- Cuban Rumba
Rumba (Rumba Cubana) Stylistic origins African music and drumming, Spanish music Cultural origins Late 1800s in Cuba Typical instruments conga, claves, Shaker (percussion) Mainstream popularity Some popularity in Cuba, growing popularity in Latino communities in the United States Subgenres Yambu - Columbia - Guaguanco Regional scenes Matanzas, Havana
In Cuban music, Rumba is a generic term covering a variety of musical rhythms and associated dances. The rumba has its influences in the music brought to Cuba by Africans brought to Cuba as slaves as well as Spanish colonizers. Rhythmically, rumba is based on the five-stroke pattern called clave (rhythm) and the inherent structure it conveys.
Rumba developed in the Cuban provinces of Havana and Matanzas in the late 19th century. As an energetic Afro-Cuban dance, Rumba was often suppressed and restricted because it was viewed as dangerous and lewd.
Afro-Cuban rumba is entirely different than Ballroom Rumba, or the African style of pop music called rumba. Rumba developed in rural Cuba, and is still danced in Havana, Mantanzas and other Cuban cities as well as rural areas, especially those with a significant or predominant African community, although now it is infused with influences from Jazz and Hip hop.
A Cuban Rumba song often begins with the soloist singing meaningless syllables, which is called 'diana(s)'. He then may proceed to improvise lyrics stating the reason for holding the present Rumba ('decimar'; span.: to make ten-line stanzas), or instead tunes into a more or less fixed song such as: "Ave Maria Morena" (Yambú, Anónimo), "Llora Como Lloré" (Guaguancó, S. Ramirez), "Cuba Linda, Cuba Hermosa" (Guaguancó, R.Deza), "China de Oro (Laye Laye)" (Columbia), "Malanga (Murió)" (Columbia)".
Cuban Rumba can be broken down into three types: Yambú (the oldest and slowest style), Columbia, and Guaguancó (the most popular style, which can be heard in songs such as "Quimbara" by Celia Cruz).
Yambú is the oldest and slowest known style of rumba, sometimes called the Old People's Rumba. It uses the slowest beat of the three Rumba styles and incorporates movements feigning frailty. It can be danced alone (especially by women) or by men and women together. Although male dancers may flirt with female dancers during the dance, they do not use the vacunao of Rumba Guaguancó.
Rumba Guaguancó is faster than yambú, with more complex rhythms, and involves overtly flirtatious movements between a man and a woman in the roles of "Rooster" and "Hen".The woman both entices and "protects herself" from the man, who tries to catch the woman off-guard with a vacunao—tagging her with the flip of a handkerchief or by throwing his arm, leg or pelvis in her direction in an act of symbolic sexual contact. To defend herself, she may cover with her hand, or use her skirt to protect her pelvis and whip the sexual energy away from her body. Guaguancó most likely inherited the idea of the 'vacunao' from yuca or macuta dances, which were both brought to Cuba by Bantú ethnic groups.
Musical Form of Rumba Guaguancó
The Rumba Guaguancó consists of two main sections. The first, the canto, features the lead vocalist, who performs an extended text that is sometimes partially improvised. Underneath the vocal three interlocking rhythmic parts are played: one or two drummers playing on differently tuned congas perform an ostinato (recurring pattern), while another musician taps a pattern on the side of one drum with two hard sticks, called palitos. Another, usually the lead singer, plays a standardized clave part. This section usually lasts a few minutes, until the lead vocalist signals for the other singers to repeat a short refrain, in call and response. This signals the beginning of the second section, the montuno which features the dancers, as they engage in their "rooster and hen" antics, and also the band, with extended instrumental solos. Cuban music group Vocal Sampling has performed an all-vocal version of Rumba Guaguanco on the song "Conga Yambumba".
Rumba Columbia (not "Colombia") is a fast and energetic Rumba, with a 6/8 feel, which is often accompanied by a 6/8 (Spanish 'seis por ocho') beat struck on a hoe or a bell. It is assumed that the Columbia originated in hamlets in the interior of Cuba rather than the suburbs of the larger cities from where other types of Cuban Rumba stem. Solo, traditionally male, dancers provoke the drummers, especially the player of the smallest drum (Quinto, here also soloist drum), to play complex rhythms that they imitate through their creative and sometimes acrobatic movements. Men may also compete with other men to display their agility, strength, confidence and even sense of humor. All of these aforementioned aspects of Rumba Columbia are derived from a colonial Cuban martial art/dance called El Juego de Maní which is similar in origin and execution to Brazilian Capoeira. Columbia incorporates many movements derived from Congo dances as well as Spanish flamenco, and more recently dancers have incorporated breakdancing and hip hop moves. Women are also beginning to dance Columbia, too. According to Cuban percussionist, singer, composer and historian Gregorio 'el Goyo' Hernandez, who became widely accepted as a specialist in Cuban Rumba after his album "La Rumba Es Cubana: Su Historia" , Cuban Rumba Columbia has its origins in the drum patterns and chants of religious Cuban Abakuá traditions. Fact is that the 'cáscara' or 'palito' rhythm of Columbia, either beaten with two sticks on a piece of bamboo or on the rim of the congas, is the same as the one played in Abakuá chants, which is played with two small plaited rattles ('erikundi') filled with beans or similar objects. The drum patterns of the lowest conga drum is essentially the same in both Columbia and Abakuá as well.
- ^ Peñalosa, David (2009: 185-187). The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins. Redway, CA: Bembe Inc. ISBN 1-886502-80-3.
- ^ Daniel, Yvonne 1995. Rumba: dance and social change in contemporary Cuba. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.
- ^ Ritmo Afro-Cubano SMC 2519-A and 2520-B, circa 1948
- ^ http://www.zeno-okeanos.com/rumba-1947.html Earliest Known Audio Documentation of Folkloric Rumba
- ^ Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0415974402.
- ^ Manuel, Peter. Caribbean currents. Chapter 2: "Cuba". Philadelphia: Temple U. Press. 1995.
- ^ 2004, Unicornio No. 6004
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Rumba (dance) — Rumba is a dance organically related to the rumba genre of Afro Cuban music.Throughout the history one may trace several styles of dances called rumba .Some dancers weasel word considered rumba the most erotic and sensual Latin dance, for its… … Wikipedia
Rumba — Rumba, as understood in Cuba, is a family of percussive rhythms, song and dance which is entirely African in style, but Cuban in detail. It is secular, with no religious connexions. The details of its performance were worked out in Cuba, but… … Wikipedia
Cuban Pete — may refer to one of the following: Cuban Pete (film), a 1946 film starring Desi Arnaz and The King Sisters. Cuban Pete, the nickname of the Mambo dancer Pedro Aguilar Cuban Pete , a Cuban rumba song composed by Joseph Norman and José Norman, and… … Wikipedia
rumba — /rum beuh, room , roohm /, n., pl. rumbas / beuhz/, v., rumbaed / beuhd/, rumbaing / beuh ing/. n. 1. a dance, Cuban in origin and complex in rhythm. 2. an imitation or adaptation of this dance in the U.S. 3. music for this dance or in its rhythm … Universalium
Cuban Overture — is a symphonic overture or tone poem for orchestra composed by American composer George Gershwin. Originally titled Rumba, it was a result of a two week holiday which Gershwin took in Havana, Cuba in February 1932. Gershwin composed the piece in… … Wikipedia
rumba — (n.) 1919, from Cuban Sp. rumba, originally spree, carousal, derived from Sp. rumbo spree, party, earlier ostentation, pomp, leadership, perhaps originally the course of a ship, from rombo rhombus, in reference to the compass, which is marked… … Etymology dictionary
rumba — [room′bə, rum′bə; ] Sp [ ro͞om′bä] n. [AmSp, prob. of Afr orig.] 1. a dance of Cuban origin and complex rhythm 2. a modern ballroom adaptation of this, with strong rhythmic movements of the lower part of the body 3. music for, or in the rhythm of … English World dictionary
Cuban box drums — are known as Cajon (ka hōn), the Spanish word for box and in some cases drawer. In Cuban music it refers to a set of wooden box drums originally used to play Rumba Yambu and now incorporated into many other styles. A thin wooden panel forms the… … Wikipedia
Cuban motion — is characterized by a rhythmic swaying of the hips caused by the bending and straightening of the knees (though the knees remain soft slightly bent at all times). It is a style of movement which should be present in Latin American dances,… … Wikipedia
rumba — Cuban ballroom dance with pronounced hip movements Dance Styles … Phrontistery dictionary