The Man Who Planted Trees
"The Man Who Planted Trees" (French title L'homme qui plantait des arbres), also known as "The Story of Elzéard Bouffier", "The Most Extraordinary Character I Ever Met", and "The Man Who Planted Hope and Reaped Happiness", is an
allegoricaltale by French author Jean Giono, published in 1953.
It tells the story of one shepherd's long and successful singlehanded effort to re-forest a desolate valley in the foothills of the
Alpsnear Provencethroughout the first half of the 20th century. The tale is quite short - only about 4000 words long.
The tale is narrated by a twenty-year-old man who remains anonymous throughout. (Although it has been suggested the narrator may perhaps be the
author Jean Giono, there is no evidence for this.) The story begins in the year 1910, when this young man is undertaking a lone hikingtrip through Provence, France, and into the Alps, enjoying the relatively unspoiled wilderness.
The narrator runs out of water in a treeless, desolate
valleywhere only wild lavendergrows and there is no trace of civilizationexcept old, empty crumbling buildings. The narrator finds only a dried up well, but is saved by a middle-aged shepherdwho takes him to a spring he knows of.
Curious about this man and why he has chosen such a lonely life, the narrator stays with him for a time. The shepherd, after being
widowed, has decided to restore the ruined ecosystemof the isolatedand largely abandonedvalley by single-handedly cultivating a forest, tree by tree. The shepherd, Elzéard Bouffier, makes holes in the ground with his curling pole and drops into the holes acorns that he has collected from many miles away.
The narrator leaves the shepherd and returns home, and later fights in the
First World War. In 1920, shell-shocked and depressed after the war, the man returns. He is surprised to see young saplings of all forms taking root in the valley, and new streams running through it where the shepherd has made dams higher up in the mountain. The narrator makes a full recovery in the peace and beauty of the regrowing valley, and continues to visit Bouffier every year. Bouffier is no longer a shepherd, because he is worried about the sheep affecting his young trees, and has become a bee keeperinstead.
Over four decades, Bouffier continues to plant trees, and the valley is turned into a kind of
Garden of Eden. By the end of the story, the valley has a vibrant ecosystemand is peacefully settled. The valley receives official protection after the First World War. (the authoritiesmistakenly believe that the rapid growth of this forest is a bizarre natural phenomenon, as they are unaware of Bouffier's selfless deeds), and more than 10,000 people move there, all of them unknowingly owing their happiness to Bouffier. The narrator tells one of his friends in the government the truth about the natural forest, and the friend also helps protect the forest.
The narrator visits the now very old Bouffier one last time in 1945, at the end of
World War II. In a hospice in Banon, in 1947, the man who planted trees peacefully passes away.
A true story?
The story itself is so touching that many readers have believed that Elzéard Bouffier was a genuine historical figure and that the narrator of the story was a young
Jean Gionohimself, and that so the tale is part autobiographical. Certainly, Giono lived during this time. While he was alive, Giono enjoyed allowing people to believe that the story was real, and considered it as a tribute to his skill. His daughter, Aline Giono, described it as "a family story for a long time". However, Giono himself explained in a 1957 letter to an official of the city of Digne:
Sorry to disappoint you, but Elzéard Bouffier is a fictional person. The goal was to make trees likeable, or more specifically, make planting trees likeable.In the letter, he describes how the book was translated in a multitude of languages, distributed freely, and therefore was a success. He adds that, although " [i] t does not bring me a cent", it is one of the texts of which he is most proud.
Some people claim that people in other countries have produced similar effects. For example, a man called Abdul Karim had apparently created a forest out of "nothing" over 19 years, using the same method as Bouffier. [ [http://forests.org/archive/asia/indfor.htm In India, One Man Creates a Forest] ] An organization called "Trees for the Future" claimed to have assisted more than 170,000 families, in 6,800 villages of Asia, Africa, and the Americas, to plant over 35 million trees. [ [http://www.treesftf.org/about/history.htm Trees for the Future] ]
Wangari Maathai, 2004 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, founded the Greenbelt Movement which planted 30 million trees to restore the Kenyan environment. [ [http://www.greenbeltmovement.org The Greenbelt Movement] ] The character of Bouffier also has some similarity to the legendary early 19th century American tree planter Johnny Appleseed. Another tireless promoter of tree-planting is Marthinus Daneel, Ph.D., Professor of African studies at Boston University and founder of ZIRRCON (Zimbabwean Institute of Religious Research and Ecological Conservation). Daneel has worked with churches for years planting millions of trees in Zimbabwe. Due to instability in Zimbabwe in recent years, such efforts have been significantly curtailed. Similarly, Bhausaheb Thorat was inspired by the book and started the Dandakaranya Abhiyaan in June 2006 at Sangamner, Maharashtra, India. UNEP has taken notice of this campaign in which almost 45 million seedlings have been planted till the date. [ [http://www.unep.org/billiontreecampaign/CampaignNews/Dandakaranya.asp UNEP Billion Tree Campaign] ]
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
An animated adaptation of the story was created by
Frédéric Backin 1987. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0093488/ IMDB page for the animated version] ] This 30-minute short film was distributed in two versions - French and English - narrated respectively by noted actors Philippe Noiretand Christopher Plummer, and produced by Radio-Canada. It won the Academy Awardfor best animated short film, as well as several other awards that year. It is available on a Region 1 (American) DVD, either on its own or with other animated films directed by Frédéric Back. It can also still be purchased on PAL VHS tape in the United Kingdom.
The film has topped the [http://www.imdb.com/chart/short IMDb's top short list] .
In 1994, it was voted #44 of the
50 Greatest Cartoonsof all time by members of the animation field.
In 2006, it was adapted for the stage and puppets by Richard Medrington of [http://www.puppetstate.com/ Puppet State Theatre Company] in
Edinburgh, Scotland. The show has been performed over 350 times since July 2006, including a sold out run at the [http://www.edfringe.com/ Edinburgh Festival Fringe] in 2007.
poken word recordings
In 1985 the
Paul Winter Consortrecorded an album with Robert J. Lurtsemaas the narrator. It was made into a book-on-tape in 1990 by Earth Music Productions. It sounds like a documentary--not an eco-fable. In 1992, the American radio show "Hearts of Space" did a musically-accompanied reading (episode 290, first aired on 15May1992) with narration by the late Robert J. Lurtsema. It has also been recorded for BBC Radio 4with Bill Patersonnarrating.
* [http://home.infomaniak.ch/arboretum/Man_Tree.htm "The Man Who Planted Trees" (English Translation by Peter Doyle)]
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