Toe (automotive)


Toe (automotive)

In automotive engineering, toe is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects. This can be contrasted with steer, which is the antisymmetric angle, i.e. both wheels point to the left or right, in parallel (roughly). Positive toe, or toe in, is the front of the wheel pointing in towards the centreline of the vehicle. Negative toe, or toe out, is the front of the wheel pointing away from the centreline of the vehicle. Toe can be measured in linear units, at the front of the tire, or as an angular deflection.

In a rear wheel drive car, increased front toe in ("i.e." the fronts of the front wheels are closer together than the backs of the front wheels) provides greater straight-line stability at the cost of some sluggishness of turning response, as well as a little more tire wear as they are now driving a bit sideways. On front wheel drive cars, the situation is more complex.

Toe is always adjustable in production automobiles, even though caster angle and camber angle are often not adjustable. Maintenance of front end alignment, which used to involve all three adjustments, currently involves only setting the toe; in most cases, even for a car in which caster or camber are adjustable, only the toe will need adjustment.

One related concept is that the proper toe for straight line travel of a vehicle will not be correct while turning, since the inside wheel must travel around a smaller radius than the outside wheel; to compensate for this, the steering linkage typically conforms more or less to Ackermann steering geometry, modified to suit the characteristics of the individual vehicle.

It should be noted that individuals who decide to adjust their car's static ride height, either by raising or lowering, should immediately have the car properly aligned. The common misconception is that Camber angle causes an increased rate of tire wear, when in fact camber's contribution to tire wear is usually only visible over the entire life of the tire.Fact|date=June 2008

ee also

*Caster angle
*Camber angle

External links

* [http://www.ozebiz.com.au/racetech/theory/align.html Camber, Caster, Toe - What does it all mean?]
* [http://www.240edge.com/performance/tuning-toe.html Toe and Race Car Suspension Tuning]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Toe (disambiguation) — Toe or TOE or similar can refer to: * Toes, the digits of the foot of a human or animal * Toé , a common South American name for Datura and related plants * Toe (automotive), or Toe in, the angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis… …   Wikipedia

  • Automotive suspension design — is an aspect of automotive engineering, concerned with designing the suspension for cars and trucks.The process entails *selecting appropriate vehicle level targets *selecting a system architecture *choosing the location of the hard points , or… …   Wikipedia

  • toe-out — ˈ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ noun ( s) Etymology: from toe out, v. : inclination of the wheels of an automotive vehicle so that either pair is closer together at the back than at the front compare toe in …   Useful english dictionary

  • toe-in — noun Date: 1928 1. camber 3 2. adjustment of the front wheels of an automotive vehicle so that they are closer together at the front than at the back …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Heel-and-toe — is a driving technique used mostly in performance driving [http://www.nasaproracing.com/hpde/heelandtoe.html] , although some drivers use it on the road in everyday conditions in the interests of effectiveness. It involves operating the throttle… …   Wikipedia

  • Camber angle — From the front of the car, a right wheel with a negative camber angle …   Wikipedia

  • Углы установки колёс — Запрос «Развал» перенаправляется сюда; см. также другие значения. Углы установки автомобильных колёс, известные в обиходе как «развал схождение», влияют на устойчивость автомобиля, его управляемость и износ шин. Содержание 1 Для всех колёс 1.1… …   Википедия

  • Caster angle — is the angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car an imaginary line that runs… …   Wikipedia

  • Tracking — can refer to: Tracking (education), separating children into different classes according to their academic ability Tracking, in computer graphics, a vital part of match moving Tracking, in portfolio management, matching or comparing with a stock… …   Wikipedia

  • Развал-схождение — Содержание 1 Для всех колёс 1.1 Развал 1.2 Схождение 2 Для управляемых колёс …   Википедия


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.