Boulder, Colorado

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Boulder, Colorado
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settlement_type = City
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mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location in Boulder County and the State of Colorado

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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = USA
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = flag|Colorado|name=State of Colorado
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Boulder County Seatcite web | url = | title = Active Colorado Municipalities | format = HTML | publisher = State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs | accessdate = 2007-09-01]
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government_type = Home Rule Municipality
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Shaun McGrath
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established_title = Settled
established_date = 1858 as Boulder City, N.T.
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = 1871-11-04cite web | url = | title = Colorado Municipal Incorporations | format = HTML | publisher = State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives | date = 2004-12-01 | accessdate = 2007-09-02]
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area_magnitude = 1 E9
unit_pref = Imperial
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area_total_km2 = 65.7
area_land_km2 = 63.1
area_water_km2 = 2.6
area_total_sq_mi = 25.4
area_land_sq_mi = 24.4
area_water_sq_mi = 1.0
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population_as_of = 2006
population_footnotes = cite web | date = June 21 2006 | url = | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for All Incorporated Places in Colorado | format = CSV | work = 2005 Population Estimates | publisher = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | accessmonthday = November 16 | accessyear = 2006] 1
population_note =
population_total = 91685 (city proper)
population_density_km2 = 1499.9
population_density_sq_mi = 3884.1
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timezone = MST
utc_offset = -7
timezone_DST = MDT
utc_offset_DST = -6
latd = 40 |latm = 1 |lats = 10 |latNS = N
longd = 105 |longm = 17 |longs = 34 |longEW = W
elevation_footnotes =
elevation_m = 1655
elevation_ft = 5430
postal_code_type = ZIP codescite web | url = | title = ZIP Code Lookup| format = JavaScript/HTML | publisher = United States Postal Service | accessmonthday = September 4 | accessyear = 2007]
postal_code = 80301-80310, 80314, 80321-80323, 80328, 80329
area_code = Both 303 and 720
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 08-07850
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0178680
blank2_name = Highways
blank2_info =US 36, SH 7, SH 52, SH 93, SH 119, SH 157
website = [ City of Boulder]
footnotes =
Eleventh most populous Colorado city

Boulder is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of Boulder County, Colorado, in the United States.GR|6 Boulder is the 11th most populous city in the state of Colorado. The United States Census Bureau estimates that in 2005 the population of the city of Boulder was 91,685,cite web | date = June 20 2006 | url = | title = Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2005 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 | format = CSV | work = 2005 Population Estimates | publisher = U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | accessmonthday = December 13 | accessyear = 2006] while the population of the Boulder Metropolitan population was 280,440. Boulder is the home of the University of Colorado at Boulder, the largest university in Colorado and Naropa University, the only accredited Buddhist-inspired university in the United States. Boulder is situated convert|25|mi|km|0|sp=us northwest of the Colorado State Capitol of Denver at an elevation of convert|5430|ft|m|0|sp=us.


As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there are 94,673 people, 39,596 households, and 16,788 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,499.9/km² (3,884.1/sq mi), making Boulder's population density higher than Denver's and among the highest in the state; of Colorado's twenty-one largest cities, only Englewood and Northglenn (two close-in Denver suburbs) have greater population densities. There are 40,726 housing units at an average density of 1,670.8/sq mi (645.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 88.33% White, 1.22% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.50% from other races, and 2.40% from two or more races. 8.9% of the population are Hispanic or Latino/Latina of any race.

There are 39,596 households out of which 20.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.3% are married couples living together, 6.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 57.6% are non-families. 33.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.20 and the average family size is 2.84.

Boulder's population is younger than the national average, largely due to the presence of university students. The median age is 29 years compared to the U.S. median of 35.1 years. [cite web | title = Fact Sheet - Boulder, Colorado (General Characteristics) | publisher = United States Census Bureau | accessdate = 2008-04-14 | url =] In Boulder, 14.8% of the residents are under the age of 18, 25.9% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, and 7.8% are 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there are 107.4 males.

According to a 2006 estimate, the median household income in Boulder is $47,577, and the median family income is $89,184. [cite web | title = Fact Sheet - Boulder, Colorado (Social Characteristics) | publisher = United States Census Bureau | accessdate = 2008-04-14 | url =] Males have a median income of $41,829 versus $32,100 for females. The per capita income for the city is $31,539. 17.4% of the population and 6.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The higher population poverty line is due to the large number of college students living in the area.

Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas. For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling (condo or town home) sold for $262,000. [] According to that National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of single family homes nationwide was $227,500. [cite news | title = Metro home prices flat | publisher = | date = 2006-08-21 | url = | accessdate = 2008-04-14 ]


The City of Boulder is in Boulder Valley where the Rocky Mountains meet the Great Plains. Just west of the city are imposing slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons. The Flatirons are a widely recognized symbol of Boulder.

The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek. The creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek that Boulder City and hence Boulder is believed to have taken its name. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived primarily from snow melt and minor springs west of the city. The creek is a tributary of the South Platte River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.4 square miles (65.7 km²). 24.4 square miles (63.1 km²) of it is land and 1.0 square miles (2.6 km²) of it (3.94%) is water.

The 40th parallel (40 degrees north latitude) runs though Boulder and can be easily recognized as Baseline Road today.


In the early to mid 1800s, the nomadic Southern Arapaho Native American tribe frequently wintered at the base of the foothills in the Boulder area. Chief Niwot and his band called the site their home. Other nomadic tribes included the Utes, Cheyennes, Comanches, and Sioux.

The first recorded European settlers in the area were gold prospectors who arrived in 1858, when Boulder was part of the Nebraska Territory (The former boundary between Nebraska and Kansas territories is the present Baseline Road in Boulder). Boulder's first school house was built in 1860, followed by the creation of the Colorado Territory in 1861. In 1871 then 'Boulder City' was incorporated. In 1873 the railroad was extended to Boulder and, in 1890, the Boulder Railroad Depot was constructed to serve as a station for the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1876 Colorado was granted statehood, and in that same year the University of Colorado at Boulder opened.

Mining gold, silver, and coal continued to be a prominent part of the local economy until the mid 1900s. A coal miners strike lasted from 1910 to 1915, causing a military presence in nearby Louisville. Mining's relevance in the local economy declined in the 1940s, when the city began actively recruiting clean industry, such as the National Bureau of Standards, which today is the National Institute of Standards and Technology. (Home of the atomic clock.)

Streetcars operated in Boulder from the late 1800s through 1931. [ A lobbying group exists] today to restore the streetcar to Boulder, albeit with a new route.

Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. [cite web | title = A Boulder Timeline | publisher = Boulder History Museum | accessdate = 2008-04-14 | url = ] Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933. []

Boulder was the second city in the United States to implement the Hare (or Single Transferable Vote) method of voting in 1917. It was repealed in 1947.

On January 19, 1952, the Denver-Boulder Turnpike opened as a tollway between Boulder and the northern Denver suburb of Westminster. In 1967, the bonds for building the highway were paid off early, its tollway status was lifted, and it became part of U.S. Highway 36. (Many still refer to the road as the Denver-Boulder Turnpike or simply Boulder Turnpike, however.) []

Further reading: [ City of Boulder History] , [ Boulder History Museum Timeline]

Politics and government

Politically, Boulder is more liberal than most of Colorado. Boulder County, which includes Boulder's more conservative suburbs, is 37% Democratic, 27% Republican, and 36% independent. [] Although in Denver, Democratic views are prevalent in city politics, Boulder has the more widespread reputation as a pocket of liberal political views within its largely conservative state, garnering the oft-used nickname "The People's Republic of Boulder."

In 1974 the Boulder City Council passed Colorado's first ordinance prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Boulder voters, however, repealed the measure by referendum within a year. In 1975, Boulder County Clerk Clela Rorex was the second in the United States to ever grant same-sex marriage licenses, prior to state laws being passed to prevent such issuance. [] In 1987, Boulder voters reversed their 1974 vote, and the city became the first in the United States to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation by a direct vote of the people. In 1996, Boulder became the first city in Colorado to enact a smoking ban that included bars.

Coexisting with the liberal tendencies of the population at large are the less numerous but politically active conservative and libertarian residents. Bob Greenlee, a Republican, was briefly the mayor of Boulder and ran against Mark Udall in 1998 for Colorado's 2nd congressional district. The Promise Keepers, an evangelical organization for men, was conceived of in Boulder in 1990 by then-coach of the University of Colorado football team Bill McCartney. The organization has since relocated to Denver. []


Outdoor sports

Boulder is surrounded by more than 31,000 acres (125 km²) of recreational open space and nature preserves. There are ample opportunities for hiking, biking and rock climbing. Many of the trails start at the edge of the city, while others are a short drive away. The trails vary in difficulty: some are quite easy while there are some that are technically challenging. A [ trail map] is available online or from a variety of local retailers. The [ City of Boulder Open Space] website is a great resource for information about outdoor activities and volunteer opportunities.

World-class rock climbing is found in nearby Eldorado Canyon, near the small unincorporated community of Eldorado Springs, six miles south of Boulder. Eldorado Canyon is a wonder of natural beauty, but it is most famous for its hundreds of world-renowned rock climbing routes. There are also high quality climbing routes available in the city open space, including climbing routes of varying difficulty on the Flatirons themselves. Boulder Canyon, directly west of downtown Boulder, also has many good routes. All three of these areas are affected by seasonal closures for wildlife. [] [] , []


Boulder is home to a variety of music, from classical to jazz to pop, and from informal street performances to concert music performed in historic Macky Auditorium.

Founded in 1958, the Boulder Philharmonic Orchestra is a critically acclaimed professional orchestra that offers dynamic programming under the leadership of its Music Director Michael Butterman. [] . In addition, every year during the second week of January, Boulder is the host city of Colorado MahlerFest, an annual celebration honoring Austrian composer Gustav Mahler, on the University of Colorado at Boulder campus. Each summer features the acclaimed [ Colorado Music Festival] , a six-week classical music festival with professional musicians from around the world, at the historic [ Chautauqua Auditorium] at the base of the Flatirons.

Nick Forster of the bluegrass group Hot Rize tapes the environmental and musical radio program Etown Sunday evenings at the Boulder Theater.

On Thursday nights from June through mid-August, street musicians perform on the Pearl Street Mall just south of the Courthouse. Bands on the Bricks, as the event is called, features a different band each week, with styles ranging from zydeco to oldies, and bluegrass to funk. Buskers are frequently in downtown Boulder especially on warm days and weekends.

Boulder is home to a branch of the Revels organization ( which presents an annual Solstice production at the Boulder Theater. The local branch, called the Rocky Mountain Revels, formed in Boulder in 2001. The Rocky Mountain Revels is the local satellite for the Revels organization founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1971, and is the only Revels troupe in the Intermountain West.

Singer-songwriter Wendy Woo grew up in Boulder. [] []
Jello Biafra of the Dead Kennedys is originally from Boulder, as are The String Cheese Incident, Leftover Salmon, Big Head Todd and the Monsters, Rose Hill Drive, 3OH!3, and The Samples. Jazz musician Chris Wood of Blue Note Records' Medeski, Martin and Wood grew up in Boulder. Al Jourgensen and Paul Barker of the industrial rock group Ministry went to school in Boulder. Award-winning blues musician Otis Taylor has lived in Boulder since 1967.

The following venues in/near Boulder host live music:
* GetBoulder
* Fox Theater
* Albums on the Hill
* Cafe Babu on the Hill
* Laughing Goat
* A Mellow Mood
* Mountain Sun and Southern Sun
* Nissi's
* RedFish Brewhouse
* Rock 'N Soul Cafe
* The b.side Lounge


Colorado Chautauqua

The Colorado Chautauqua has presented programs every summer since 1898 including lectures, music, cinema, adult education classes, and nondenominational sermons. Its grounds, including the historic Chautauqua Auditorium, are located about one mile southwest of downtown Boulder, just south of the intersection of Ninth Street and Baseline Road. In recent years the Colorado Chautauqua has become a year-round operation.

Bolder Boulder

Boulder has hosted a 10 km road run, the “Bolder Boulder,” on Memorial Day, every year since 1979. The race involves over 50,000 runners, joggers, walkers, and wheelchair racers, making it one of the largest road races in the world. It has the largest non-marathon prize purse in road racing [ [ media guide] (PDF)] . The race culminates at the University of Colorado's Folsom Field with a Memorial Day Tribute, “one of the largest Memorial Day gatherings in the United States” [] . Organizers have dedicated three starting waves to current and former members of the U.S. armed forces.

Boulder Kinetics

Every year to mark the beginning of Spring, local radio station KBCO and more recently Budweiser beer both sponsor Kinetics, a good-hearted, zany race from the banks of Boulder Reservoir and back by human-powered vehicles timed on speed and judged for style. The idea for a kinetic sculpture race was imported from Ferndale, California.

The first race in Boulder was held on May 3, 1980. Since then, Kinetics has grown in size and creativity with about 20,000 spectators and dozens of teams. [,1713,BDC_2422_2835900,00.html] . Since KBCO was joined by co-sponsor Budweiser, many great nationally known live bands have played at Kinetics, making it somewhat of an outdoor music festival on the "beach" of the Reservoir. People come early equipped with blankets, coolers and lawn chairs. It has become a local tradition signaling the beginning of summer.

KBCO has decided to suspend Kinetics for 2008 at Boulder Reservoir, citing decreasing attendance and increasing costs for the last several years, but had celebrations & outdoor music at The 29th Street Mall. []

North Boulder Park Nordic skiing track

When it snows in Boulder, a club of Nordic skiiers from Boulder create a track in North Boulder Park, located about a mile from downtown, and right next to the Boulder Community Hospital. Many residents of Boulder go to ski in this track. The track remained for an astonishing month and a half during the snowstorms of 2006–2007.

University of Colorado Events

* Colorado Shakespeare FestivalThe Colorado Shakespeare Festival is a summer festival of Shakespeare held at the outdoor Mary Rippon Theater on the University of Colorado campus.

* Conference on World AffairsThe Conference on World Affairs is an annual one-week conference featuring dozens of discussion panels on a variety of contemporary issues. Roger Ebert attends the conference every year and conducts his "Cinema Interruptus" lecture, spending many hours over a number of days closely analyzing one film. It was at the conference in 1996 that Ebert created the Boulder Pledge not to purchase anything offered through email spam. []

* University of Colorado Museum of Natural HistoryConsidered one of the top comprehensive university museums of natural history in the U.S., the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, located on the University's Boulder campus, contains over four million biology, anthropology, and geology/paleontology research specimens. The Museum also sponsors lectures, classes, tours, and workshops for all ages and interests. Exhibits include fossils, animals of Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region, and ancient Southwestern cultures.

* Hiking ClubThe Hiking Club at the University of Colorado at Boulder is the longest-running student organization on campus, organizes member-run trips throughout Colorado and the Rocky Mountain Region for university students and affiliates.

Happy Thursday Cruiser Ride

Every Thursday, a group of cruiser bike riders meet to ride their cycles on various streets, alleys and bike paths in an outpouring of creativity and love for bicycles, shouting "Happy Thursday!" to onlookers. Many dress up in costume for the occasion, and some also decorate and accessorize their cycles for the event. The number of participants varies greatly from week to week, peaking in the summer months of well over 500 riders; only a small group of 'Cold Weather Cruisers' ride during the colder months. [] []

chools, University

Public schools

The Boulder Valley School District (BVSD) administers the public school system in Boulder, and also in the neighboring cities and towns of Lafayette, Louisville, and Nederland. The two largest high schools (grades 9–12) in Boulder are Boulder High School and Fairview High School, both part of BVSD. The District also operates the smaller New Vista High School in the building formerly occupied by Base Line Middle School.

Boulder Valley administers several middle schools (grades 6–8) in Boulder. BVSD elementary schools (grades K–5) in Boulder include University Hill Elementary School and a number of others.

A small portion of Boulder's Gunbarrel subdivision (north of Lookout Road) is served by the St. Vrain Valley School District (SVVSD). These students attend Niwot High School and Niwot Elementary School in the nearby community of Niwot. Middle school students take a longer commute to Sunset Middle School in Longmont. SVVSD also has charter schools available to Boulder residents living in the district.

Charter schools

Charter schools (receiving public funding but under private management) within the city of Boulder include Preparatory High School (9–12), Summit Middle School (6–8), Horizons Alternative School (K–8), and Justice High School (9–12). The last is unusual in that it is operated in rented space in the Boulder County Justice Center, which also houses courtrooms, the sheriff's office, and the coroner's office.

Private schools

A variety of private high schools, middle schools and elementary schools operate in and near Boulder. Well known private schools in the Boulder area include The Acorn School for Early Childhood Development(infant-age 6), Mountain Shadows Montessori School (preschool-6), Bixby School (K–5), September School (9-12), Jarrow Montessori School] (K-6, the oldest Montessori school in Colorado), Bridge School (6–12), and Shining Mountain Waldorf School (K–12) in Boulder, Alexander Dawson School (K–12) in Lafayette, Catalyst and Rocky Mountain School for the Gifted and Creative (K–8) in Gunbarrel, and Hillside School, an alternative for children with learning disabilities.

Colleges, universities, science institutes

*University of Colorado at Boulder, public university which contributes roughly 46,000 residents (30,000 undergraduate students, 6,000 graduate students and 10,000 staff/faculty) to the population.

*Naropa University offers undergraduate and graduate programs.

Private schools

*Rivendell College private Christian Liberal Arts College
*Boulder College of Massage Therapy
*Ruseto College private two-year college for Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine
*Southwest Acupuncture College private 2-3 year college
*Culinary School of the Rockies
*Homeopathy School of Colorado

cience institutes

*Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)
*Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA)
*Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
*Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA)
*Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP)
*National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) / University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)
*National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
*National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) research center
*National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)
*NTIA - Institute for Telecommunication Sciences Boulder
*Southwest Research Institute Department of Space Studies
*Space Science Institute

Economy and industry

Major employers in and near Boulder include: [,1713,BDC_2462_3686553,00.html] []
* University of Colorado (7,500)
* Sun Microsystems (5,000 [] )
* IBM (4,500)
* Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (3,000 [] )
* Level 3 Communications (2,500) []
* National Institute of Standards and Technology and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1,700 [] )
* [ City of Boulder] (1,600)
* National Center for Atmospheric Research (1,100)
* Covidien, formerly Tyco Healthcare Group (1,700)
* Medtronic (225)
* Otologics LLC (75)
* Array Biopharma (125)
* OSI (150)
* HEI Medical, formerly Colorado MedTech (125)
* Roche Colorado (225)
* Particle Measuring Systems (225)
* Amgen (750)
* Lockheed Martin (450)
* Celestial Seasonings (250)
* Crispin Porter + Bogusky (300)
* Crocs (550)
* Polycom (350)
* Wall Street On Demand (300)
* Qualcomm (300)
* Microsoft (150)
* LeftHand Networks (200)


Mass Transit

Boulder has an extensive bus system operated primarily by the Regional Transportation District (RTD). The HOP, SKIP, JUMP, BOUND, DASH and STAMPEDE routes run throughout the city on a frequent basis, with departures every ten minutes during peak hours, Monday-Friday. Other routes, such as the 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208 and 209 depart every 15 to 30 minutes. Regional routes, traveling between nearby cities such as Longmont (BOLT, J), Golden (GS), and Denver (B/BX/DM/HX/S/T), as well as Denver International Airport (AB), are also available. Route, schedule and fare information is available on the RTD Web site at, or by calling their Telephone Information Center at 303-299-6000. Real time arrival information for the HOP route is available at Google also offers a transit trip planner for the Boulder-Denver region at

Beginning in 2014, commuter rail will travel between Longmont, Boulder and Denver, with stops in major communities along the way. This commuter rail line is funded by FasTracks, a transit improvement plan funded by a 0.4% increase in the sales tax throughout the Denver metro area. RTD, the developer of FasTracks, and the City of Boulder are planning a transit-oriented development near the intersection of Pearl and 33rd Streets to accommodate a Boulder Fastracks station. The development will feature the relocated Boulder Railroad Depot, which may be returned to a transit-related use.


Boulder, well-known for its bicycle culture, boasts hundreds of miles of bike paths, lanes, and routes that interconnect to create a renowned network of bikeways. Boulder has 74 bike and pedestrian underpasses that facilitate safer and uninterrupted travel throughout much of the city. The city offers a route-finding Web site at that allows users to map personalized bike routes around the city. In 2008 the city was recognized by the League of American Bicyclists as a Platinum-level bicycle friendly community.

Walk and Bike Month is celebrated throughout June, with Bike to Work Day held on the last Wednesday in June. The event is presented by [ GO Boulder] and is produced by [ Community Cycles] . Begun in 1977 as Bike to Work Day, Boulder's annual celebration of biking is believed to be one of the oldest in the United States.

Growth management

Government preservation of open space around Boulder began with the Congress of the United States approving the allocation of 1,800 acres (7.3 km²) of mountain backdrop/watershed extending from South Boulder Creek to Sunshine Canyon in 1899.

Since then, Boulder has adopted a policy of controlled urban expansion. In 1959, city voters approved the "Blue Line" city-charter amendment which restricted city water service to altitudes below 5750 feet, in an effort to protect the mountain backdrop from development. In 1967, city voters approved a dedicated sales tax for the acquisition of open space in an effort to contain urban sprawl. In 1970, Boulder created a "comprehensive plan" that would dictate future zoning, transportation, and urban-planning decisions. Hoping to preserve residents' views of the mountains, in 1972, the city enacted an ordinance limiting the height of newly constructed buildings. A Historic-Preservation Code was passed in 1974, and a "residential-growth management" ordinance (the Danish Plan) in 1976. [] []

Wildlife protection

The City of Boulder has created an "Urban Wildlife Management Plan" which sets policies for managing and protecting urban wildlife. [] Also, the city's parks department has a Conservation Team which monitors parks (including wetlands, lakes, etc) to protect ecosystems. [] From time to time, parks and hiking trails are closed to conserve or restore ecosystems. []

Traditionally, Boulder has avoided the use of chemical pesticides for controlling the insect population. However, with the threat of West Nile Virus, the city began an "integrative" [ plan] to control the mosquito population in 2003 that includes chemical pesticides. Residents can "opt-out" of the program by contacting the city and asking that their areas not be sprayed. []

Under Boulder law, extermination of prairie dogs requires a permit. []

Also in 2005, the city experimented with using goats for weed control in environmentally sensitive areas. Goats naturally consume diffuse knapweed and Canada thistle, and although the program was not as effective as it was hoped, goats will still be considered in the future weed control projects. []


Boulder's main daily newspaper as of 2006, the "Daily Camera", was started in 1880 as the "Boulder Camera" and became a daily newspaper the following year. "Colorado Daily" was started in 1892 as a university newspaper for CU-Boulder. Following many heated controversies over "Colorado Daily"'s political coverage, it severed its ties to the university in 1971. Newspaper conglomerate Scripps acquired the "Colorado Daily" in 2005 after its acquisition of the "Camera" in 1997, leaving the "Boulder Weekly" as the only locally owned newspaper in Boulder.

Non-profit radio station KGNU was founded in 1975 and commercial music station KBCO in 1977. KVCU, better known as [ Radio 1190] , is another non-profit radio station run with the help of university-student volunteers. Boulder hosted Boulder Free Radio (KBFR) from 2000 to 2005; one of the longest running pirate radio operations in the country.

Boulder is part of the Denver market for television stations, and it also receives many radio stations based in Denver or Ft. Collins.

Paladin Press book/video publishers and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine both have their headquarters in Boulder. [] [] Paladin Press was founded in September 1970 by Peder Lund and Robert K. Brown. In 1974, Lund bought out Brown's share of the press, and Brown moved on to found "Soldier of Fortune" magazine the following year. []

Instituted in 1978, "Boulder Magazine" is a full-color, seasonal magazine that covers local events, outdoor activities and Boulder culture.

Boulder was one of the few cities in the U.S. to have a sustained underground (pirate) FM radio station. Called KBFR (Boulder Free Radio) it operated at 95.3FM and streamed live on the internet at It was operated from April 2000 to Jan of 2005 when its founders, under pressure from the FCC, took it off the air. At its peak it had over 50 DJ's and was listened to regularly by a significant percentage of the Boulder population and had an international following via the Internet.

* #1 in "The Smartest Cities In America" - "Forbes", February, 2008
* #2 in "Greenest Schools" (CU) - "Sierra Magazine", August, 2008
* #1 in "20 Dream Towns" - "Outside Magazine", August, 2006
* #3 in Top 10 Brainiest Small Cities -, June, 2006
* #1 Best of the Best - "Men's Journal", April 2006
* #1 Place You Dream of Living - "Backpacker Magazine", February, 2006
* Best Place in the Country for Singles (Denver-Boulder) - "Forbes": 2006, 2004, 2003
* #1 Best Place to Live Successful Meetings: 2005
* The West’s Best City - "Sunset Magazine": 2005
* #1 Best Places to Live - "Men’s Journal Magazine": 2005, 2003
* #1 Top 20 Boom Towns - "Business 2.0": 2004
* Colorado’s Best Workplaces for Commuters - United States EPA: 2004
* The Best Small Cities - "Men’s Journal": 2004
* Best Place to Move (Boulder-Longmont) - Worldwide ERC and Primacy Relocation: 2004
* Best Places to Retire - "Money Magazine": 2002
* #4 Best Places for Businesses and Career Advancement - "Forbes": 2000
* #1 Best Places to Retire - "Modern Maturity": 2000
* America’s Best Places to Live and Work - "USA Today": 1999
* Best Cities in America for Starting and Growing a Business - "Inc. Magazine": 1999
* Best Transportation - "Sunset Magazine": 1999
* Small City Runner Up: Best Places to Live 2000 - "Money Magazine": 1999
* Top 10 Cities for Teens - "Seventeen Magazine", 1999
* Runner Up, America's Foodiest Small Towns- "Bon Appetit Magazine":2008


Notable births in Boulder include: John Fante (writer), Scott Carpenter (Project Mercury astronaut), Arleigh Burke (United States Navy Admiral, Chief of Naval Operations), Kristin Davis ("Sex and the City" actress), Tony Boselli (five-time Pro Bowl offensive tackle), and Dead Kennedys frontman Jello Biafra.

Chief Niwot or Left Hand, a tribal leader of the Arapaho, lived at the site of Boulder. He and many of his people died in the Sand Creek Massacre. A local legend of this beloved, peace loving Chief is known as "Niwot's 'curse'", which is that he stated that if any (white) man came to this area (Boulder), then they would return to live there (Boulder).

Experimental filmmaker Stan Brakhage (d. 2003) lived near Boulder from the mid-1960s until 2002, and taught several film courses at CU-Boulder. Allen Ginsberg (d.1997) and Anne Waldman helped to found the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University in Boulder.

George Gamow, theoretical physicist and cosmologist, discoverer of quantum tunnelling, worked at the University of Colorado at Boulder from 1956 until his death in 1968. and was buried in Green Mountain Cemetery. The tallest building on the main campus of the University is named the Gamow Tower in his honor. In 1956, he was awarded the Kalinga Prize by UNESCO for his work in popularizing science with his "Mr. Tompkins..." series of books (1939–1967), "One Two Three ... Infinity", and other works.

Notable Boulder residents include Albert Bartlett, emeritus professor of physics and frequent lecturer on the dangers of compound growth, and also one of the principal backers of the "Blue Line" [] in the late 1950s. Boulder is also home to Paul Danish, author of the "Danish Plan" [] of residential growth control and editor and publisher of the former weekly Boulder County newspaper "Town and Country Review". Jon Krakauer, bestselling author, known for his Mount Everest exposé "Into Thin Air," lives in Boulder.

Nobel prize winners and University professors Eric Cornell, and Thomas Cech live in Boulder. John L. Hall, Nobel prize winner, NIST senior fellow and Lecturer at the University of Colorado lives in Boulder. University professor Michael Tracey lives in Boulder.

Jello Biafra, vocalist for 1980s punk band Dead Kennedys, grew up in Boulder, and his parents still live in the city.

Jazz musician Chris Wood of Blue Note Records' Medeski, Martin and Wood grew up in Boulder. Musician Stuart Davis, originally from Minnesota, lives in Boulder. Otis Taylor is a Boulder blues musician who plays electric banjo, a Grammy award winner.

Actress Jessica Biel from the TV show 7th Heaven was raised in Boulder. Actress Sheryl Lee who is best known for playing the role of Laura Palmer in David Lynch's "Twin Peaks" was born in Boulder and began acting with a role in a Fairview High School play. Actresses Sheree J. Wilson and Joan Van Ark grew up in Boulder.

Boulder was also the home of JonBenét Ramsey when she was murdered, late on December 25 or early on December 26, in 1996. The body of the six-year-old was found on December 26 in the basement of her home on 15th Street. So far, the case remains unsolved. The Ramsey family has been cleared of all wrongdoing.

The professional wrestler Big Van Vader (Leon White) was born in Boulder, was an offensive lineman for the Colorado Buffaloes football team in the 1970s, [] and sometimes wore a CU T-shirt when he came to the ring in street clothes.

Screenwriter and filmmaker John August (Go, Charlie's Angels) is also originally from Boulder, and often talks of it fondly on his blog.

Erin Viner (née Luckow), Anchor / Correspondent for the IBA News English Television News from Israel, was raised in Boulder, and the Female President at Boulder High School. Erin delivered the keynote speech at the 2007 Boulder High Commencement Address (her 30th graduation anniversary), whereupon she delivered scathing commentary regarding the current controversy over the Bill O'Reilly / Dan Caplis condemnation of the World Conference of World Affairs.

Frank Shorter, 1972 Munich Olympics marathon gold medalist, lives in Boulder.

Dave Scott, six-time winner of the Ironman Triathlon, lives in Boulder.

Lead singer of The Fray, Isaac Slade was also born here.


Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 30 miles northwest of Denver. The large Arapahoe glacier provides water for a number of mountain streams that pass through Boulder, including Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. The climate in Boulder is typically mild with dry, moderate summers and relatively comfortable winters. The city boasts more than 300 sunny days each year. Nearby mountains shield Boulder from the most severe winter storms. Most precipitation occurs during the winter and spring months, with snowfall averaging 83.1 inches. Boulder's winters are quite mild, and although large amounts of snow can fall, the effects of orographic lift usually dry out the air passing over the Front Range, shadowing the city from precipitation for much of the season. The coldest temperatures usually occur overnight due to Boulder's "High-Desert" climate. Additionally, warm chinook winds occur as air passing over the mountains heats as it descends, in addition to the sunshine, quickly melting snow accumulations and making Boulder's winters relatively mild.

Average Temperatures: January, High 46.8°F; July, High 83.2°F; annual average, 59.8°F


One of the most popular sections of Boulder that is home to numerous shops and restaurants is the famous Pearl Street Mall. This four-block pedestrian mall is a social hotspot in Boulder, with dozens of restaurants of all kinds and specialty stores that include artisan shops and unique gadget shops. In the summer and on weekends, many street shows and acts can be found throughout the mall, along with street vendors and henna tattoo artists.

Boulder's traditional Downtown area, including the Pearl Street Mall, is in the western part of present-day Boulder. During the 1950s and 1960s, the city grew to the east, while the west side was (and is) bounded by the mountain front. Downtown is host to a variety of restaurants, bars, and boutique stores. However, it has few grocery, hardware, or department stores and is therefore more of a "shopping destination" than a neighborhood with stores supporting the local population.

The Twenty Ninth Street retail district opened in October 2006, located in central Boulder on the site of the former Crossroads Mall, east of Downtown.

Near the Pearl Street Mall the Farmers' Market opens every Saturday morning and Wednesday evening, April through October on 13th Street next to Central Park. The market was started in 1986 by regional farmers. []

ister cities

Boulder has six official sister cities:
* Dushanbe, Tajikistan
* Jalapa, Nicaragua
* Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China
* Ciudad Mante, Mexico
* Yamagata, Japan
* Yateras, Cuba

Dushanbe presented its distinctive [ Dushanbe Tea House] as a gift to Boulder in 1987. It was completed in Tajikistan in 1990, then shipped to Boulder where it was reassembled and opened to the public in 1998 [] . More information about Boulder's sister city relationships can be found at [ Boulder's official website] .

In popular culture

Boulder was a setting for Stephen King's book "The Stand" (1978). Boulder is the gathering point for the survivors of the superflu under their leader, Mother Abagail. King lived in Boulder for a little less than a year, beginning in the fall of 1974. He wrote "The Shining" (1977) during this period, after visiting the Stanley Hotel in Estes Park (the inspiration for the fictional Overlook Hotel). Stephen Walsh White has written a series of mystery books using Boulder as the primary backdrop, featuring lead character Alan Gregory. Marianne Wesson, an author and professor at the University of Colorado School of Law, has also set several of her mystery novels in Boulder.

The sitcom "Mork & Mindy" (1978–1982) was set in Boulder, with 1619 Pine St. serving as the exterior shot of Mindy's home. The New York Deli, a real restaurant operating on the Pearl Street Mall until its closure in 1999, was also featured prominently in the show. The creators of the animated show "South Park" (Trey Parker & Matt Stone) attended the University of Colorado at Boulder, which makes occasional appearances in "South Park". Some houses and the National Center for Atmospheric Research building overlooking the town were used in the filming of Woody Allen's "Sleeper". The building of the First Christian Church of Boulder [ [ First Christian Church] ] appeared in the exterior shot of the wedding scene in "About Schmidt" (2002), starring Jack Nicholson, although the interior shots were filmed elsewhere. The famous Pearl Street Mall was one location for the filming of the movie "Catch and Release", starring Jennifer Garner. Houses around Boulder, as well as storefronts on "The Hill" (University Hill) were filmed for the movie.

Boulder participated in the Chatauqua movement in the 1920s. In 1968, Boulder became a hippie mecca with the popular culture moving from Berkeley CA to Boulder (and back). Numerous 60's music personalities have lived in or near Boulder. Celestial Seasonings Tea was founded and created in Boulder. Boulder continues to be the home of innovative food companies. The made-for-TV movie [ "Perfect Murder, Perfect Town: JonBenét and the City of Boulder"] , based on the book of the same title, was released in 2000. It dramatized the investigation into the murder of JonBenét Ramsey. It was filmed on location in Boulder.

The fictional town of Raccoon City from the "Resident Evil" series of video games created by Capcom shares similar geographic properties to that of Boulder, even though the game is set in Midwestern America, possibly in Pennsylvania. The main geographic features common to both cities include the forest region in the northwest of the city, and the mountains (Called the Arklay Mountains in the games) that run in close proximity to the city limits. Boulder is thought of amongst some fans of the games to be the inspiration for the small community. Players find themselves in a mansion during a biological outbreak of the 'T-Virus' which in the second and third games has infected the people of Raccoon City, and the games revolve around investigating the causes of the outbreak whilst fending off zombies and other creatures that were created as a by-product of the virus.

ee also

*Downtown Boulder
*State of Colorado
**Colorado cities and towns
***Colorado municipalities
**Colorado counties
***Boulder County, Colorado
**Colorado history
***Chief Niwot or Left Hand
***Pike's Peak Gold Rush
**Colorado metropolitan areas
***Boulder Metropolitan Statistical Area
***Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area
***North Central Colorado Urban Area
***Front Range Urban Corridor
**Colorado school districts
***Boulder Valley School District
*United States Government
**Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge
**Roosevelt National Forest
*List of fiction set in Boulder, Colorado


External links

* [ City of Boulder website]
** [ CDOT map of the City of Boulder]
* [ Bestof-Boulder] (Directory of locally owned businesses in Boulder)
* [ Boulder, Colorado]
* [ Boulder History Museum]
* [ A Brief History of Boulder County]
* [ Climate information]
* [ The Boulder Community Network] serves all of Boulder County, Colorado. It is the second-oldest web-based community network in the world and went on-line on March 15, 1994.
* [ MahlerFest website]
* [ - Boulder Guide in Japanese]
* [ - Local Newspaper]
* [ - Local Newspaper]
* [ Boulder Neighborhoods]
* [ - a local social network for people in and around Boulder, Colorado]

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