Sussex County, New Jersey

Infobox U.S. County
county = Sussex County
state = New Jersey


founded year = 1753
founded date = 8 June
seat = Newton
largest city = Vernon
area_total_sq_mi = 536 | area_total_km2 = 1388
area_land_sq_mi = 521
area_land_km2 = 1350
area_water_sq_mi = 15 | area_water_km2 = 38
area percentage = 2.75%
census yr = 2006
pop = 153384
density_sq_mi = 276.7
density_km2 = 103.9
web = www.sussex.nj.us

The County of Sussex (also known as Sussex County) is the northernmost county in the State of New Jersey. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. As of the 2000 Federal decennial census, 144,166 persons resided in Sussex County of which nearly 95% were white. Sussex County is the 91st wealthiest county in the United States with its per capita income being $26,992.

The county was founded on 8 June 1753 from portions of Morris County."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 229.] The county seat of Sussex County is the Town of NewtonGR|6.

History

Origin of the county's name

Sussex County was named by Royal Governor Jonathan Belcher (1689-1757) for Sussex in England which was the ancestral seat of His Grace, Thomas Pelham-Holles, first Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and first Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1693-1768), who at the time was the Secretary of State for the Northern Department, and later the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1754-1756, 1757-1762). Pelham-Holles, whose office oversaw British affairs in North America, was Governor Belcher's political superior. During his term as Governor of New Jersey (1747-1757), Belcher named many municipalities in honor of important British political figures, most of whom were superior to him in rank or precedence. It is believed that he did so in order to curry political favor and regain a level of standing that was diminished from his scandal which precipitated his removal from the Governorship of Massachusetts in 1741. [ Snell, James P. (ed.) History of Sussex and Warren Counties, New Jersey. (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1881), 149 ff..] [Haffenden, Peter. "Colonial appointments and patronage under the duke of Newcastle, 1724–1739" in "English Historical Review", 78 (1963), 417–35.]

Sussex, in England, was notable historically as one of the seven kingdoms of the Heptarchy (A.D. 500–850), which were later unified under Egbert of Wessex (c. 770–839) into the Kingdom of England.

ettlement of Sussex County

Though lacking much historical evidence, local tradition asserts that in the 1650s, Dutch adventurers from New Amsterdam started mines in the now-defunct Pahaquarry Township, building the Old Mine Road to transport copper ore to Esopus on the Hudson River. [This notion is the subject of many books, including: Decker, Amelia Stickney. "That Ancient Trail". (Trenton, New Jersey: Privately published, 1942); Hine, Charles Gilbert. "The Old Mine Road". (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1908).] Sources indicate that first settlement by European colonists began circa 1690-1710, by Dutch settlers from New York along the Delaware River, and in the decades subsequent, Germans via Philadelphia, and English colonists from New England, Long Island, Newark, and Salem County, New Jersey.

Government

Board of Chosen Freeholders

The County of Sussex is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders that consists of five members elected at-large to serve three-year terms. Seats are elected on a staggered basis over three years, with two seats available in the first year, two seats the following, and then one seat. All terms of office begin on January 1 and end on December 31. The Board of Chosen Freeholders is the center of legislative and administrative responsibility for the County of Sussex. It is responsible for writing and adopting a budget and overseeing the spending of funds appropriated by that budget.

Many county services do overlap those provided by municipalities within the county, however, the Board of Chosen Freeholders is responsible for the following tasks:

: "Public Safety and Emergency Management, Community College and Technical School, the County Library System, Social Services, Youth Services, Community Service, Mental Health, Division of Senior Services, [The County] Nursing Home [formerly the Alms House] , Environmental and Public Health Services, Mosquito Control, the Medical Examiner’s Office, the County Jail and Detention Center, Farmland and Open Space Preservation, Economic Development, Road and Bridge Maintenance and Repair, the Para Transit System and Transportation Planning, Solid Waste Planning, the County Master Plan, including Water Resource Planning."

As of 2008, members of the Sussex County Board of Chosen Freeholders are Freeholder Director [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?CID=27&TID=7 Harold J. Wirths] (R, term ends December 31, 2010; Wantage Township), Deputy Director [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?CID=28&TID=7 Glen Vetrano] (R, 2009; Hampton Township), [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?CID=26&TID=7 Phillip R. Crabb] (R, 2008; Franklin Borough), [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?CID=25&TID=7 Jeffrey M. Parrott] (R, 2010; Wantage Township) and [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?CID=24&TID=7 Susan M. Zellman] (R, 2009; Stanhope). [http://www.sussex.nj.us/Cit-e-Access/TownCouncil/?TID=7&TPID=591 Sussex County Board of Chosen Freeholders] , published on the County of Sussex (New Jersey) website (no further authorship information available). Accessed February 15, 2008.]

Constitutional Officers

As with each county in New Jersey, three elected positions, known as "constitutional officers" are required by the New Jersey State Constitution.

The office of County Clerk, a position which is elected for a term of five years, is currently occupied by Erma Gormley (R). The office of County Surrogate, elected also for at term of five years, is currently occupied by Nancy Fitzgibbons (R). The County Sheriff, a position which has a term of three years, is currently Robert Untig (R).

Municipalities

The following are Sussex County's 24 incorporated municipalities:
* Andover Township (township)
* Andover (borough)
* Branchville (borough)
* Byram Township (township)
* Frankford Township (township)
**Augusta, New Jersey
* Franklin (borough)
* Fredon Township (township)
* Green Township (township)
* Hamburg (borough)
* Hampton Township (township)
* Hardyston Township (township)
* Hopatcong (borough)
* Lafayette Township (township)
* Montague Township (township)
* Newton (town)
* Ogdensburg (borough)
* Sandyston Township (township)
* Sparta Township (township)
* Stanhope (borough)
* Stillwater Township (township)
* Sussex (borough)
* Vernon Township (township)
**Highland Lakes, New Jersey
* Walpack Township (township)
* Wantage Township (township)

Politics

Sussex County is a predominantly Republican area, as among registered voters, affiliations with the Republican Party outpace those of the Democratic Party by a ratio of three to one. All five members of the county board of Chosen Freeholders, all three county-wide constitutional officers, and all except a few of the 108 municipal offices among the county's 24 municipalities are held by Republicans. In the 2004 U.S. Presidential election, George W. Bush carried the county by a 29.6% margin over John Kerry, the largest margin for Bush in any county in New Jersey, with Kerry carrying the state by 6.7% over Bush. [ [http://www.njvoterinfo.org/2004presNJ.htm New Jersey Presidential Election Returns by County 2004] , Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University. Accessed August 31, 2008.]

Geography

Physical geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 536 square miles (1,388 km²), of which, 521 square miles (1,350 km²) of it is land and 15 square miles (38 km²) of it (2.75%) is water. High Point in this county is also the highest elevation in the state at 1,803 feet (549.5 m) above sea level. The county's lowest elevation is approximately 300 feet (90 m) above sea level along the Delaware River near Flatbrookville.

Much of the county is hilly, as the part of New Jersey most solidly within the Appalachian Mountains. However, the Great Valley of the Appalachians takes in a good deal of the eastern half of the county, allowing for land more amenable to agriculture.

Adjacent counties

Given Sussex County's location at the top of the state, it is bordered by counties in New Jersey as well as in neighboring New York and Pennsylvania. This region is often collectively known as the Tri-State Area. ["N.B.:" The term "Tri-State Area" also refers to the region surrounding New York City, including the states of New Jersey, New York and Connecticut.] The following counties are adjacent and contiguous to Sussex County (in order starting with the northernmost and rotating clockwise):

* Orange County, New York - northeast
* Passaic County, New Jersey - east
* Morris County, New Jersey - south
* Warren County, New Jersey - southwest
* Monroe County, Pennsylvania - west
* Pike County, Pennsylvania - northwest

National protected areas

* Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (part)
* Middle Delaware National Scenic River (part)
* Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge (part)

Economy and other factors

Early industry and commerce chiefly centered around agriculture, iron mining, shifting during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to focus on several factories and the mining of zinc. Today, Sussex County features a mix of rural farmland, forests and suburban development. Though agriculture (chiefly dairy farming) is on the decline and because the county hosts little industry, Sussex County is considered a "bedroom community" as most residents commute to neighboring counties (Bergen, Essex and Morris Counties) or to New York City for work.

Taxes

Property taxes in Sussex County have always been historically lower than its neighboring counties. Taxes on an acre of land, depending on the condition and size of the house, could be as low as $1500 a year. Typical property taxes in the county are in the $3000-$5000 a year range. This is due to low local spending, regional schools, modest Police Departments, and many municipalities have a volunteer Fire Department. Taxes on comparable property in neighboring counties, could be as high as $7000 a year or more.

Transportation

Sussex County is served by a number of roads connecting it to the rest of the state and to both Pennsylvania and New York. Interstate 80 passes through the extreme southern tip of Sussex County. Interstate 84 passes just yards north of Sussex County, but never enters New Jersey.

New Jersey's Route 15, Route 23,Route 94, Route 181, Route 183, and Route 284 pass through the County, as does U.S. Route 206

Commuter Rail available from Netcong, New Jersey on the Morris & Essex Lines of New Jersey Transit. New Jersey Transit also aims to open up the Lackawanna Cutoff, which passes through Andover and Green Townships to commuter traffic, connecting Scranton, Pennsylvania with Hoboken, New Jersey and New York City.

Sussex County has four public-use airports, all privately owned and catering to recreational pilots. They are Sussex Airport, in Wantage Township, which has a runway of 3,499 feet, Newton Airport in Andover Township, Andover Aeroflex Airport also in Andover Township, and Trinca Airport in Green Township, which has a 1,900-foot grass runway.

Television and Radio Broadcasting

Clear Channel Radio owns a cluster of 4 stations in the area.
*102.3 WSUS-FM - Franklin. Format: Adult Contemporary
*103.7 WNNJ-FM - Newton. Format: Classic Rock
*1360 WTOC - Newton. Format: Oldies
*106.3 WHCY-FM - Franklin. Format: Hot Adult Contemporary

FST Broadcasting Corp. owns WTBQ, just north of Vernon, NJ.
*1110 WTBQ - Warwick, New York (can be heard throughout Northern Sussex County). Format: NewsTalk and Sports

The radio station WNTI, 91.9 FM, is broadcast from Centenary College in Hackettstown (Warren County). It is a commercial free, public station playing progressive music. It can be heard throughout most of Sussex County. Calvary Chapel of Howell, NJ broadcasts WRDR The Bridge FM with towers in Northern New Jersey and Southern New York.

*103.1 WJUX-FM Northern NJ and New York City. Format: Religious
*99.7 WJUX-FM Sullivan and Orange Counties, NY. Format: Religious
*94.3 WJUX-FM Pamona, NY and parts of Rockland County, NY. Format: Religious

Crime

Heroin use has been on the rise and shows no signs of improvement despite efforts of law enforcement and community groups working to fight the problem. [ [http://www.njherald.com/287080465601457.php The Human Cost of Heroin] , "New Jersey Herald", May 7, 2006] .

Demographics

USCensusPop
1790=19500
1800=22534
1810=25549
1820=32752
1830=20346 |1830n=*
1840=21770
1850=22989
1860=23846
1870=23168
1880=23539
1890=22259
1900=24134
1910=26781
1920=24905
1930=27830
1940=29632
1950=34423
1960=49255
1970=77528
1980=116119
1990=130943
2000=144166
estimate=153384
estyear=2006
estref= [cite web
url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34/34037.html
title=QuickFacts: Sussex County, New Jersey
publisher=U.S. Census Bureau
accessdate=2007-09-24
]
footnote=* lost territory historical census data source: [cite web
url=http://www.wnjpin.net/OneStopCareerCenter/LaborMarketInformation/lmi01/poptrd5.htm
title=New Jersey Resident Population by County: 1880 - 1930
] [cite web
url=http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/
title=Geostat Center: Historical Census Browser
publisher=University of Virginia Library
accessdate=2007-03-02
]
As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 144,166 people, 50,831 households, and 38,784 families residing in the county. The population density was 277 people per square mile (107/km²). There were 56,528 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile (42/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 95.70% White, 1.0% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.74% from other races, and 1.14% from two or more races. 3.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.4% were of Italian, 18.1% Irish, 16.0% German, 7.2% English, 5.9% Polish and 5.2% American ancestry according to Census 2000.

By 2006, 90.3% of the county population was non-Hispanic whites. The percentage of African-Americans was up to 1.7%. Asians were now 1.9% of the population. 5.3% of the population was Latino.

In 2000 There were 50,831 households out of which 39.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.00% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.70% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the county the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 25.30% from 45 to 64, and 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $67,266, and the median income for a family was $73,335. Males had a median income of $50,395 versus $33,750 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,992. About 2.80% of families and 4.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.10% of those under age 18 and 5.40% of those age 65 or over.

Education

*Sussex County Community College is a two-year community college located at the intersection of County Route 519 and Plotts Road in Newton. Founded in 1981, SCCC currently offers 37 associate degrees and 11 certificate programs.
*Sussex County Technical School is a county-wide technical high school in Sparta Township, New Jersey. It is the home of the "McNeice Auditorium" and the "Fighting Mustangs". The school's official colors are hunter green and gold.

The Sussex County Interscholastic League, or SCIL, is the high school athletic league for most high schools in the county.

Tourism and Recreation

tate and Federal parks

* Stokes State Forest
* High Point State Park
* Swartswood State Park
* Wawayanda State Park
* Kittatinny Valley State Park
* Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
* Allamuchy Mountain State Park

Recreational Activities

Sussex County Chamber of Commerce120 Hampton House RoadNewton, NJ 07860973-579-1811www.sussexcountychamber.org

ports Franchises

Augusta is the site of Skylands Park, a minor league baseball stadium, home of the Sussex Skyhawks. The Skyhawks play in the Can-Am League. Skylands Park was the former home of the New Jersey Cardinals (from 1994-2005), but the Cardinals moved to State College, Pennsylvania making room for the Skyhawks.

Notable people in or from Sussex County

Politics, military and public service

* Thomas Oakley Anderson — United States Navy officer during the Barbary Wars (1803-1805).
* E. Scott Garrett —, politician, New Jersey General Assembly, U.S. House of Representatives.
* John W. Griggs — Governor of New Jersey.
* Daniel Haines — Governor of New Jersey.
* Hugh Judson Kilpatrick — Civil War general, diplomat.
* Ardolph Loges Kline — Mayor of New York City.
* Robert Littell — New Jersey State Senator.
* Benjamin Lundy — abolitionist and writer.
* Alison Littell McHose — New Jersey General Assembly.
* Nathaniel Pettit — Canadian politician.
* Rodman M. Price — Governor of New Jersey.
* John Rutherfurd — United States Senator (1791-1799).
* John Cleves Symmes — Revolutionary War officer and politician.

Arts, Letters, and Entertainment

* Rob Freeman — musician.
* Nicolas de Gunzburg — fashion critic, magazine editor (Vogue, Harpers), actor.
* Janeane Garofalo — actress, activist.
* John Gibson — television news host on FoxNews.
* Aline Murray Kilmer — poet, wife of Joyce Kilmer.
* Homer R. Mensch — classical double bassist, New York Philharmonic.
* Andrew Napolitano — television news commentator on FoxNews.
* William Pierson — actor.
* J. Allyn Rosser — poet, academic.
* The Misfits — musicians

cience, technology and medicine

* Charles J. Fletcher — possible inventor of the Hovercraft.
* Hudson Maxim — inventor, scientist, munitions manufacturer.
* Ross Winans — inventor, entrepreneur.

Business

* Newman E. Drake — entrepreneur, founder of Drake's Cakes.

ports

* Lou Benfatti — NFL and college football player.
* Danny Kass — Olympic and champion snowboarder.
* Troy Murphy — NBA and college basketball player.
* Russ Van Atta — Major League Baseball player.
* Dave Yovanovits — NFL and college football player.
* Chris Jent — NBA Player and Coach.
* Adam Riggs — Major League Baseball player

Miscellaneous

* Ira Condict — minister, third president of Rutgers University.
* Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd — mistress of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
* Zip the Pinhead — circus sideshow with P.T. Barnum.

References and other resources

Notes and citations

Books and printed materials

* Armstrong, William C. "Pioneer Families of Northwestern New Jersey" (Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon House, 1979).
* Cawley, James S. and Cawley, Margaret. "Exploring the Little Rivers of New Jersey" (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1942, 1961, 1971, 1993). ISBN 0813506840
* Chambers, Theodore Frelinghuysen. "The Early Germans of New Jersey: Their History, Churches, and Genealogies (Dover, New Jersey, Dover Printing Company, 1895), passim.
* Cummings, Warren D. "Sussex County: A History" (Newton, New Jersey: Newton Rotary Club, 1964). NO ISBN
* Cunningham, John T. "Railroad Wonder: The Lackawanna Cut-Off" (Newark, New Jersey: Newark Sunday News, 1961). NO ISBN
* "Documents Relating to the Colonial, Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary History of the State of New Jersey [Title Varies] . Archives of the State of New Jersey, 1st-2nd series." 47 volumes. (Newark, New Jersey: 1880-1949). NO ISBN
* Honeyman, A. Van Doren (ed.). "Northwestern New Jersey--A History of Somerset, Morris, Hunterdon, Warren, and Sussex Counties" Volume 1. (Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, 1927).
* McCabe, Wayne T. "Sussex County" (Images of America) (Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2003).
* Schaeffer, Casper M.D. (and Johnson, William M.). "Memoirs and Reminiscences: Together with Sketches of the Early History of Sussex County, New Jersey". (Hackensack, New Jersey: Privately Printed, 1907). NO ISBN
* Schrabisch, Max. "Indian habitations in Sussex County, New Jersey" Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 13. (Union Hill, New Jersey: Dispatch Printing Company, 1915). NO ISBN
* Schrabisch, Max. "Archaeology of Warren and Hunterdon counties" Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bulletin No. 18. (Trenton, N.J., MacCrellish and Quigley co., state printers, 1917). NO ISBN
* Snell, James P. "History of Sussex and Warren Counties, New Jersey, With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers". (Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1881). NO ISBN
* Snyder, John P. "The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries 1606-1968" (Trenton, New Jersey: Bureau of Geology and Topography, 1969). No ISBN
* Stickney, Charles E. "Old Sussex County families of the Minisink Region" from articles in the "Wantage Recorder" (compiled by Virginia Alleman Brown) (Washington, New Jersey: Genealogical Researchers, 1988)

Maps and atlases

* Map of Jonathan Hampton (1758) in the collection of the New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, New Jersey.
* Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. "Map of Sussex County, New Jersey". (1860) [Reprinted by the Sussex County Historical Society: Netcong, New Jersey: Esposito (Jostens), 2004.]
* Beers, Frederick W. "County Atlas of Warren, New Jersey: From actual surveys by and under the direction of F. W. Beers" (New York: F.W. Beers & Co. 1874). [Reprinted by Warren County Historical Society: Harmony, New Jersey: Harmony Press, 1994] .
* "Hagstrom Morris/Sussex/Warren counties atlas" (Maspeth, New York: Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2004).

External links


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