- Literary magazine
A literary magazine is a
periodicaldevoted to literaturein a broad sense. Literary magazines usually publish short stories, poetryand essays along with literary criticism, book reviews, biographical profiles of authors, interviews and letters. Literary magazines are often called literary journals, or little magazines, which is not meant as a pejorativebut instead as a contrast with larger commercially oriented magazines. In general, literary magazines function as a sort of literary alternative for writers by publishing the work of people who may not yet be established or accepted in the mainstream press.
History of literary magazines
Literary magazines first began to appear in the early part of the 19th century, mirroring an overall rise in the number of books, magazines and scholarly journals being published at that time. There were a number of literary magazines in Europe (especially in England and Russia) and the United States. Even though many of these magazines were not necessarily entirely literary in content and most had a short lifespan, they thrived in cities both large and small (for example, several literary magazines were published in
Charleston, South Carolina, including the "Southern Review" from 1828–32 and "Russell's Magazine" from 1857–60). [ [http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/antebellum.html Documenting the American South: Articles from "Encyclopedia of Southern Culture": Antebellum Era] ] Two important exceptions to this short-lived rule are the " North American Review," which was founded in 1815, and the " Yale Review", founded in 1819, both of which are still in print. The "North American Review" is the oldest American literary magazine, but publication was suspended during World War IIwhereas the "Yale Review" was not, making the Yale journal the oldest literary magazine in continuous publication. By the end of the century, literary magazines had become an important feature of intellectual life in many parts of the world.
Among the literary magazines that began in the early part of that century is "Poetry Magazine," founded in 1912, which published
T. S. Eliot's first poem, " The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." Other important early-20th century literary magazines include the " Virginia Quarterly Review," founded in 1925, " Southern Review" and " New Letters," both founded in 1935, and " The Times Literary Supplement", founded in 1902.
Two of the most influential — and radically different — journals of the last-half of the 20th century were "
The Kenyon Review" ("KR") and the " Partisan Review". "The Kenyon Review", founded by John Crowe Ransom, espoused the so-called New Criticism. Its platform was avowedly unpolitical. Although Ransom came from the South and published authors from that region, "KR" also published many New York-based and international authors. "The Partisan Review" was first associated with the Communist partywhich and the John Reed Club, however, it soon broke ranks with the party. Nevertheless, politics remained central to its character, while it also published significant literature and criticism.
The middle-20th century saw a boom in the number of literary magazines, which corresponded with the rise of the
small press. Among the important journals which began in this period were "Nimbus: A Magazine of Literature, the Arts, and New Ideas," which began publication in 1951 in England, the " Paris Review," which was founded in 1953, and the " Denver Quarterly", which began in 1965. The 1970s saw another surge in the number of literary magazines, with a number of distinguished journals getting their start during this decade, including " Ploughshares," " The Iowa Review," " Granta", " AGNI", " The Missouri Review," and " New England Review". Other highly regarded print magazines of recent years include " The Threepenny Review", "ZYZZYVA", " Glimmer Train", " Tin House", the Canadian magazine "Brick", and "".
One of the hallmarks of small literary magazines, particularly the small-press scene of the 1970s in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, was the fact that the editors were often poets and reciprocity was common. In other words, 'I'll publish yours if you'll publish mine' (rarely stated so bluntly)Fact|date=September 2008 was a common attitude and practice. Contrary to the expectations of many purists, academics, and mainstream publishers, this did not produce the publication of as much bad poetry as one might expect.Fact|date=September 2008 It has never been a kind of glorified
It remains an extremely open, democratic and fertile field for poets.Fact|date=September 2008 The Committee Of Small Magazine Editors and Publishers (COSMEP) was founded by Hugh Fox in the mid-1970s. It was an attempt to organize the energy of the small presses. Len Fulton, editor and founder of Dustbook Publishing, assembled and published the first real list of these small magazines and their editors in the mid-1970s. This made it possible for poets to pick and choose the publications most amenable to their work and the vitality of these independent publishers was recognized by the larger community, including the
National Endowment for the Arts, which created a committee to distribute support money for this burgeoning group of publishers called the Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines (CCLM).
Online literary magazines
Around 1996, online literary magazines began to appear. At first, some writers and readers dismissed online literary magazines as not equal in quality or prestige to their print counterparts, while others said that these were not properly magazines and were instead
ezines. Since then, though, many writers and readers have accepted online literary magazines as another step in the evolution of the independent literary journals. Among the better known online literary magazines are "", "The Barcelona Review", " Eclectica Magazine", " Literary Mama", " McSweeney's Internet Tendency", "Pindeldyboz", " Spike Magazine", " storySouth", and " Word Riot" but there are literally thousands of online literary publications and it is difficult to judge the quality and overall impact of this relatively new publishing medium. ["Technology, Genres, and Value Change:the Case of Literary Magazines" by S. Pauling and M. Nilan. "Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology" 57(7):662-672 doi10.1022/asi.20345]
List of literary magazines
Selected literary magazines
The Mississippi Review"
Small Spiral Notebook"
White Whale Review"
* [http://www.everywritersresource.com/Biglist.html Every Writer's Resource: The Big List] 2,000 Literary Magazines and 6000 links for writers.
* [http://www.boekeinsig.co.za "Boeke-Insig Magazine" An Afrikaans Magazine from South Africa focusing on books and authors. Launched September 2007]
* [http://www.clmp.org Council of Literary Magazines and Small Presses]
* [http://duotrope.com/ Duotrope's Digest] , a database of over 2125 current markets for short fiction, poetry, and novels/collections
* [http://www.poems.com/essaymodreview.htm "The Little Magazine a Hundred Years On"] A Reader's Report by Steve Evans
* [http://www.newpages.com/litmags/index.htm Newpages.com Literary Magazines List]
* [http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/LittleMagInt Little Magazine Interview Index] Housed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Special Collections, the Little Magazine Collection, one of the most extensive of its kind in the United States, includes approximately 7,000 English-language literary magazines published in the United States, Great Britain, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand, mostly in the 20th century.
* [http://www.mississippireview.com The Mississippi Review]
* [http://www.pindeldyboz.com Pindeldyboz]
* [http://www.smallspiralnotebook.com Small Spiral Notebook]
* [http://www.whitewhalereview.com White Whale Review]
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