcher "Empidonax hammondi" (A)
*Yellowish Flycatcher "Empidonax flavescens"
*Black-capped Flycatcher "Empidonax atriceps"
*Black Phoebe "Sayornis nigricans"
*Vermilion Flycatcher "Pyrocephalus rubinus" (A)
*Pied Water-Tyrant "Fluvicola pica"
*Long-tailed Tyrant "Colonia colonus"
*Cattle Tyrant "Machetornis rixosus" (A)
*Bright-rumped Attila "Attila spadiceus"
*Speckled Mourner "Laniocera rufescens"
*Sirystes "Sirystes sibilator"
*Rufous Mourner "Rhytipterna holerythra"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher "Myiarchus tuberculifer"
*Panama Flycatcher "Myiarchus panamensis"
*Great Crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus crinitus"
*Lesser Kiskadee "Philohydor lictor"
*Great Kiskadee "Pitangus sulphuratus"
*Boat-billed Flycatcher "Megarynchus pitangua"
*Rusty-margined Flycatcher "Myiozetetes cayanensis"
*Social Flycatcher "Myiozetetes similis"
*Gray-capped Flycatcher "Myiozetetes granadensis"
*White-ringed Flycatcher "Conopias albovittata"
*Golden-bellied Flycatcher "Myiodynastes hemichrysus"
*Golden-crowned Flycatcher "Myiodynastes chrysocephalus"
*Streaked Flycatcher "Myiodynastes maculatus"
*Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher "Myiodynastes luteiventris"
*Piratic Flycatcher "Legatus leucophaius"
*Tropical Kingbird "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Western Kingbird "Tyrannus verticalis" (A)
*Eastern Kingbird "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Gray Kingbird "Tyrannus dominicensis"
*Scissor-tailed Flycatcher "Tyrannus forficatus"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher "Tyrannus savana"
*Barred Becard "Pachyramphus versicolor"
*Cinnamon Becard "Pachyramphus cinnamomeus"
*White-winged Becard "Pachyramphus polychopterus"
*Black-and-white Becard "Pachyramphus albogriseus"
*Cinereous Becard "Pachyramphus rufus"
*Rose-throated Becard "Pachyramphus aglaiae"
*One-colored Becard "Pachyramphus homochrous"
*Masked Tityra "Tityra semifasciata"
*Black-crowned Tityra "Tityra inquisitor"

wallows and martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Panama.

*Brown-chested Martin "Progne tapera"
*Purple Martin "Progne subis"
*Gray-breasted Martin "Progne chalybea"
*Southern Martin "Progne elegans" (A)
*Tree Swallow "Tachycineta bicolor" (A)
*Mangrove Swallow "Tachycineta albilinea"
*White-winged Swallow "Tachycineta albiventer" (A)
*Violet-green Swallow "Tachycineta thalassina" (A)
*Blue-and-white Swallow "Notiochelidon cyanoleuca"
*White-thighed Swallow "Neochelidon tibialis"
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow "Stelgidopteryx serripennis"
*Southern Rough-winged Swallow "Stelgidopteryx ruficollis"
*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Cave Swallow "Petrochelidon fulva" (A)
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"

Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Yellowish Pipit "Anthus lutescens"

ilky-flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ptilogonatidae

The silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America, although the range of one species. They are related to waxwings, and like that group have a soft silky plumage, usually grey or pale yellow in colour. They have small crests. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-and-yellow Silky-flycatcher "Phainoptila melanoxantha"
*Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher "Ptilogonys caudatus"

Waxwings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*Cedar Waxwing "Bombycilla cedrorum" (A)

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*American Dipper "Cinclus mexicanus"

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 23 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-capped Donacobius "Donacobius atricapilla"
*White-headed Wren "Campylorhynchus albobrunneus"
*Band-backed Wren "Campylorhynchus zonatus"
*Black-throated Wren "Thryothorus atrogularis"
*Sooty-headed Wren "Thryothorus spadix"
*Black-bellied Wren "Thryothorus fasciatoventris"
*Rufous-breasted Wren "Thryothorus rutilus"
*Riverside Wren "Thryothorus semibadius"
*Bay Wren "Thryothorus nigricapillus"
*Stripe-breasted Wren "Thryothorus thoracicus"
*Stripe-throated Wren "Thryothorus leucopogon"
*Rufous-and-white Wren "Thryothorus rufalbus"
*Plain Wren "Thryothorus modestus"
*Canebrake Wren "Thryothorus zeledoni"
*Buff-breasted Wren "Thryothorus leucotis"
*House Wren "Troglodytes aedon"
*Ochraceous Wren "Troglodytes ochraceus"
*Sedge Wren "Cistothorus platensis"
*Timberline Wren "Thryorchilus browni"
*White-breasted Wood-Wren "Henicorhina leucosticta"
*Gray-breasted Wood-Wren "Henicorhina leucophrys"
*Scaly-breasted Wren "Microcerculus marginatus"
*Song Wren "Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus"

Mockingbirds and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns . There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Gray Catbird "Dumetella carolinensis"
*Tropical Mockingbird "Mimus gilvus" (I)

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-faced Solitaire "Myadestes melanops"
*Varied Solitaire "Myadestes coloratus"
*Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus aurantiirostris"
*Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus fuscater"
*Black-billed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus gracilirostris"
*Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus frantzii"
*Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush "Catharus mexicanus"
*Veery "Catharus fuscescens"
*Gray-cheeked Thrush "Catharus minimus"
*Swainson's Thrush "Catharus ustulatus"
*Wood Thrush "Hylocichla mustelina"
*Sooty Robin "Turdus nigrescens"
*Mountain Robin "Turdus plebejus"
*Pale-vented Thrush "Turdus obsoletus"
*Clay-colored Robin "Turdus grayi"
*White-throated Thrush "Turdus assimilis"

Gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish grey in colour, and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, and nest in bushes or trees. There are 15 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Panama.

*Tawny-faced Gnatwren "Microbates cinereiventris"
*Long-billed Gnatwren "Ramphocaenus melanurus"
*Tropical Gnatcatcher "Polioptila plumbea"
*Slate-throated Gnatcatcher "Polioptila schistaceigula"

Crows and jays

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Panama.

*Black-chested Jay "Cyanocorax affinis"
*Brown Jay "Cyanocorax morio"
*Azure-hooded Jay "Cyanolyca cucullata"
*Silvery-throated Jay "Cyanolyca argentigula"
*Common Raven "Corvus corax" (A)

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*European Starling "Sturnus vulgaris" (A)

Vireos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Panama.

*White-eyed Vireo "Vireo griseus" (A)
*Yellow-throated Vireo "Vireo flavifrons"
*Blue-headed Vireo "Vireo solitarius" (A)
*Yellow-winged Vireo "Vireo carmioli"
*Warbling Vireo "Vireo gilvus" (A)
*Brown-capped Vireo "Vireo leucophrys"
*Philadelphia Vireo "Vireo philadelphicus"
*Red-eyed Vireo "Vireo olivaceus"
*Yellow-green Vireo "Vireo flavoviridis"
*Black-whiskered Vireo "Vireo altiloquus" (A)
*Scrub Greenlet "Hylophilus flavipes"
*Tawny-crowned Greenlet "Hylophilus ochraceiceps"
*Golden-fronted Greenlet "Hylophilus aurantiifrons"
*Lesser Greenlet "Hylophilus decurtatus"
*Green Shrike-Vireo "Vireolanius pulchellus"
*Yellow-browed Shrike-Vireo "Vireolanius eximius"
*Rufous-browed Peppershrike "Cyclarhis gujanensis"

New World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 54 species which occur in Panama.

*Blue-winged Warbler "Vermivora pinus"
*Golden-winged Warbler "Vermivora chrysoptera"
*Tennessee Warbler "Vermivora peregrina"
*Nashville Warbler "Vermivora ruficapilla" (A)
*Virginia's Warbler "Vermivora virginiae" (A)
*Flame-throated Warbler "Parula gutturalis"
*Northern Parula "Parula americana" (A)
*Tropical Parula "Parula pitiayumi"
*Yellow Warbler "Dendroica petechia"
*Chestnut-sided Warbler "Dendroica pensylvanica"
*Magnolia Warbler "Dendroica magnolia"
*Cape May Warbler "Dendroica tigrina"
*Black-throated Blue Warbler "Dendroica caerulescens" (A)
*Yellow-rumped Warbler "Dendroica coronata"
*Golden-cheeked Warbler "Dendroica chrysoparia" (A)
*Black-throated Green Warbler "Dendroica virens"
*Townsend's Warbler "Dendroica townsendi" (A)
*Hermit Warbler "Dendroica occidentalis" (A)
*Blackburnian Warbler "Dendroica fusca"
*Yellow-throated Warbler "Dendroica dominica" (A)
*Prairie Warbler "Dendroica discolor" (A)
*Palm Warbler "Dendroica palmarum"
*Bay-breasted Warbler "Dendroica castanea"
*Blackpoll Warbler "Dendroica striata" (A)
*Cerulean Warbler "Dendroica cerulea"
*Black-and-white Warbler "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Prothonotary Warbler "Protonotaria citrea"
*Worm-eating Warbler "Helmitheros vermivorus"
*Swainson's Warbler "Lymnothlypis swainsonii" (A)
*Ovenbird "Seiurus aurocapilla"
*Northern Waterthrush "Seiurus noveboracensis"
*Louisiana Waterthrush "Seiurus motacilla"
*Kentucky Warbler "Oporornis formosus"
*Connecticut Warbler "Oporornis agilis" (A)
*Mourning Warbler "Oporornis philadelphia"
*MacGillivray's Warbler "Oporornis tolmiei" (A)
*Common Yellowthroat "Geothlypis trichas" (A)
*Olive-crowned Yellowthroat "Geothlypis semiflava"
*Masked Yellowthroat "Geothlypis aequinoctialis"
*Gray-crowned Yellowthroat "Geothlypis poliocephala"
*Hooded Warbler "Wilsonia citrina"
*Wilson's Warbler "Wilsonia pusilla"
*Canada Warbler "Wilsonia canadensis"
*Slate-throated Redstart "Myioborus miniatus"
*Collared Redstart "Myioborus torquatus"
*Golden-crowned Warbler "Basileuterus culicivorus"
*Rufous-capped Warbler "Basileuterus rufifrons"
*Black-cheeked Warbler "Basileuterus melanogenys"
*Pirre Warbler "Basileuterus ignotus"
*Three-striped Warbler "Basileuterus tristriatus"
*Buff-rumped Warbler "Basileuterus fulvicauda"
*Wrenthrush "Zeledonia coronata"
*Yellow-breasted Chat "Icteria virens"

Bananaquit

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus "Coereba" (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct.

*Bananaquit "Coereba flaveola"

Tanagers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species worldwide and 66 species which occur in Panama.

*White-eared Conebill "Conirostrum leucogenys"
*Common Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus ophthalmicus"
*Tacarcuna Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus tacarcunae"
*Pirre Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus inornatus" (E)
*Sooty-capped Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus pileatus"
*Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus flavigularis"
*Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager "Chlorospingus canigularis"
*Yellow-backed Tanager "Hemithraupis flavicollis"
*Black-and-yellow Tanager "Chrysothlypis chrysomelaena"
*Rosy Thrush-Tanager "Rhodinocichla rosea"
*Dusky-faced Tanager "Mitrospingus cassinii"
*Olive Tanager "Chlorothraupis carmioli"
*Lemon-spectacled Tanager "Chlorothraupis olivacea"
*Gray-headed Tanager "Eucometis penicillata"
*White-throated Shrike-Tanager "Lanio leucothorax"
*Sulphur-rumped Tanager "Heterospingus rubrifrons"
*Scarlet-browed Tanager "Heterospingus xanthopygius"
*White-shouldered Tanager "Tachyphonus luctuosus"
*Tawny-crested Tanager "Tachyphonus delatrii"
*White-lined Tanager "Tachyphonus rufus"
*Red-crowned Ant-Tanager "Habia rubica"
*Red-throated Ant-Tanager "Habia fuscicauda"
*Hepatic Tanager "Piranga flava"
*Scarlet Tanager "Piranga olivacea"
*Summer Tanager "Piranga rubra"
*Western Tanager "Piranga ludoviciana"
*Flame-colored Tanager "Piranga bidentata"
*White-winged Tanager "Piranga leucoptera"
*Crimson-collared Tanager "Ramphocelus sanguinolentus"
*Crimson-backed Tanager "Ramphocelus dimidiatus"
*Passerini's Tanager "Ramphocelus passerinii"
*Cherrie's Tanager "Ramphocelus costaricensis"
*Flame-rumped Tanager "Ramphocelus flammigerus"
*Blue-gray Tanager "Thraupis episcopus"
*Palm Tanager "Thraupis palmarum"
*Blue-and-gold Tanager "Bangsia arcaei"
*Yellow-crowned Euphonia "Euphonia luteicapilla"
*Thick-billed Euphonia "Euphonia laniirostris"
*Yellow-throated Euphonia "Euphonia hirundinacea" (A)
*Elegant Euphonia "Euphonia elegantissima"
*Spot-crowned Euphonia "Euphonia imitans"
*Fulvous-vented Euphonia "Euphonia fulvicrissa"
*Olive-backed Euphonia "Euphonia gouldi"
*White-vented Euphonia "Euphonia minuta"
*Tawny-capped Euphonia "Euphonia anneae"
*Orange-bellied Euphonia "Euphonia xanthogaster"
*Yellow-collared Chlorophonia "Chlorophonia flavirostris" (A)
*Golden-browed Chlorophonia "Chlorophonia callophrys"
*Plain-colored Tanager "Tangara inornata"
*Gray-and-gold Tanager "Tangara palmeri"
*Emerald Tanager "Tangara florida"
*Silver-throated Tanager "Tangara icterocephala"
*Speckled Tanager "Tangara guttata"
*Bay-headed Tanager "Tangara gyrola"
*Rufous-winged Tanager "Tangara lavinia"
*Golden-hooded Tanager "Tangara larvata"
*Spangle-cheeked Tanager "Tangara dowii"
*Green-naped Tanager "Tangara fucosa" (E)
*Scarlet-thighed Dacnis "Dacnis venusta"
*Blue Dacnis "Dacnis cayana"
*Viridian Dacnis "Dacnis viguieri"
*Green Honeycreeper "Chlorophanes spiza"
*Shining Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes lucidus"
*Purple Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes caeruleus"
*Red-legged Honeycreeper "Cyanerpes cyaneus"
*Swallow-Tanager "Tersina viridis"

Buntings, sparrows, seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 35 species which occur in Panama.

*Blue-black Grassquit "Volatinia jacarina"
*Slate-colored Seedeater "Sporophila schistacea"
*Variable Seedeater "Sporophila corvina"
*White-collared Seedeater "Sporophila torqueola"
*Lesson's Seedeater "Sporophila bouvronides" (A)
*Lined Seedeater "Sporophila lineola" (A)
*Yellow-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila nigricollis"
*Ruddy-breasted Seedeater "Sporophila minuta"
*Nicaraguan Seed-Finch "Oryzoborus nuttingi"
*Thick-billed Seed-Finch "Oryzoborus funereus"
*Blue Seedeater "Amaurospiza concolor"
*Yellow-faced Grassquit "Tiaris olivacea"
*Slaty Finch "Haplospiza rustica"
*Peg-billed Finch "Acanthidops bairdii"
*Slaty Flowerpiercer "Diglossa plumbea"
*Saffron Finch "Sicalis flaveola" (I)
*Grassland Yellow-Finch "Sicalis luteola"
*Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch "Emberizoides herbicola"
*Sooty-faced Finch "Lysurus crassirostris"
*Yellow-thighed Finch "Pselliophorus tibialis"
*Yellow-green Finch "Pselliophorus luteoviridis" (E)
*Large-footed Finch "Pezopetes capitalis"
*White-naped Brush-Finch "Atlapetes albinucha"
*Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch "Buarremon brunneinucha"
*Stripe-headed Brush-Finch "Buarremon torquatus"
*Orange-billed Sparrow "Arremon aurantiirostris"
*Black-striped Sparrow "Arremonops conirostris"
*Lark Sparrow "Chondestes grammacus" (A)
*Savannah Sparrow "Passerculus sandwichensis" (A)
*Grasshopper Sparrow "Ammodramus savannarum"
*Lincoln's Sparrow "Melospiza lincolnii" (A)
*White-crowned Sparrow "Zonotrichia leucophrys" (A)
*Rufous-collared Sparrow "Zonotrichia capensis"
*Dark-eyed Junco "Junco hyemalis" (A)
*Volcano Junco "Junco vulcani"

altators, cardinals and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Panama.

*Streaked Saltator "Saltator striatipectus"
*Grayish Saltator "Saltator coerulescens"
*Buff-throated Saltator "Saltator maximus"
*Black-headed Saltator "Saltator atriceps"
*Slate-colored Grosbeak "Saltator grossus"
*Black-faced Grosbeak "Caryothraustes poliogaster"
*Yellow-green Grosbeak "Caryothraustes canadensis"
*Black-thighed Grosbeak "Pheucticus tibialis"
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
*Blue-black Grosbeak "Cyanocompsa cyanoides"
*Blue Grosbeak "Passerina caerulea"
*Indigo Bunting "Passerina cyanea"
*Painted Bunting "Passerina ciris"
*Dickcissel "Spiza americana"

Troupials and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Panama.

*Bobolink "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Red-breasted Blackbird "Sturnella militaris"
*Eastern Meadowlark "Sturnella magna"
*Yellow-headed Blackbird "Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus" (A)
*Great-tailed Grackle "Quiscalus mexicanus"
*Shiny Cowbird "Molothrus bonariensis"
*Bronzed Cowbird "Molothrus aeneus"
*Giant Cowbird "Molothrus oryzivorus"
*Yellow-backed Oriole "Icterus chrysater"
*Yellow-tailed Oriole "Icterus mesomelas"
*Orange-crowned Oriole "Icterus auricapillus"
*Baltimore Oriole "Icterus galbula"
*Orchard Oriole "Icterus spurius"
*Black-cowled Oriole "Icterus prosthemelas"
*Yellow-billed Cacique "Amblycercus holosericeus"
*Yellow-rumped Cacique "Cacicus cela"
*Scarlet-rumped Cacique "Cacicus uropygialis"
*Crested Oropendola "Psarocolius decumanus"
*Chestnut-headed Oropendola "Psarocolius wagleri"
*Black Oropendola "Psarocolius guatimozinus"
*Montezuma Oropendola "Gymnostinops montezuma"

iskins and goldfinches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Panama.

*Yellow-bellied Siskin "Carduelis xanthogastra"
*Lesser Goldfinch "Carduelis psaltria"
*American Goldfinch "Carduelis tristis" (A)

Old World sparrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Panama.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus" (I)

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Panama.

*Nutmeg Mannikin "Lonchura punctulata" (I)
*Black-headed Munia "Lonchura malacca" (I)

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=pa&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Panama
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 26 April
accessyear = 2007

* Montañez, Darién (1997-2007). " [http://www.geocities.com/xenornis/ Xenornis] ". Retrieved on November 7 2007.
* Panama Audubon Society. " [http://www.pananet.com/audubon/panamabirds.pdf Checklist of the birds of Panama] ". Retrieved on November 7 2007.
* Ridgely, Robert S. & Gwynne, John A., Jr. (1989). "A Guide to the Birds of Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras", 2nd edition. Princeton University Press, Oxford.


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