The heliosphere is a bubble in space "blown" into the
interstellar medium(the hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the galaxy) by the solar wind. Although electrically neutral atoms from interstellar space can penetrate this bubble, virtually all of the material in the heliosphere emanates from the Sunitself.
For the first ten billion kilometres of its radius, the solar wind travels at over a million kilometres per hour.cite web|author=Dr. David H. Hathaway|date=January 18, 2007|title=The Solar Wind|publisher=NASA|url=http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/SolarWind.shtml|accessdate=2007-12-11] [cite news
first=Robert Roy | last=Britt
title=A Glowing Discovery at the Forefront of Our Plunge Through Space
publisher=SPACE.com | date=
March 15, 2000
accessdate=2006-05-24 ] As it begins to collide with the
interstellar medium, it slows down before finally ceasing altogether. The point where the solar wind slows down is the termination shock; the point where the interstellar medium and solar wind pressures balance is called the heliopause; the point where the interstellar medium, travelling in the opposite direction, slows down as it collides with the heliosphere is the bow shock.
The solar wind consists of particles,
ionized atoms from the solar corona, and fields, in particular magnetic fields. As the Sun rotates once in approximately 27 days, the magnetic field transported by the solar wind gets wrapped into a spiral. Variations in the Sun's magnetic field are carried outward by the solar wind and can produce magnetic storms in the Earth's own magnetosphere.
In March 2005, it was reported that measurements by the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) instrument onboard the
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory(SOHO) have shown that the heliosphere, the solar wind-filled volume which prevents the solar system from becoming embedded in the local (ambient) interstellar medium, is not axisymmetrical, but is distorted, very likely under the effect of the local galactic magnetic field.cite journal
author=Lallement, R.; Quémerais, E.; Bertaux, J. L.; Ferron, S.; Koutroumpa, D.; Pellinen, R.
title=Deflection of the Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Flow Across the Heliospheric Interface
journal=Science | year=2005 | volume=307 | issue=5714
pages=1447–1449 | accessdate=2007-05-25 | doi=10.1126/science.1107953
Heliospheric current sheet
heliospheric current sheetis a ripple in the heliosphere created by the Sun's rotating magnetic field. Extending throughout the heliosphere, it is considered the largest structure in the Solar System and is said to resemble a "ballerina's skirt" [cite journal |author=Mursula, K.; Hiltula, T., |url=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2003GeoRL..30vSSC2M&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&format=&high=42ca922c9c03266 |title=Bashful ballerina: Southward shifted heliospheric current sheet |year=2003 |journal=Geophysical Research Letters |volume=30 |issue=22 |pages=2135 |doi=10.1029/2003GL018201]
The heliosphere's outer structure is determined by the interactions between the solar wind and the winds of interstellar space. The solar wind streams away from the Sun in all directions at speeds of several hundred km/s (about 1,000,000 mph) in the Earth's vicinity. At some distance from the Sun, well beyond the orbit of
Neptune, this supersonic wind must slow down to meet the gases in the interstellar medium. This takes place in several stages:
* The solar wind is traveling at
supersonicspeeds within the solar system. At the termination shock, a standing shock wave, the solar wind falls below its speed of sound and becomes subsonic.
* Once subsonic, the solar wind may be affected by the ambient flow of the interstellar medium. Pressures cause the wind to form a comet-like tail behind the Sun, called the heliosheath.
* The outer surface of the heliosheath, where the heliosphere meets the interstellar medium, is called the heliopause. This is the edge of the entire heliosphere.
* The heliopause causes turbulence in the interstellar medium as the sun orbits the
Galactic Center. The bow shock, outside the heliopause, is a turbulent region caused by the pressure of the advancing heliopause against the interstellar medium.
The termination shock is the point in the heliosphere where the solar wind slows down to
subsonicspeed (with respect to the star) due to interactions with the local interstellar medium. This causes compression, heating, and a change in the magnetic field. In our solar systemthe termination shock is believed to be 75 to 90 astronomical unitscite web
author=Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J. | date =
June 24, 2002
title =The Sun's Heliosphere & Heliopause
publisher =Astronomy Picture of the Day
accessdate = 2007-05-25 ] from the Sun. In
2007, Voyager IIpassed through the sun's termination shock. [http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/voyager-1210.html] Voyager II actually passed through the termination shock five times because the shock boundary fluctuates in its distance from the sun as a result of fluctuations in solar flareactivity; i.e., changes in the ejections of gas and dust from the sun.
The shock arises because solar wind particles are emitted from stars at about 400 km/s, while the speed of sound (in the interstellar medium) is about 100 km/s. (The exact speed depends on the density, which fluctuates considerably.) The interstellar medium, although very low in density, nonetheless has a constant pressure associated with it; the pressure from the solar wind decreases with the square of the distance from the star. As one moves far enough away from the star, the pressure from the interstellar medium becomes sufficient to slow the solar wind down to below its speed of sound; this causes a
Other termination shocks can be seen in terrestrial systems; perhaps the easiest may be seen by simply running a water tap into a
sinkcreating a Hydraulic jump. Upon hitting the floor of the sink, the flowing water spreads out at a speed that is higher than the local wave speed, forming a disk of shallow, rapidly diverging flow (analogous to the tenuous, supersonic solar wind). Around the periphery of the disk, a shock front or wall of water forms; outside the shock front, the water moves slower than the local wave speed (analogous to the subsonic interstellar medium).
Going outward from the sun, the termination shock is followed by the
Heliopausewhere solar wind particles are stopped by the interstellar medium, then the bow shockpast which particles from the interstellar medium are no longer excited.
Evidence presented at a meeting of the
American Geophysical Unionin May 2005 by Dr. Ed Stonesuggests that the " Voyager 1" spacecraft passed termination shock in December 2004, when it was about 94 AU from the sun, by virtue of the change in magnetic readings taken from the craft. In contrast, " Voyager 2" began detecting returning particles when it was only 76 AU from the sun, in May 2006. This implies that the heliosphere may be irregularly shaped, bulging outwards in the sun's northern hemisphere and pushed inward in the south.cite news
first=Ker | last=Than
title=Voyager II detects solar system's edge
publisher=CNN | date=
May 24, 2006
Interstellar Boundary Explorer(IBEX) mission will attempt to gather more data on the solar system's termination shock.
The heliosheath is the region of the heliosphere beyond the termination shock. Here the wind is slowed, compressed and made turbulent by its interaction with the interstellar medium. Its distance from the
Sunis approximately 80 to 100 astronomical units (AU) at its closest point; however, the heliosheath is shaped like the coma of a comet, and trails several times that distance in the direction opposite to the Sun's path through space. At its windward side, its thickness is estimated to be between 10 and 100 AU. [cite conference
first=Pontus | last=Brandt
title=Imaging of the Heliospheric Boundary
booktitle=NASA Advisory Council Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture: White Papers
publisher=Lunar and Planetary Institute
date=February 27–March 2, 2007
location =Tempe, Arizona
url = http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/LEA/whitepapers/Brandt_whitepaper_heliospheric_imaging.pdf
format=PDF | accessdate=2007-05-25 ] The current mission of the "
Voyager 1" and " Voyager 2" space probes includes studying the heliosheath.
Detection by spacecraft
The precise distance to, and shape of the heliopause is still uncertain. Interplanetary/interstellar
spacecraftsuch as " Pioneer 10", " Pioneer 11", " Voyager 1" and " Voyager 2" are traveling outward through the solar systemand will eventually pass through the heliopause.
*It is believed that
Voyager 1crossed the termination shockand entered the heliosheathin the middle of December 2004, at a distance of 94 AU.cite web
date=1 June 2005
title=Voyager Termination Shock
publisher=Department of Physics and Astronomy (University of Iowa)
author=Donald A. Gurnett
accessdate=2008-02-06] An earlier report that this had occurred as early as August 2002 (at 85 AU) is now generally believed to have been premature.cite web
date=25 May 2005
title=Voyager 1 reaches the edge of the solar system
Voyager 2" crossed the termination shock on August 30 2007at 84 AU,cite web
date=10 December 2007
title=Voyager 2 probe reaches solar system boundary
accessdate=2008-02-06] showing evidence of denting in the heliosphere, believed to be caused by an interstellar magnetic field. [ [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/voyager/voyager-20071210.html Voyager 2 Proves Solar System Is Squashed NASA.gov #2007-12-10] ]
Pioneer 10and 11 probes have both stopped communicating, it will never be known where they pass into the heliosheath.
The heliopause is the theoretical boundary where the
Sun's solar windis stopped by the interstellar medium; where the solar wind's strength is no longer great enough to push back the stellar winds of the surrounding stars.
According to one
hypothesis, [cite web
author=Wood, B. E.; Alexander, W. R.; Linsky, J. L.
July 13, 2006
title =The Properties of the Local Interstellar Medium and the Interaction of the Stellar Winds of epsilon Indi and lambda Andromedae with the Interstellar Environment
publisher =American Astronomical Society
accessdate = 2007-05-25 ] there exists a region of hot hydrogen known as the hydrogen wall between the bow shock and the heliopause. The wall is composed of interstellar material interacting with the edge of the heliosphere.
Another hypothesis suggests that the heliopause could be smaller on the side of the solar system facing the Sun's orbital motion through the galaxy. It may also vary depending on the current velocity of the solar wind and the local density of the interstellar medium. It is known to lie far outside the orbit of
Neptune. The current mission of the " Voyager 1" and "2" spacecraft is to find and study the termination shock, heliosheath, and heliopause". Voyager 1" reached the termination shock on May 23-24, 2005, [cite web
first=Bill | last=Steigerwald | date=
May 24, 2005
title=Voyager Enters Solar System's Final Frontier
publisher=American Astronomical Society
accessdate= 2007-05-25 ] and "
Voyager 2" reached it on August 30, 2007according to NASA. [cite web
first= | last= | date=
December 10, 2007
title=Voyager 2 Proves Solar System Is Squashed
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
accessdate= 2007-05-25 ] It is anticipated that both missions may ultimately reach the heliopause itself. In the mean time, the
Interstellar Boundary Explorer(IBEX) mission will attempt to image the heliopause from Earth orbit within two years of its 2008 launch.
When particles emitted by the sun bump into the interstellar ones, they slow down while releasing energy. Many particles accumulate in and around the heliopause, highly energised by their negative acceleration, creating a shock wave.
An alternative definition is that the heliopause is the
magnetopausebetween the solar system's magnetosphereand the galaxy's plasma currents.
It is hypothesized that the
Sunalso has a bowshock produced in its travels within the interstellar medium, as shown in the figure. The shock is named from its resemblance to the wake left by a ship's bow and is formed for similar reasons, though of plasma instead of water. Bowshocks will occur if the interstellar medium is moving supersonically 'toward' the sun, since its solar wind moves 'away' from the sun supersonically. When the interstellar wind hits the heliosphere it slows and creates a region of turbulence. NASA's Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell believe the solar bowshock may lie at around 230 AU from the Sun.
This phenomenon has been observed by NASA's orbital
GALEXtelescope. The red giant star Mirain the constellation Cetushas been shown to have both a cometlike debris tail of ejecta from the star, and a distinct bowshock preceding it in the direction of its movement through space (at over 130 kilometers per second).
Heliospheric current sheet
Coronal mass ejection
* Voyager Program
References and further reading
* [http://helios.gsfc.nasa.gov/heliosph.html The Heliosphere (Cosmicopia)]
* [http://web.mit.edu/space/www/helio.review/axford.suess.html The Heliosphere] , MIT Space Plasma Group
* [http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/interstellar.html Voyager Interstellar Mission Objectives]
* [http://www.uiowa.edu/~ournews/2003/december/120803gurnett.html UI's Don Gurnett Says Voyager 1 Is Approaching Edge Of Solar System]
December 8, 2003Univ. of Iowa Press release
* [http://solar-heliospheric.engin.umich.edu The Solar and Heliospheric Research Group at the University of Michigan]
* [http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/solar/suess/Interstellar_Probe/ISP-ObservObj.html Observing objectives] of
NASA's [http://interstellar.jpl.nasa.gov/ Interstellar Probe] .
* [http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/space/05/25/voyager.space/index.html CNN: NASA: Voyager I enters solar system's final frontier] –
May 25, 2005
* [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg18625015.000 "New Scientist": Voyager 1 reaches the edge of the solar system] –
May 25, 2005
* [http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2006/21sep_voyager.htm?list33024 Surprises from the Edge of the Solar System] – Voyager 1 Newest Findings as of September 2006
* [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AdSpR..34...66W The heliospheric hydrogen wall and astrospheres]
* [http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrm/R/heliosphere.html Heliosphere] , has a diagram.
* [http://www.igpp.ucr.edu/global_heliosphere.htm Global Structure of the Heliosphere]
* [http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrm/pubabs.html Publications in Refereed Journals]
* [http://www.galex.caltech.edu/ NASA GALEX (Galaxy evolution Explorer) homepage at Cal Tech]
* [http://www.astronomycast.com/astronomy/episode-65-the-end-of-our-tour-through-the-solar-system/ Heliosphere]
Astronomy Castepisode #65, includes full transcript.
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