Jewish quota


Jewish quota

Jewish quota was a percentage that limited the number of Jews in various establishments. In particular, in 19th and 20th centuries some countries had Jewish quotas for higher education, a special case of Numerus clausus. These were an attempt to limit the influence of ethnic and/or religious Jews.

Jewish quotas for education could be state-wide law or adopted only in certain institutions, often unofficially.

The limitation took the form of total prohibition of Jewish students, or of limiting the number of Jewish students so that their share in the students' population would not be larger than their share in the general population. In some establishments, the Jewish quota placed a limit on growth rather than set a fixed level of participation to be achieved. Countries with a history of anti-semitism, such as Germany and Hungary, had particularly strict quotas.

Jews who wanted an education used various ways to overcome this discrimination: bribing the authorities, changing their religion, or traveling to countries without such limitations. In Hungary, for example, 5,000 Jewish youngsters (including Edward Teller) left the country after the introduction of "Numerus Clausus". One American who fell victim to the Jewish quota was late physicist and Nobel laureate Richard P. Feynman, who was turned away from Columbia College in the 1930s and went to MIT instead.

Countries legislating limitations on the admission of Jewish students

*Imperial Russia: "Numerus Clausus" was enacted in 1887, stating that the share of Jewish students should be no more than 10% in cities where Jews were allowed to live, 5% in other cities, and only 3% in Moscow and St. Petersburg. These limitations were removed after the revolution of 1917.
*Hungary: a "Numerus Clausus" Act was introduced in 1920, as part of the rise of Anti-Semitism under the government of Pál Teleki. It was said that Jewish students would be no more than 6% of the student population (this was the share of Jews in the general population), compared to 30% before the war. Limitations were relaxed in 1928.See: Peter Tibor NAGY: The "numerus clausus" policy of anti-semitism or policy of higher education http://mek.oszk.hu/03700/03797/03797.htm#7
*Latvia: In 1934, under Kārlis Ulmanis authoritarian regimeFact|date=October 2008.
*Poland: see Numerus clausus in Poland and Ghetto benches.
*Romania "Numerus Clausus" was introduced in 1926.
*United States: see Numerus clausus in the United States.
*Germany: the Jewish quota, introduced on April 25, 1933, permitted 1.5% of high-school and university enrollment (5% in a single school).
*Canada: in 1920-1940s, some universities, such as McGill University, had Jewish quotas.
*United Kingdom: many Direct Grant Grammar Schools and Public Schools had 'unofficial' Jewish quotas until the 1960s when they were replaced with Asian quotas which lasted into the 1970s.
*United States: Certain universities, most notably Harvard, introduced policies which effectively placed a quota on the number of Jews admitted to the university. This reached its height in the 1920s and has now died out to the point that 1/6th of the Ivy League student population is Jewish.

Further reading

* J. Karabel. "The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton". Mariner Books, 2006. ISBN 061877355X.

External links

* [http://www.newyorker.com/critics/atlarge/articles/051010crat_atlarge Getting In: the social logic of Ivy League admissions] by Malcolm Gladwell, The New Yorker, 10 October 2005


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jewish culture — For religious Jewish culture, see Judaism and Yiddishkeit. Jewish culture Visual Arts …   Wikipedia

  • Jewish deicide — Antisemitism Part of Jewish history …   Wikipedia

  • JEWISH AGENCY — (Heb. הַסּוֹכְנוּת הַיּהוּדִית לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Ha Sokhenut ha Yehudit le Ereẓ Israel), international, nongovernment body, centered in Jerusalem, which is the executive and representative of the World zionist organization , whose aims are to… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Jewish exodus from Arab lands — The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Islamic countries. The migration started in the late 19th century, but accelerated after …   Wikipedia

  • Jewish surname — Jews have historically used Hebrew patronymic names. In the Jewish patronymic system the first name is followed by either ben or bat ( son of and daughter of, respectively), and then the father s name. ( Bar , son of in Aramaic, is also seen).… …   Wikipedia

  • Jewish Agency — ▪ Israeli history in full  Jewish Agency Of Israel,  Hebrew  Ha sokhnut Ha yehudit El eretz Yisraʾel,         international body representing the World Zionist Organization, created in 1929 by Chaim Weizmann, with headquarters in Jerusalem. Its… …   Universalium

  • Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses — Stormtroopers outside a Berlin store posting signs with the words Germans! Defend yourselves! Do not buy from Jews ( Deutsche! Wehrt Euch! Kauft nicht bei Juden! ). The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany took place on 1 April 1933, soon …   Wikipedia

  • Secular Jewish culture — embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in… …   Wikipedia

  • Racial quota — Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group while discriminating other racial groups. These quotas may be determined by governmental… …   Wikipedia

  • EDUCATION, JEWISH — This entry is arranged according to the following outline. Bibliography at the end of a section is indicated by (†). in the biblical period the nature of the sources historical survey the patriarchal period and the settlement the kingdom the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.