- Referendums related to the European Union
This is a list of referendums related to the
Enlargement of 1973
Before allowing the new candidate member states to join the
European Communities, founding member Franceheld a referendum on 23 April 1972. The turnout was 60.72%, with 68.28% in favour.
Following that approval, three of the four candidate states (Ireland,
Denmark, Norway) likewise held referendums on the issue of joining the European Communities. The results were:
Following the rejection by the Norwegian electorate (53.5% against), Norway did not join.
United Kingdomdid not hold a referendum before joining with the Conservative government of Edward Heath. Labour's manifesto for the 1974 general election included a pledge for a referendum, so after Labour won under Harold Wilson, the referendum was held on whether to remain in the Communities. The result was 67.2% in favour, with a turnout of 64.03%.
Single European Act
On 26 February 1986, Denmark held a referendum on the
Single European Act. With a turnout of 74.8%, the 56.2% of those voting were in favour.
Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of Irelandpermitted Ireland to ratify the Single European Act. It was approved by referendum on 26 May 1987. The result of the referendum was 69.9% in favour.
Three countries held referendums on the ratification of the
treaty of Maastricht: France, Irelandand Denmark.
* IRL referendum of 18 June 1992
Result was a majority of 68.7% in favour. Turnout was 57.31%.
* FRA referendum of 20 September 1992
The treaty was verified with a slim margin of victory of 51.05% in favour. Turnout was 69.69%.
In Denmark, two referendums had to be held before the treaty of Maastricht passed. The first was held on 2 June 1992, had a turnout of 82.9% but approval of the treaty of Maastricht was denied by a slim margin, with only 47.93% in favour of the treaty.
After that defeat of the treaty, Denmark negotiated and received the following four opt-outs from portions of the treaty: Economic and Monetary Union, Union Citizenship, Justice and Home Affairs and Common Defense. A new referendum was held on 18 May 1993. There was a turnout of 85.5% of which the 56.77% voted in favour of the renegotiated treaty.
Enlargement of 1995
The 1994 referendums on membership of four new nations were as follows:
* - 66.6% in favour (12 June)
* - 56.9% in favour (16 October)
* - 52.8% in favour (13 November)
* - 52.2% against (28 November)
Austria, Swedenand Finlandwere admitted on 1 January 1995. As the referendum in Norway was 52.2% against joining, the proposal by the Norwegian government to join was rejected for the second time.
Åland Islands, a dependency belonging to Finland, also voted (on 20 November 1994) on their accession to the European Union. With a turnout of 49.1% the result was 73.64% in favour, which means that EU law would also apply to the Åland Islands.
Treaty of Amsterdam
Two countries held referendums on the ratification of the
treaty of Amsterdam: Ireland and Denmark.
*IRL referendum of 22 May 1998
Result was a majority of 61.74% in favour. Turnout was 56.2%.
*DNK referendum of 28 May 1998
Result was a majority of 55.1% in favour. Turnout was 76.24%.
Treaty of Nice
; Irish referendums on Treaty of NiceIn 2001 Irish voters rejected the Treaty of Nice, while in 2002 they accepted the Treaty as contemporarily understood.
Enlargement of 2004
In 2004 the new enlargement of the European Union involved ten member states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the
Mediterraneanislands of Maltaand Cyprus. referendums about the accession was held in each of these nations with the exception of Cyprus.
The 2003 referendums dates (in four of the countries, a two-day ballot is held), and the outcomes in each of the candidate countries, are as follows:
* - 53.60% in favour (March 8)
* - 89.61% in favour (March 23)
* - 83.76% in favour (April 12)
* - 89.95% in favour (May 10-11)
* - 92.46% in favour (May 16-17)
* - 77.45% in favour (June 7-8)
* - 77.33% in favour (June 13-14)
* - 66.83% in favour (September 14)
* - 67.00% in favour (September 20)
Since the referendums results were all in favour of joining, ratification proceeded without problems and the candidate countries became full members of the EU on 1 May 2004.
Denmark and the United Kingdom received opt-outs from the Maastricht Treaty and do not have to join the
eurountil they choose to do so; Sweden has not received an opt-out, yet refuses to join for now, as well. Two referendums have been held on the issue up to now, both of which failed:
* - 53.2% against, turnout 87.6% on 28 September 2000
* - 56.1%% against, turnout 81.2% on 14 September 2003
Denmark will hold another referendum, this time on abolishing all of the opt-outs, at some point before 2011.
Several member states used or intended to use referendums to ratify the
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe(TCE).
Referendums were planned, but not held, in:
Czech European Constitution referendum
Danish European Constitution referendum
Irish European Constitution referendum
Polish European Constitution referendum
Portuguese European Constitution referendum
United Kingdom European Constitution referendum
Treaty of Lisbon
Only one member state, the
Republic of Ireland, intended to ratify the Treaty of Lisbonthrough a referendum.
* - 56.3% against (June 12, 2008)
Countries which seek to join the European Union in the future may hold a referendum as part of the accession process. In addition, Article 88-5 of the
Constitution of Francerequires a referendum there to ratify any future accession treaty.  Politicians in other existing members have proposed referendums in their states, particularly with reference to the accession of Turkey.
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