Acacia berlandieri

Taxobox
name = "Acacia berlandieri"



regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Fabales
familia = Fabaceae
subfamilia = Mimosoideae
tribus = Acacieae
genus = "Acacia"
species = "A. berlandieri"
binomial = "Acacia berlandieri"
binomial_authority = Benth.
range_


range_map_caption = Range of "Acacia berlandieri"
status = G4
status_system = TNC

"Acacia berlandieri" (Berlandier Acacia, Guajillo Acacia, guajillo, huajillo) is a shrub native to the Southwestern United States that belongs to the Mimosaceae (wattle family). It grows 1m to 5m tall, with blossoms that are spherical and white, occurring from February through April. [http://wildflower.utexas.edu/plants/result.php?id_plant=ACBE University of Texas Native Plant Information Network] ] The "berlandieri" epithet comes from the name of Jean-Louis Berlandier [cite book
last = Holloway
first = Joel Ellis
title = A Dictionary of Common Wildflowers of Texas & the Southern Great Plains
publisher = Texas Christian University Press
date = 2005
isbn = 354063293X
] , a French naturalist who studied wildlife native to Texas and Mexico. "A. berlandieri" contains a wide variety of alkaloids and has been known to cause toxic reactions in domestic animals such as goats. [cite journal
last =Clement
first =Beverly A.
coauthors =Christina M. Goff and T. David A. Forbes
title =Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia "berlandieri"
journal =Phytochemistry
volume =46
issue =2
pages =249–254
publisher =Elsevier
date =September 1997
url =http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TH7-3SCB6WX-1N&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F1997&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b215a5ead4e2fc6cc27a4cf30ced3f5e
accessdate = 2007-04-01
doi =10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00240-9
]

Uses

"A. berlandieri" is toxic to livestock and thus should not be used as forage or fodder. [ [http://texnat.tamu.edu/cmplants/toxic/plants/guajillo.html Texas Toxic Plants] ]

Alkaloids

"A. berlandieri" contains a number of diverse alkaloids, the most plentiful of which are N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. In a recent study, researchers identified thirty-one alkaloids in samples of plant foliage, including trace amounts of five amphetamines previously believed to be human inventions: [ [http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/shulgin/adsarchive/acacia.htm Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine] ] amphetamine, methamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-methoxyamphetamine. Other trace alkaloids include DMT (found in many related species), nicotine, and mescaline (found in many cacti but infrequently in other plants). The same group of researchers later reported finding most of the same alkaloids in "A. rigidula", a related species also native to the Southwestern U.S. The findings, however, have never been confirmed or repeated, leading some researchers to believe the results were the result of cross-contamination.

ome chemical compounds found in "Acacia berlandieri"

Total alkaloids in dried leaves 0.28-0.66%.cite book
last = Hegnauer
first = Robert
authorlink =
title = Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=9fDv1RYqIRkC&dq=chemotaxonomie+der+pflanzen&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=kkne5dmPiX&sig=iprrFOkR3ClREUcAyMORs0lGjdY#PPA290,M1
publisher = Springer
series =
year = 1994
doi =
pages = 500
isbn = 3764329793
]

*Beta-methyl-phenethylamine [http://uvalde.tamu.edu/pdf/chemtdaf.pdf Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas] ]
*Catechin.]
*Fisetin.]
*Hordenine.]
*Phenethylamine.]
*Quercetin.]
*Tyramine.]
*Tryptamine 90-124 ppb in spring, 287-334 ppb in fall [http://designer-drugs.com/pte/12.162.180.114/dcd/pdf/acacia.rigidula.pdf Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff and T. David A. Fprbes, Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from "Acacia rigidula", Phytochemistry Vol. 49, No. 5. pp. 1377-1380, 1998] ]
*Dimethyltryptamine fall only, 75-114 ppb

References

External links

* [http://uvalde.tamu.edu/pdf/chemtdaf.pdf Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas]


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