Jatropha curcas

Taxobox
name = "Jatropha curcas"


image_width = 240px
image_caption =
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Embryophyta
classis = Spermatopsida
ordo = Malpighiales
familia = Euphorbiaceae
genus = "Jatropha"
species = "J. curcas"
binomial = "Jatropha curcas"
binomial_authority = Linnaeus 1753.

"Jatropha curcas", Barbados nut or Physic nut is a perennial poisonous shrub (normally up to 5 m high“"Jaropha curcas l." in Africa - Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the "Jatropha" System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa” [http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:N5nngDFKCRQJ:www.underutilized-species.org/Documents/PUBLICATIONS/jatropha_curcas_africa.pdf+IPGRI+jatropha+edible&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=uk&client=firefox-a] . ] ) belonging to the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family. It is an uncultivated non-food wild-species.

The plant, originating in Central America [ [http://www.jatropha.wur.nl/ Wageningen UR - Plant Research International - Research ] ] , whereas it has been spread to other tropical and subtropical countries as well [ http://www.jatropha.wur.nl , http://jatropha.org/system.htm] and is mainly grown in Asia and in Africa, where it is known as "Pourghère". It is used as a living fence to protect gardens and fields from animals. [ [http://jatropha.org/system.htm The "Jatropha" System with logo97] ]

It is resistant to a high degree of aridity (it can be planted even in the desert [ [http://www.biodieseltoday.com/whyjatropha.htm Why Jatropha curcas ? ] ] [ [http://www.ecoworld.com/home/articles2.cfm?tid=367 JATROPHA IN AFRICA. FIGHTING THE DESERT & CREATING WEALTH] ] [ [http://www.new-ag.info/07/03/focuson/focuson3.php Jatropha: creating desert solutions] ] ) and as such does not compete with food crops.

The seeds contain 30% oil [ [http://jatropha.org/system.htm The "Jatropha" System with logo97 ] ] that can be processed to produce a high-quality biodiesel fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine.

Botanical features

* Leaves: large green to pale-green leaves.
* Flowers: more female flowers give more number of seeds
*Fruits : fruits are produced in winter, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high.
*Seeds: the seeds become mature, when the capsule changes from green to yellow.

Cultivation

Cultivation is uncomplicated. "Jatropha curcas" can grow in wastelands and grows almost anywhere, even on , sandy and saline soils. It can on the poorest stony soil and grow in the s of rocks. Complete germination is achieved within 9 days.Adding manure during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favourable if applied after germination is achieved. However, it is usually multiplied by cuttings, because this gives faster results than multiplication by seeds. The flowers only develop terminally, so a good ramification (plants presenting many branches) produces the greatest amount of fruits. Another productivity factor is the ratio between female and male flowers within an inflorescence (usually about 1 female to 10 male flowers - more female flowers mean more fruits) ["Generative propagation of Jatropha curcas L. on Kalahari Sand." in [http://www.jatropha.de/Journal/index.htm The Jatropha Journal.] ] . "Jatropha curcas" thrives on a mere convert|250|mm|in|0|abbr=on of rain a year, and only during its first two years does it need to be watered in the closing days of the dry season. Ploughing and planting are not needed regularly, as this shrub has a life expectancy of approximately forty years. The use of pesticides and other polluting substances are not necessary, due to the pesticidal and fungicidal properties of the plant.

While "Jatropha" curcas starts yielding from 9–12 months time, the effective yield is obtained only after 2 - 3 years time. [ [http://www.jatrophaplantsource.com/plantation_and_yeild.html "Jatropha curcas" Plant Seed Suppliers and Exporters in India ] ]

If planted in hedges, the reported productivity of "Jatropha" is from 0.8 kg. to 1.0 kg. of seed per meter of live fence. The seed production is around 3.5 tons / hectare (Seed production ranges from about 0.4 tons per hectare in first year to over 5 tons per hectare after 3 years).

Propagation

"Jatropha curcas" has limited potential for vegetative propagation and is usually propagated by seed. It is cross-pollinated and propagation through seed leads to a lot of genetic variability in terms of growth, biomass, seed yield and oil content. Besides, the problems of low viability and recalcitrant nature of oil seeds limits the sexual propagation. On the other hand, clonal techniques will help in overcoming the biological problems hindering mass propagation of this tree-borne oilseed species.

"Jatropha curcas" can be propagated by seed as well as vegetatively. Propagation by seed. Vegetatively, this crop can be propagated by stem cuttings, grafting, budding as well as by air layering techniques. [Gadekar Kumarsukhadeo Prakash. (2006) Department of Forestry, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University Raipur (C.G.)M.Sc. Forestry Thesis "Vegetative propagation of Jatropha, Karanj and Mahua by Stem cuttings, Grafting, Budding and Air layering"] The investigation leads to the recommendation that cuttings should be taken preferably from juvenile plants and treated with 200 micro gram per litre of IBA to ensure the highest level of rooting in stem cuttings of "Jatropha curcas". Thus stem cuttings, grafting, budding and air layering methods of propagation could be used as a potential protocol for commercial propagation of "Jatropha curcas".

Processing

Seed extraction is made simple with the use of the Universal Nut Sheller, an appropriate technology designed by the Full Belly Project. [ [http://www.fullbellyproject.org - The Full Belly Project] ]

Oil content varies from 28% to 30% and 94% extraction, "'one hectare of plantation will give 1.6t (metric tonne) of oil if the soil is average. [ [http://www.svlele.com/jatropha_plant.htm The Cultivation of Jatropha Curcas ] ]

The oily seeds are processed into oil, which may be directly used to fuel combustion engines or may be subjected to transesterification to produce biodiesel. Jatropha oil is not suitable for human consumption, as it induces strong vomiting and diarrhea.

A colourant can also be derived from the seed.

Uses

Biodiesel

Other uses

(The information in this section is largely inspired from the Purdue University - Center for New Crops and Plants Products website [ [http://www.jatropha.de/ Purdue University-Center for New Crops and Plants Products] ] .)
*Leaves:The young leaves may be safely eaten, steamed or stewed. Cooked with goat meat, they are said to advantageously counteract its smell.:Pounded leaves are applied near horses' eyes to repel flies in India. HCN (Hydrogen cyanide) is present in the leaves.
*Flowers:The species is listed as a honey plant. HCN is present. [Little, Woodbury, and Wadsworth, 1974. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .
*Nuts:Sometimes roasted and eaten, although they are purgative.:They can be burned like candlenuts when strung on grass. HCN is present [Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .:Used as a contraceptive in South SudanList and Horhammer, 1969–1979. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .
*Seeds:Also used as a contraceptive in South Sudan.:The oil has been used for illumination, soap, candles, the adulteration of olive oil, and making Turkey red oil. Turkey red oil, also called sulphonated (or sulfated) castor oil, is the only oil that completely disperses in water. It is made by adding sulfuric acid to pure "Jatropha" oil [ [http://www.porwal.net/turkeyredoil.htm Turkey Red Oil - A defoaming & wetting agent, manure, lubricant ] ] . It was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary Soap, as this allows easy use for making bath oil products. It is used in formulating lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants [CastorOil.in – Home of Castor Oil Online [http://www.castoroil.in/reference/glossary/turkey_red_oil.html] ] . :The seeds in the zone around Misantla, Veracruz are very appreciated by the population as food once they have been boiled and roasted. It is unclear if this is due to the existence of a non-toxic variety of Jatropha in Mexico and Central America, or if the seeds become edible once processed by cooking [Birgit Schmook (cited by Henning), in “Assessment of the potential of "Jatropha curcas", (biodiesel tree) for energy production and other uses in developing countries.” Mike Benge (bengemike at aol dot com), Senior Agroforestry Officer, USAID (Ret.) July 2006 and updated August 2006 [http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:uvmrYVO5P1oJ:www.echotech.org/mambo/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_view%26gid%3D179+chicken+grazing+jatropha&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=uk&client=firefox-a] ] . :It is also similarly reported that Jatropha seeds are edible once the embryo has been removed [Levingston and Zamora (cited by IPGRI), in “Assessment of the potential of Jatropha curcas, (biodiesel tree) for energy production and other uses in developing countries.” Mike Benge (bengemike at aol dot com), Senior Agroforestry Officer, USAID (Ret.), July 2006 and updated August 2006. [http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:uvmrYVO5P1oJ:www.echotech.org/mambo/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_view%26gid%3D179+chicken+grazing+jatropha&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=uk&client=firefox-a] ] . Again it may be so because of these seeds coming from a local non-toxic variety. HCN is present.
*Roots:Their ashes are used as a salt substitute. HCN and Rotenone are present. [Morton, 1981.]
*Bark:Used as a fish poison. HCN is present. [Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .
*Latex:Strongly inhibits the watermelon mosaic virus [Tewari and Shukla, 1982. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .
*Sap:It stains linen. Sometimes used for marking [Mitchell and Rook, 1979. In [http://www.jatropha.de/ The Jatropha Website] ] .
*Shrub:Mexicans grow the shrub as a host for the lac insect, which is used in medicine as hepatoprotective and antiobesity drug. (Picture of lac insect here [http://www.sasionline.org/arthzoo/deslac.htm] ; drawing of insect, its larva and a colony here [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/Images/L_0005A.jpg] ):Used for erosion control [ [http://www.mail-archive.com/sustainablelorgbiofuel@sustainablelists.org/msg36875.html (biofuel) Jatropha book - New IPGRI Series Promotes Underutilized Crops.] ] , [“"Jaropha curcas l." in Africa - Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the "Jatropha" System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa” [http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:N5nngDFKCRQJ:www.underutilized-species.org/Documents/PUBLICATIONS/jatropha_curcas_africa.pdf+IPGRI+jatropha+edible&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=uk&client=firefox-a] .]

Other names

* Pinhão manso in Brazil
* Tempate in Nicaragua
* kasla also tubatuba or tubang bakod in Philippines
* Purging nut
* Jarak in Indonesia
* Mbono in Tanzania
* Pourghère in Francophone Africa
* Lahong Kwang in Cambodia

See also

* Jatropha
* Energy crop
* Non food crop

References

* Gadekar Kumarsukhadeo Prakash. (2006) Department of Forestry, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University Raipur (C.G.)M.Sc. Forestry Thesis "Vegetative propagation of Jatropha, Karanj and Mahua by Stem cuttings, Grafting, Budding and Air layering"

External links

* cite news
publisher=New York Times
title=Mali’s Farmers Discover a Weed’s Potential Power
url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/world/africa/09biofuel.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
date=September 9, 2007
accessdate=2007-09-09

* Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) [http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/next?taxa=&p_format=&p_ifx=&p_lang=en&v_tsn=28335 Jatropha Curcas]
* [http://www.underutilized-species.org/Documents/PUBLICATIONS/jatropha_curcas_africa.pdf “Jaropha curcas l. in Africa - Assessment of the impact of the dissemination of “the Jatropha System” on the ecology of the rural area and the social and economic situation of the rural population (target group) in selected countries in Africa”] . Annexe 7 of this paper presents an “Economic analysis of JCL utilization in Tanzania - Economy of Jatropha Utilization in Tanzania. Data from Kakute, 2003”, covering small-scale economic data on the collection of seeds, oil making and soap making.


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  • Jatropha Curcas — Physic Phys ic, n. [OE. phisike, fisike, OF. phisique, F. physique knowledge of nature, physics, L. physica, physice, fr. Gr. ?, fr. fysiko s natural, from fy sis nature, fr. ? to produce, grow, akin to E. be. See {Be}, and cf. {Physics},… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Jatropha curcas — Barbados Bar*ba dos or Barbadoes Bar*ba does, n. A West Indian island, giving its name to a disease, to a cherry, etc. [1913 Webster] {Barbados cherry} (Bot.), a genus of trees of the West Indies ({Malpighia}) with an agreeably acid fruit… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • Jatropha Curcas — L. Physic nut (E); Coquillo (S); Jaquillo (C,P); Kwiwala (Cu); Pinon (C,P) . The plant is used as a lilving fence post. the leaves are used as a fish poison and to fumigate for bedbugs. The poisonous nuts, mixed with palm oil to kill rats, or… …   EthnoBotanical Dictionary


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