Cigar lighter receptacle
These sockets were not originally designed to provide electrical power, and are not an ideal
power connectorfor several reasons, notably the fact that three sizes exist (two for 12- voltDC and one for the older 6-volt DC systems) and the mating of the different sized 12 V DC plugs and jacks is problematic. Because of this, and the small-gauge wiringsometimes used, the power connections they provide are sometimes unreliable and not suitable for high-power devices.
Despite these limitations, they are often used for powering or recharging many devices; for example,
electric razors, portable spotlights, laptop computers, mobile phones, PDAs, USB adapters, digital audio players, lamps, or even thermoelectric coolers. For devices that run on regular AC line voltage, a plug-in inverter is used to convert to alternating current, and transform it up to 120 or 240 volts AC. Inverters have become so popular that some larger vehicles ( minivans, pickup trucks, SUVs, and especially recreational vehicles) come with them built-in, along with domestic AC sockets.
Low-power devices that run on even lower voltages can be plugged into these sockets by using a DC/DC converter. Universal ones have a
switchthat allows selection of 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12 volts. Some instead supply 5 volts to a USB "A" socket, allowing USB devices to be used or recharged.
The lighter is a cylinder containing a thin coil of
nichrome wire, through which high current (15-20 amps) passes when the device is activated, usually by pushing its handle in. When pushed in, the lighter is held against the force of a spring by a hook attached to a bi-metallic strip. [US patent|5,932,126] The heating elementbecomes glowing orange hot in seconds, causing the bimetallic stripto bend and unhook the mechanism, and the handle pops out. If the lighter is then promptly removed from its socket, it is capable of setting cigarettes, cigars and tinder(among other things) on fire.
In new cars, the socket might ship without the heating element (the "lighter") due to declining popularity of
smokingin cars.Fact|date=January 2008 However, the socket continues to exist to power consumer electronicsin cars as the primary purpose. Often, a vehicle may come with several outlets for convenience, such as powering a tire pump or a vacuum cleanerfrom an outlet in the trunk (boot) or rear hatch. These usually have a plastic cap tethered to them, and are usually labeled as "not" for lighters, as they are not designed to take the heatgenerated by them.
12 volt automobile plugs are regulated by UL 2089, vehicle battery adapters. This standard covers plugs and cord sets that insert into cigarette lighter receptacles. In Europe 12 volt plugs and sockets are regulated and require approvals, see "E mark" for requirements
Cigar lighters started appearing as standard equipment in automobiles in 1925 or '26. [cite web|url=http://money.cnn.com/2003/11/04/pf/autos/lighters/index.htm?cnn=yes|title=Cigarette lighters: The new cupholders?|publisher=CNN.com|accessdate=2007-06-05] In 1928 the Connecticut Automotive Specialty Company in
Bridgeport patentedthe first automotive cigar lighter with cord and reel. The modern "automatic" automotive V-Coil lighter was developed by Casco in 1956. [cite web|url=http://www.cascoglobal.com/n20845/i22128.html|title=Casco Cigar lighter Facts & Figures|publisher=Casco|accessdate=2007-06-05]
These sockets can be unreliable and the power connections they provide are limited to low current, but they are ubiquitous. Plugs often include a pilot light to indicate a connection has been made. The sockets and mating plugs are officially defined in the ANSI/SAE J563 specification.
For the 12-volt systems, the "contact point," which is the center part of the plug when viewed end-on, carries the positive voltage, whereas the "can" part, which is the outer part of the connector, carries the negative voltage (which is the "ground" connection for most American automobiles, which have a negative ground electrical system).
;6 volt cigar lighter receptacle and plug
*Receptacle inside diameter: 21.34 mm to 21.46 mm (median 21.4 mm)
*Plug body diameter: 21.08 mm to 21.23 mm (median 21.155 mm)
;12 volt cigar lighter receptacle and plug, size A
*Receptacle inside diameter: 20.93 mm to 21.01 mm (median 20.97 mm)
*Plug body diameter: 20.73 mm to 20.88 mm (median 20.805 mm)
*Most often used in American automobiles.
;12 volt cigar lighter receptacle and plug, size B
*Receptacle inside diameter: 21.41 mm to 21.51 mm (median 21.455 mm)
*Plug body diameter: 21.13 mm to 21.33 mm (median 21.18 mm)
*Most often used in European automobiles, and sometimes as a second socket in American automobiles expressly for DC power connections.
Issues using for power
Since the cigar lighter socket was designed to power a cigar lighter, using these sockets as power connectors can lead to many problems. In addition to the issues with incompatible sizes, plugs can vibrate out of the socket under normal driving conditions, owing to poor retention. There have been reports of melted plug tips.Fact|date=February 2008
An important note is to remember that most 12 volt systems charge at 13.8-14.2 volts, so one must be careful when modifying other electronics to plug in to the cigarette lighter. [cite web|url=http://www.servicemanagement365.com/Mobile_Communications_Hardware/Article405913.aspx|title=Plugging the cigar lighter gap|publisher=Service Management 365|accessdate=2007-05-30]
DIN 4165 connector
* [http://www.elecdesign.com/Globals/PlanetEE/Content/1522.html Standards And Specs For In-Seat Power On Aircraft Still In The Clouds] discusses mechanical and electrical deficiencies of using the cigar lighter socket for power.
* [http://www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_TYP=STD&PROD_CD=J563_199003 SAE J563 (Six- and Twelve Volt Cigar Lighter Receptacles)]
* [http://www.sae.org/technical/standards/USCAR4 SAE/USCAR-4 (Standard for Cigar Lighters and Power Outlets)] (USCAR=United States Council for Automtotive Research)
* [http://www.12v-parts.com | Pictures of 12 volt plugs and Sockets]
* [http://www.cascoglobal.com/n20845/i20934.html CASCO Lighter History (1925 - 1960)]
* [http://www.cascoglobal.com/n20845/i20937.html CASCO Lighter History (1960 - 2005)]
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