Calculus (disambiguation)

﻿
Calculus (disambiguation)

"Calculus" is Latin for pebble, and has a number of meanings in English:

In mathematics and computer science

"Calculus", in its most general sense, is any method or system of calculation. To modern theoreticians the answer to the question "what is a calculus?" is: any systematic way of reasoning [ [http://www.lfcs.inf.ed.ac.uk/reports/86/ECS-LFCS-86-1/ECS-LFCS-86-1.pdf Is Computing an Experimental Science?] ] .

* "Calculus", short for "Differential and Integral Calculus", which investigates motion and rates of change. The denotation "the" Calculus" is sometimes used to distinguish this from other mathematical meanings.
* Precalculus, a family of mathematical topics that prepare students to begin to study differential and integral calculus.
* the calculus of sums and differences, also called the finite-difference calculus, a discrete analogue of "the" Calculus.
* In symbolic logic:
** the propositional calculus, which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of propositions.
** the predicate calculus, which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of predicates.
** a proof calculus, a framework for expressing systems of logical inference.
** the sequent calculus, a proof calculus for first-order logic.
* Domain relational calculus, a calculus for the relational data model.
* Functional calculus, a way to apply various types of functions to operators.
* Join calculus, a theoretical model for distributed programming.
* Lambda calculus, a formulation of the theory of reflexive functions that has deep connections to computational theory.
* Matrix calculus, a specialized notation for multivariable calculus over spaces of matrices.
* Modal μ-calculus, a common temporal logic used by formal verification methods such as model checking.
* Non-standard calculus, an approach to infinitesimal calculus using Robinson's infinitesimals.
* Pi-calculus, a formulation of the theory of concurrent, communicating processes, invented by Robin Milner.
* Refinement calculus, a way of refining models of programs into efficient programs.
* Rho calculus, introduced as a general means to uniformly integrate rewriting and lambda calculus.
* Tuple calculus, a calculus for the relational data model, inspired the SQL language.
* Umbral calculus, the combinatorics of certain operations on polynomials.
* the calculus of variations, the study of extremal functionals.
* Vector calculus (also called vector analysis), comprising specialized notations for multivariable analysis of vectors in an inner-product space.

Other meanings

* Calculus (dental), deposits of calcium phosphate salts on teeth, also known as tartar.
* Calculus (medicine), a stone formed in the body such as a gall stone or kidney stone.
* Professor Cuthbert Calculus, a fictional character in the series "The Adventures of Tintin"
* "Calculus", a spider genus (Oonopidae).
* "Caseolus calculus", a species of small land snails.
* "Battlefield calculus", military factoring of all known factors into the decision making and action planning process

References

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

• Calculus — This article is about the branch of mathematics. For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). Topics in Calculus Fundamental theorem Limits of functions Continuity Mean value theorem Differential calculus  Derivative Change of variables …   Wikipedia

• Derivative (disambiguation) — Derivative, in calculus, is a measurement of how a function changes when the values of its inputs change. Derivative may also refer to: Derivative (finance), a contract whose value is derived from that of other quantities Derivative (chemistry),… …   Wikipedia

• Pi (disambiguation) — Pi, or π is the mathematical constant equal to a circle s circumference divided by its diameter. Pi or PI may also refer to: Contents 1 Letter Pi (π) 2 Pi as a word 3 PI as an abbreviation 3.1 …   Wikipedia

• Chain (disambiguation) — A chain is a sequence of connected links. Chain may also refer to: Chain may refer to: Necklace a jewelry which is worn around the neck Mail (armour) (or chainmail ), a type of armor made of interlocking chain links Chain tool, small mechanical… …   Wikipedia

• Del (disambiguation) — Del, in vector calculus, is a vector differential operator represented by the symbol ∇ (nabla). Del may also refer to: Del Boy, fictional lead character in the BBC comedy Only Fools and Horses Del tha Funkee Homosapien, American hip hop artist In …   Wikipedia

• Chain rule (disambiguation) — Chain rule may refer to: Chain rule in calculus: Cyclic chain rule, or triple product rule: Chain rule (probability) …   Wikipedia

• Cuthbert (disambiguation) — Cuthbert is an English first name and surname. Cuthbert may refer to: Contents 1 People 2 Fictional characters 3 Other uses 4 See also People …   Wikipedia

• Del squared (disambiguation) — Del squared may refer to: The Laplace operator, a differential operator often denoted by the symbol ∇2. Aitken s delta squared process, a numerical analysis technique used for accelerating the rate of convergence of a sequence. See also Del, a… …   Wikipedia

• Negligence (disambiguation) — Negligence may refer to: In law Negligence, a concept in the law of tort Negligence per se, a legal doctrine whereby an act is considered negligent because it violates a statute or regulation Negligence in employment, several causes of action in… …   Wikipedia

• Leibniz (disambiguation) — Gottfried Leibniz (1646 – 1716) was a German philosopher and mathematician.In mathematics, several results and concepts are attributed to Leibniz:* Leibniz algebra, an algebraic structure * Leibniz formula for pi, a method for calculating pi; *… …   Wikipedia