Transformer types

Circuit symbols
circuit symbol Transformer with two windings and iron core.
circuit symbol Step-down or step-up transformer. The symbol shows which winding has more turns, but not usually the exact ratio.
circuit symbol Transformer with three windings. The dots show the relative configuration of the windings.
circuit symbol Transformer with electrostatic screen preventing capacitive coupling between the windings.

A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes. Despite their design differences, the various types employ the same basic principle as discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday, and share several key functional parts.

Contents

Power transformers

Laminated core

Laminated Core Transformer

This is the most common type of transformer, widely used in appliances to convert mains voltage to low voltage to power electronics

  • Widely available in power ratings ranging from mW to MW
  • Insulated lamination minimizes eddy current losses
  • Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin, giving a high level of insulation between the windings
  • Rectangular core
  • Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs. Other shape pairs are sometimes used
  • Mu-metal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference)
  • A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings
  • Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in
  • Occasionally seen in low profile format for use in restricted spaces
  • Laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability

Toroidal

Toroidal Transformer

Doughnut shaped toroidal transformers are used to save space compared to EI cores, and sometimes to reduce external magnetic field. These use a ring shaped core, copper windings wrapped round this ring (and thus threaded through the ring during winding), and tape for insulation.

Toroidal transformers compared to EI core transformers:

  • Lower external magnetic field
  • Smaller for a given power rating
  • Higher cost in most cases, as winding requires more complex and slower equipment
  • Less robust
  • Central fixing is either
    • bolt, large metal washers and rubber pads
    • bolt and potting resin
  • Over-tightening the central fixing bolt may short the windings
  • Greater inrush current at switch-on

Autotransformer

An autotransformer has only a single winding, which is tapped at some point along the winding. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding, and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding, and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. For example, a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 V across the entire winding, and 115 volts between one end and the tap. It can be connected to a 230 V supply to drive 115 V equipment, or reversed to drive 230 V equipment from 115 V. Since the current in the windings is lower, the transformer is smaller, lighter cheaper and more efficient. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1, an autotransformer is cheaper, lighter, smaller and more efficient than an isolating (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. Large three-phase autotransformers are used in electric power distribution systems, for example, to interconnect 33 kV and 66 kV sub-transmission networks.

Variac

By exposing part of the winding coils of an autotransformer, and making the secondary connection through a sliding carbon brush, an autotransformer with a near-continuously variable turns ratio can be obtained, allowing for wide voltage adjustment in very small increments.

Induction regulator

The induction regulator is similar in design to a wound-rotor induction motor but it is essentially a transformer whose output voltage is varied by rotating its secondary relative to the primary i.e. rotating the angular position of the rotor. It can be seen as a power transformer exploiting rotating magnetic fields. The major advantage of the induction regulator is that unlike variacs, they are practical for transformers over 5 kVA. Hence, such regulators find windspread use in high-voltage laboratories. [1]

Stray field transformer

A stray field transformer has a significant stray field or a (sometimes adjustable) magnetic bypass in its core. It can act as a transformer with inherent current limitation due to its lower coupling between the primary and the secondary winding, which is unwanted in most other cases. The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under each load condition - even if the secondary is shorted.

Stray field transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (cold cathode fluorescent lamps, series connected up to 7.5 kV AC working voltage). It acts both as voltage transformer and magnetic ballast.

Polyphase transformers

Example of Y Y Connection

For three-phase power, three separate single-phase transformers can be used, or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. The most common connections are Y-Delta, Delta-Y, Delta-Delta and Y-Y. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded), the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Delta winding, the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections.

Resonant transformers

A 25 kV flyback transformer being used to generate an arc.

A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. The resonant coil, usually the secondary, acts as an inductor, and is connected in series with a capacitor. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current, such as a square or sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency, each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. Due to resonance, a very high voltage can develop across the secondary, until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages, and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine.

Examples:

Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediate-frequency amplifiers.

Constant voltage transformer

By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core, and installing a ferro-resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding), a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage relatively constant for varying primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. Ferro-resonant transformers run hotter than standard power transformers, because regulating action depends on core saturation, which reduces efficiency. The output waveform is heavily distorted unless careful measures are taken to prevent this. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply.

Ferrite core

Ferrite core power transformers are widely used in switched-mode power supplies (SMPSs). The powder core enables high-frequency operation, and hence much smaller size-to-power ratio than laminated-iron transformers.

Ferrite transformers are not used as power transformers at mains frequency since laminated iron cores cost less than an equivalent ferrite core.

Planar transformer

A planar transformer
Exploded view: the spiral primary "winding" on one side of the PCB (the spiral secondary "winding" is on the other side of the PCB)

Manufacturers etch spiral patterns on a printed circuit board to form the "windings" of a planar transformer. (Manufacturers literally wind pieces of wire on some core or bobbin to form the windings of other kinds of transformers).

Some planar transformers are commercially sold as discrete components—the transformer is the only thing on that printed circuit board. Other planar transformers are one of many components on one large printed circuit board.

  • much thinner than other transformers, for low-profile applications (even when several PCBs are stacked)[2]
  • almost all use a ferrite planar core

Oil cooled transformer

For large transformers used in power distribution or electrical substations, the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly, moved by convection. The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings, and in larger ratings an air-cooled radiator is used. Where a higher rating is required, or where the transformer is used in a building or underground, oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used.[3] Formerly, indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids; since these are now banned, substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used.

Cast resin transformers

Cast-resin power transformers encase the windings in epoxy resin. These transformers simplify installation since they are dry, without cooling oil, and so require no fire-proof valut for indoor installations. The epoxy protects the windings from dust and corrosive atmospheres. However, because the molds for casting the coils are only available in fixed sizes, the design of the transformers is less flexible, which may make them more costly if customized features (voltage, turns ratio, taps) are required.

Isolating Transformer

Most transformers isolate, meaning the secondary winding is not connected to the primary. But this isn't true of all transformers.

However the term 'isolating transformer' is normally applied to mains transformers providing isolation rather than voltage transformation. They are simply 1:1 laminated core transformers. Extra voltage tappings are sometimes included, but to earn the name 'isolating transformer' it is expected that they will usually be used at 1:1 ratio.

Instrument transformers

Current transformers

Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply

A current transformer (CT) is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry where they allow safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured.

Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. For example, a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.

Specially constructed wideband CTs are also used, usually with an oscilloscope, to measure high frequency waveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current; another, called a Rogowski coil, requires an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output.

Voltage transformers

Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT) are another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protective relays.

The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.

The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protective relays.

Some meters operate directly on the secondary service voltages at or below 600 V. VTs are typically used for higher voltages (for example, 765 kV for power transmission) , or where isolation is desired between the meter and the measured circuit.

Pulse transformers

A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is, pulses with fast rise and fall times and a relatively constant amplitude). Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits, often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high-voltage gates of power semiconductors. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar, particle accelerators, or other high energy pulsed power applications.

To minimise distortion of the pulse shape, a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance, and a high open-circuit inductance. In power-type pulse transformers, a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. For the same reason, high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary, because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors.

The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately, the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. Generally speaking, the larger this product, the larger and more expensive the transformer.

Pulse transformers by definition have a duty cycle of less than 0.5, whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be "dumped" out before the pulse is fired again.

RF transformers

There are several types of transformer used in radio frequency (RF) work. Steel laminations are not suitable for RF.

Air-core transformers

These are used for high frequency work. The lack of a core means very low inductance. Such transformers may be nothing more than a few turns of wire soldered onto a printed circuit board.

Ferrite-core transformers

Widely used in intermediate frequency (IF) stages in superheterodyne radio receivers. are mostly tuned transformers, containing a threaded ferrite slug that is screwed in or out to adjust IF tuning. The transformers are usually canned for stability and to reduce interference.

Transmission-line transformers

For radio frequency use, transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line, sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable, wound around ferrite or other types of core. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9, 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique.

The core material increases the inductance dramatically, thereby raising its Q factor. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.

Baluns

Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation.

Audio transformers

Transformers in a tube amplifier. Output transformers are on the left. The power supply toroidal transformer is on right.

Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used; electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design.

Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals (e.g. bass guitar) to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.

A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers, but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage; the speakers require high current at low voltage.) Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all.

For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required; high power handling increases the required core size. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. All this makes for an expensive component.

Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers, but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.

Loudspeaker transformers

In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses, loudspeaker transformers can be used to allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher-than normal loudspeaker voltages. This application is common in industrial public address applications. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage speaker systems, although the audio waveform is a changing voltage. Such systems are also known by other terms such as 25-, 70- and 100-volt speaker systems, referring to the nominal voltage of the loudspeaker line.

At the audio amplifier, a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance, low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the loudspeaker circuit. At the distant loudspeaker location, a smaller step-down transformer returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary loudspeaker levels. The loudspeaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps, allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in discrete steps.

Output transformer

Valve (tube) amplifiers almost always use an output transformer to match the high load impedance requirement of the valves (several kilohms) to a low impedance speaker.

Small signal transformers

Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal-noise ratio, a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges.

Microphones may also be matched to their load with a small transformer, which is mumetal shielded to minimise noise pickup. These transformers are less widely used today, as transistorized buffers are now cheaper.

Interstage and coupling transformers

In a push-pull amplifier, an inverted signal is required and is obtained from a transformer with a center-tapped winding, used to drive two active devices in opposite phase. These phase splitting transformers are not much used today.

Homemade and obsolete transformers

Transformer kits

Transformers may be wound at home using commercial transformer kits, which contain laminations & bobbin. Alternatively, ready made transformers may be disassembled and rewound. These approaches are occasionally used by home constructors but are usually avoided where possible due to the number of hours required to hand wind a transformer.

Firm clamping of laminations and varnish help to avoid buzz.

100% homemade

It is possible to make the transformer laminations by hand too. Such transformers are encountered at times in 3rd world countries, using laminations cut from scrap sheet steel, paper slips between the laminations, and string to tie the assembly together. The result works, but is usually noisy due to poor clamping of laminations.

Hedgehog

Hedgehog transformers are occasionally encountered in homemade 1920s radios. They are homemade audio interstage coupling transformers.

Enamelled copper wire is wound round the central half of the length of a bundle of insulated iron wire (eg florists' wire), to make the windings. The ends of the iron wires are then bent around the electrical winding to complete the magnetic circuit, and the whole is wrapped with tape or string to hold it together.

Variocouplers

Variocouplers (sometimes called variometers) are RF transformers with two windings and variable coupling between the windings. They were standard equipment in 1920s radio sets.

Pancake coil variocouplers were common in 1920s radios for variable RF coupling. The two planar coils were arranged to swing away from each other and for the angle between them to increase to 90 degrees, thus giving wide variation in coupling. No core was used. These were mostly used to control reaction. The pancake structure was a means to minimize stray capacitance.

In another design of variocoupler, two coils were wound on two circular bands, and housed one inside the other, with provision for rotating the inner coil. Coupling varies as one coil is rotated between 0 and 90 degrees from the other. These had higher stray capacitance than the pancake type.

Not transformers

Items which may be mistaken for transformers, but which are not always transformers.

Wall warts: small power supplies with integral mains plug. These can contain a transformer and other circuitry. Most use a laminated iron transformer, but an increasing number now contain a small switched-mode power supply. These are smaller and much lighter.

Halogen lighting transformers: Toroidal transformers are sometimes used for this task, but most halogen 'transformers' are switched-mode power supplies.

Transformers rely on a linear relationship between the currents in primary and secondary circuits. Interesting and useful power control devices such as the saturable reactor and the magnetic amplifier rely on controlled saturation of a ferromagnetic core. Such devices can provide considerable power amplification without use of transistors or vacuum tubes. Although they resemble transformers with cores and sets of windings, the operating principles and purposes are different.

See also

References

  1. ^ "High Voltage - Measurement, Testing and Design", ISBN: 0 471 90096 6
  2. ^ "Planar Transformer on a PCB"
  3. ^ ANSI IEEE Standard C57.12.00 General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers, 2000

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