One-Million-Liter Test Sphere

One-Million-Liter Test Sphere
Nearest city: Frederick, Maryland
Coordinates: 39°26′3.36″N 77°25′44.52″W / 39.4342667°N 77.4290333°W / 39.4342667; -77.4290333Coordinates: 39°26′3.36″N 77°25′44.52″W / 39.4342667°N 77.4290333°W / 39.4342667; -77.4290333
Built: 1951
Architect: Unknown
Governing body: United States Army
NRHP Reference#: 77000696 [1]
Added to NRHP: November 23, 1977

The One-Million-Liter Test Sphere — also known as the Test Sphere, the Horton Test Sphere, the Cloud Study Chamber, Building 527, and the “Eight Ball” (or “8-ball”) — is a decommissioned biological warfare (BW) chamber and testing facility located on Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA. It was constructed and utilized by the U.S. Army Biological Warfare Laboratories as part of its BW research program from 1951 to 1969. It is the largest aerobiology chamber ever constructed and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.

Contents

The structure

The stainless steel test sphere, a cloud chamber used to study static microbial aerosols, is a four-story high, 131-ton structure. Its 1-inch-thick (25 mm), carbon steel hull was designed to withstand the internal detonation of "hot" biological bombs without risk to outsiders. It was originally contained within a cubical brick building.

Its purpose was the study of infectious agent aerosols and testing of pathogen-filled munitions. The device was designed to allow exposure of animals and humans to carefully controlled numbers of organisms by an aerosol (inhalational) route. Live, tethered animals were inserted into the chamber along with BW bombs for exposure tests. Human volunteers breathed metered aerosols of Q fever or tularemia organisms through ports along the perimeter of the sphere.

History

Herbert G. Tanner, the head of Camp (now Fort) Detrick's Munitions Division, had envisioned an enclosed environment where biological tests could be conducted on site, rather than at remote places like Dugway Proving Ground, Utah and Horn Island, Mississippi.

The facility was constructed during 1947 and 1948 and became operational at Camp Detrick in 1950 .

The test sphere was utilized during the Operation Whitecoat studies (1954–73), the first exposure taking place on January 25, 1955.

The test sphere has not been used since 1969, when the US offensive BW program was disestablished by President Nixon. The building housing the test sphere was destroyed by fire in 1974. However, the chamber itself was placed on the National Register of Historic Places [1] in 1977.

See also

References

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2006-03-15. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Deseret Test Center — Not to be confused with Deseret Chemical Depot. The Deseret Test Center was a U.S. Army operated command in charge of testing chemical and biological weapons during the 1960s. Deseret was headquartered at Fort Douglas, Utah. Contents 1 History 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Detrick — Frederick, Maryland Type Military Base Built 1931 In use 1931 Present Controlled by …   Wikipedia

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Frederick County, Maryland — Location of Frederick County in Maryland This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Frederick County, Maryland. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of… …   Wikipedia

  • 2001 anthrax attacks — A letter sent to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle containing anthrax powder killed two postal workers Location New York …   Wikipedia

  • List of U.S. biological weapons topics — The United States had a biological weapons program from 1943 until 1969. Today, the nation is a member of the Biological Weapons Convention and has renounced biological warfare. Contents 1 Agencies and organizations 1.1 Military and government… …   Wikipedia

  • Anthrax — For other uses, see Anthrax (disambiguation). Anthrax Classification and external resources Microphotograph of a Gram stain of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the anthrax disease …   Wikipedia

  • Operation Big Buzz — was a U.S. military entomological warfare field test conducted in the U.S. state of Georgia in 1955. The tests involved dispersing over 300,000 yellow fever mosquitoes from aircraft and through ground dispersal methods. Contents 1 Operation 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Dugway Proving Ground — testing area encompasses a vast area of the western Utah desert. Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a US Army facility located approximately 85 miles (140 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah in southern Tooele County and just north of… …   Wikipedia

  • Operation LAC — A C 119 Flying Boxcar, the type of plane used to release the chemicals Operation LAC (Large Area Coverage), was a U.S. Army Chemical Corps operation which dispersed microscopic zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) particles over much of the United States …   Wikipedia

  • Magnaporthe grisea — A conidium and conidiogenous cell of M. grisea Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.