- Calculus (disambiguation)
**"Calculus**" is Latin forpebble , and has a number of meanings in English:**In mathematics and computer science**"Calculus", in its most general sense, is any method or system of

calculation . To modern theoreticians the answer to the question "what is a calculus?" is: any systematic way of reasoning [*[*] .*http://www.lfcs.inf.ed.ac.uk/reports/86/ECS-LFCS-86-1/ECS-LFCS-86-1.pdf Is Computing an Experimental Science?*]* "

Calculus ", short for "Differential and Integral Calculus", which investigates motion and rates of change. The denotation "the" Calculus" is sometimes used to distinguish this from other mathematical meanings.

*Precalculus , a family of mathematical topics that prepare students to begin to study differential and integral calculus.

* the calculus of sums and differences, also called the finite-difference calculus, a discrete analogue of "the" Calculus.

* In symbolic logic:

** thepropositional calculus , which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of propositions.

** thepredicate calculus , which specify the rules of inference governing the logic of predicates.

** aproof calculus , a framework for expressing systems of logical inference.

** thesequent calculus , a proof calculus for first-order logic.

*Domain relational calculus , a calculus for the relational data model.

*Functional calculus , a way to apply various types of functions to operators.

*Join calculus , a theoretical model for distributed programming.

*Lambda calculus , a formulation of the theory of reflexive functions that has deep connections to computational theory.

*Matrix calculus , a specialized notation for multivariable calculus over spaces of matrices.

* Modal μ-calculus, a common temporal logic used by formal verification methods such as model checking.

*Non-standard calculus , an approach to infinitesimal calculus using Robinson's infinitesimals.

*Pi-calculus , a formulation of the theory of concurrent, communicating processes, invented by Robin Milner.

*Refinement calculus , a way of refining models of programs into efficient programs.

*Rho calculus , introduced as a general means to uniformly integrate rewriting and lambda calculus.

*Tuple calculus , a calculus for the relational data model, inspired the SQL language.

*Umbral calculus , the combinatorics of certain operations on polynomials.

* thecalculus of variations , the study of extremal functionals.

*Vector calculus (also called vector analysis), comprising specialized notations for multivariable analysis of vectors in an inner-product space.**Other meanings***

Calculus (dental) , deposits of calcium phosphate salts on teeth, also known as tartar.

*Calculus (medicine) , a stone formed in the body such as a gall stone or kidney stone.

* Professor Cuthbert Calculus, a fictional character in the series "The Adventures of Tintin "

* "Calculus", a spider genus (Oonopidae ).

* "Caseolus calculus ", a species of small land snails.

* "Battlefield calculus ", military factoring of all known factors into the decision making and action planning process**References**

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