- Calculus (disambiguation)
"Calculus" is Latin for
pebble, and has a number of meanings in English:
In mathematics and computer science
"Calculus", in its most general sense, is any method or system of
calculation. To modern theoreticians the answer to the question "what is a calculus?" is: any systematic way of reasoning [ [http://www.lfcs.inf.ed.ac.uk/reports/86/ECS-LFCS-86-1/ECS-LFCS-86-1.pdf Is Computing an Experimental Science?] ] .
Calculus", short for "Differential and Integral Calculus", which investigates motion and rates of change. The denotation "the" Calculus" is sometimes used to distinguish this from other mathematical meanings.
Precalculus, a family of mathematical topics that prepare students to begin to study differential and integral calculus.
* the calculus of sums and differences, also called the finite-difference calculus, a discrete analogue of "the" Calculus.
* In symbolic logic:
propositional calculus, which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of propositions.
predicate calculus, which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of predicates.
proof calculus, a framework for expressing systems of logical inference.
sequent calculus, a proof calculus for first-order logic.
Domain relational calculus, a calculus for the relational data model.
Functional calculus, a way to apply various types of functions to operators.
Join calculus, a theoretical model for distributed programming.
Lambda calculus, a formulation of the theory of reflexive functions that has deep connections to computational theory.
Matrix calculus, a specialized notation for multivariable calculus over spaces of matrices.
* Modal μ-calculus, a common temporal logic used by formal verification methods such as model checking.
Non-standard calculus, an approach to infinitesimal calculus using Robinson's infinitesimals.
Pi-calculus, a formulation of the theory of concurrent, communicating processes, invented by Robin Milner.
Refinement calculus, a way of refining models of programs into efficient programs.
Rho calculus, introduced as a general means to uniformly integrate rewriting and lambda calculus.
Tuple calculus, a calculus for the relational data model, inspired the SQL language.
Umbral calculus, the combinatorics of certain operations on polynomials.
calculus of variations, the study of extremal functionals.
Vector calculus(also called vector analysis), comprising specialized notations for multivariable analysis of vectors in an inner-product space.
Calculus (dental), deposits of calcium phosphate salts on teeth, also known as tartar.
Calculus (medicine), a stone formed in the body such as a gall stone or kidney stone.
* Professor Cuthbert Calculus, a fictional character in the series "
The Adventures of Tintin"
* "Calculus", a spider genus (
Caseolus calculus", a species of small land snails.
Battlefield calculus", military factoring of all known factors into the decision making and action planning process
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