"Hard-shell" is the adjective used to describe
Baptistswho reject a common Christian notion of missionary work. The Hard-shells believe so strongly in predestinationthat they conclude that it is futile for humans to attempt to effect the salvation of anyone who has not been chosen by God for salvation: if chosen ("elected"), then the person will, of necessity, be saved; if not chosen, then there is nothing that anyone can do to change that outcome.
The Hard-shell Baptist groups were particularly prevalent in
Appalachiaduring the 19th century and continue to exist today. Hard-shell Baptists are loosely synonymous with Primitive Baptistsand the multitude of sub-divisions thereof. In opposition to the Hard-shells, Missionary Baptistchurches were formed and also continue to exist.
The religious indoctrination of young
Abraham Lincolnoccurred in Hard-shell Baptist churches, particularly Little Mount Separate Baptist and Little Pigeon Creek Baptist churches. As a consequence, Lincoln later maintained throughout his adult life the "doctrine of necessity" (viz., divine fatalism). [ [http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jala/18.1/guelzo.html Allen C. Guelzo | Abraham Lincoln and the Doctrine of Necessity | Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, 18.1 | The History Cooperative ] ]
Abraham Lincoln and religion
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hard-shell — I. ˈ ̷ ̷| ̷ ̷ adjective 1. a. : having a hard shell b. : unyielding, confirmed, uncompromising a hard shell conservative 2 … Useful english dictionary
hard-shell — or hard shelled adjective Date: 1838 fundamental 2b, fundamentalist < a hard shell preacher > < hard shell Baptists >; also uncompromising, hidebound < a hard shell conservative > … New Collegiate Dictionary
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