- Lower Paleolithic
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the
Paleolithicor Old Stone Age. It spans the time from around 2.5 million years ago when the first evidence of craft and use of stone tools by hominids appears in the current archaeological record, until around 100,000 years ago when important evolutionary and technological changes ( behavioral modernity) ushered in the Middle Paleolithic.
The earliest hominids, known as
australopithecines (personified by the famous find of Lucy in Ethiopia) were not advanced stone toolusers and were likely to have been common prey for larger animals. Sometime before 3 million years ago the first fossils that may be called "Homo" appear in the archaeological record. They may have evolved from the australopithecines or come from another phylogenetic branch of the primates.
Homo habilis" remains, such as those from Olduvai Gorge, are much more recognisable as humans. Stone-tool use was developed by these people around 2.5 million years ago before they were replaced by " Homo erectus" about 1.5 million years ago. Members of " Homo habilis" used Olduwantools and had learned to control fireto support the hunter-gatherer method of subsistence.
The Oldowan tool making culture moved into
Europefrom Africa, where it had originated. In the north the Olduwan tradition (known in Europe as Abbevillian) split into two parallel traditions, the Clactonian, a flake tradition, and the Acheulean, a hand-axetradition. The Levalloistechnique for knapping flintdeveloped during this time.
The carrier species from Africa to Europe undoubtedly was
Homo erectus. This type of human is more clearly linked to the flake tradition, which spread across southern Europe through the Balkansto appear relatively densely in southeast Asia. Many Mousterianfinds in the Middle Paleolithichave been knapped using a Levallois technique, suggesting that Neanderthals evolved from Homo erectus.
Also in Europe appeared a type of human intermediate between Homo erectus and
Homo sapiens, typified by such fossils as those found at Swanscombe, Steinheim, Tautavel, and Vertesszollos("Homo palaeohungaricus"). Although it is unwise, given the current state of knowledge, to assume an exclusive association of any type of human with any specific type of tool, the intermediates seem responsible for the hand-axe tradition. Such an association does not imply that they necessarily evolved in Europe.
Flakes and axes coexisted in Europe, sometimes at the same site. The axe tradition, however, spread to a different range in the east. It appears in Arabia and India, but more importantly, it does not appear in southeast Asia.
At the site of
Monte Poggiolo, near Forlì, thousands of stone handaxes have been found that date from 800,000 years ago.
Control of fire by early humans
1 E13 s
* [http://cavemanforum.com/ Online community of people who strive to emulate the diet and fitness of Paleolithic humans]
* [http://www.selimhassan.com/010104.php Lower Old Stone Age] Lower Paleolithic in Ancient Egypt
* [http://www.iabrno.cz/agalerie/aagalery.htm Picture Gallery of the Paleolithic (reconstructional palaeoethnology)] , Libor Balák at the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archaeology in Brno, The Center for Paleolithic and Paleoethnological Research
* [http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html The First People and Culture] at Indiana University Bloomington
* [http://www.rawpaleoforum.com/ Online clan practicing the raw version of the paleolithic diet]
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Lower Paleolithic — noun the oldest part of the Paleolithic Age with the emergence of the hand ax; ended about 120,000 years ago • Instance Hypernyms: ↑time period, ↑period of time, ↑period • Part Holonyms: ↑Paleolithic Age, ↑Paleolithic, ↑Palaeolithic * * * … Useful english dictionary
Lower Paleolithic — /loh euhr/. See under Paleolithic. * * * … Universalium
Lower Paleolithic — Low′er Paleolith′ic [[t]ˈloʊ ər[/t]] n. ara See under Paleolithic … From formal English to slang
lower — lower1 [lō′ər] adj. [compar. of LOW1] 1. in a place or on a level below another [lower lip] 2. inferior in rank, authority, or dignity [the lower classes] 3. less in quantity, degree, value, intensity, etc. 4 … English World dictionary
Paleolithic — The Paleolithic This box: view · talk · edit ↑ before Homo (Plioc … Wikipedia
Paleolithic religion — The origin and early development of religion falls into the Paleolithic. Religious behaviour had certainly emerged by the Upper Paleolithic, before 30,000 years ago at the latest, [ Andre Leroi Gourhan and Annette Michelson, The Religion of the… … Wikipedia
Paleolithic Period — or Old Stone Age Ancient technological or cultural stage characterized by the use of rudimentary chipped stone tools. During the Lower Paleolithic (с 2,500,000–200,000 years ago), simple pebble tools and crude stone choppers were made by the… … Universalium
Paleolithic Europe — Homo erectus and Neanderthals settled in Paleolithic Europe long before the emergence of modern humans, Homo sapiens . The bones of the earliest Europeans are found in Dmanisi, Georgia, dated at 1.8 million years before the present. West Europe… … Wikipedia
Paleolithic — noun second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC • Syn: ↑Paleolithic Age, ↑Palaeolithic • Instance Hypernyms: ↑time period, ↑period of time, ↑period •… … Useful english dictionary
Paleolithic Age — noun second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC • Syn: ↑Paleolithic, ↑Palaeolithic • Instance Hypernyms: ↑time period, ↑period of time, ↑period • Part … Useful english dictionary