Timeline of Nigerian history
*9th century — Bronzes found at the town of
*10th century —
*11th century —
Bornois established as an Islamic state.
*15th century —
Hausakingdoms in the north are extablished as nominally muslimstates.
*Early19th century — The
Sokoto Caliphateis established through a jihad.
*Early 19th century —
Sokoto Caliphategoes to war with the Yoruba states.
*Mid to late 19th century —
Christian missionaryactivity begins in Southern Nigeria
Southern Nigeriais conquered by the British.
*1901-1902 — The
Aro Confederacydeclines after the Anglo-Aro war.
*1903 — British conquer most of
Northern Nigeriaincluding the Sokoto Caliphate.
Lord Lugard, governor of Northern Nigeriaestablishes a system of indirect rule.
Northern Nigeriaand Southern Nigeriaare amalgamated to form Nigeria.
*1946-1960 — Nigeria enters a period of
decolonizationas Nigerian nationalismgrows.
*1950 — The conference of northern and southern delegates holds in
*1953 — The
Londonconference, regarding Nigeria's federal formula, takes place.
*1957 — Nigeria holds its constitutional conference.
*1959 — Nigeria holds its first national election to setup an independent government.
Northern Nigeriawins most of the seats of parliament.
Post Colonial Era (1960-Present)
October 1, 1960— Nigeria gains her independence from Britain; Tafawa Balewabecomes Prime Minister, and Nnamdi Azikiwebecomes President.
October 1, 1963— Nigeria severs its remaining ties to Britain, and the Nigerian First Republicis born.
December 1, 1964— The First civilian-to-civilian national election.
January 15, 1966— Nigeria's first military coupdeposes the Nigerian First Republic; Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, was assassinated along with the premier of Northern Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello, and the Finance Minister, Festus Okotie-Eboh
January 16, 1966— The Federal Military Government is formed, with General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi as the Head of Stateand Supreme Commander of the Federal Republic.
July 29, 1966— A counter-coup by military officers of northern extraction, deposes the Federal Military Government; General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi is assassinated along with Adekunle Fajuyi, Military Governor of Western Region. General Yakubu Gowon becomes Head of State.
*1967 — Ethnoreligious violence between
Igbo Christians, and Hausa/ Fulani Muslimsin Eastern and Northern Nigeria, triggers a migration of the Igbo back to the East.
May 30, 1967— General Emeka Ojukwu, Military Governor of Eastern Nigeria, declares his province an independent republiccalled Biafra, and the Nigerian-Biafran Warensues.
January 8, 1970— General Emeka Ojukwu flees into exile; His deputy Philip Effiongbecomes acting President of Biafra
January 15, 1970— Acting President of Biafra, Philip Effiongsurrenders to Nigerian forces through future President of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo, and Biafrais reintegrated into Nigeria.
July 29, 1975— General Yakubu Gowon is overthrown in a bloodless coup; General Murtala Mohammed becomes Head of State.
February 13, 1976— General Murtala Mohammed is assassinated on his way to work; His deputy, Lieutenant-General Olusegun Obasanjo becomes Head of State, and sets a date to terminate military rule.
Shehu Shagariwins the election as the first Executive President of Nigeria in the American-styled Second Republic.
October 1, 1979— Shehu Shagariis sworn in as President.
*1983 — President Shehu Shagari wins
December 31, 1983— President Shehu Shagari's government is ejected from power in a palace coup; The Second Republic ends; General Muhammadu Buhari becomes Head of State, and Chairman of the Supreme Military Council of Nigeria.
April 17, 1984— The Buhari regime promulgates Decree No. 4, the "Public Officer's Protection Against False Accusation" Decree, which made it an offence to ridicule the government by publication of false information.
*August,1985 — General Muhammadu Buhari is overthrown in a palace coup; General Ibrahim Babangida becomes Head of State and President of the Armed Forces Ruling Council of Nigeria.
Middle BeltChristian officers, led by Major Gideon Okar, attempt to overthrow Ibrahim Babangidain an unsuccessful coup.
*1992 — Two political parties, Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC)are established in President Ibrahim Babangida attempt to return to Civilian rule. Primary elections are annulled in the fall.
June 12, 1993— MKO Abiola wins the Presidential election; President Ibrahim Babangida annuls the election.
August 26, 1993— President Ibrahim Babangida steps down due to pressure from the Armed Forces Ruling Council. Ernest Shonekan assumes the reins of power as the Interim Head of State.
November 17, 1993— Ernest Shonekan is forced to resign from office. Defence Minister, Sani Abachabecomes Head of State, and establishes the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria.
March 13, 1995— The Abacha administration arrests former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjofor allegedly supporting a secret coup plot.
November 10, 1995— Human and Environmental rights activist, Ken Saro-Wiwaand eight others are hanged by the Sani Abachaadministration.
June 8, 1998— Head of State, Sani Abacha dies from a heart attack; Abdusalami Abubakarbecomes Head of State, and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria; The Abubakar administration lifts the ban on political activities, and initiates a one-year transition to return to civilian rule.
June 15, 1998— Former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjois released from prison.
February 10, 1999— Former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjowins the presidential election.
May 29, 1999— The Nigerian Fourth Republicis inaugurated. Olusegun Obasanjois sworn in as the second Executive President of Nigeria.
December 19, 1999— President Obasanjo orders troops to raid the town of Odiin the Niger Delta, in response to the murders of twelve policement at the hands of local milita; The troops razed the town of Odi.
January 27, 2000— Sharia lawis established in the predominantly muslim Zamfara state; Eleven other states in the north soon follow suit.
*May,2000 — Religious riots erupt in Kaduna over the implementation of
June 5, 2000— The Obasanjo administration establishes the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) to tackle the human and ecological issues in the Niger Deltaregion of southern Nigeria.
October 10, 2002— The International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled against Nigeriain favor of Cameroonover the disputed oil-rich Bakassipeninsula territory.
*2002 — Religious riots erupt over the Miss World pageant hosted in
Abuja; The pageant is subsequently moved to London.
*April,2003 — President
Olusegun Obasanjowins reelection as president.
May 29, 2003— President Olusegun Obasanjois sworn in for a second term as president.
*2004 — Ethnoreligious violence erupts in
Plateau State; President Obasanjo declares a state of emergencyin the state.
May 16, 2006— The National Assembly of Nigeriavotes against a constitutional amendment to remove term limits; President Obasanjo is prevented from contesting a third term in office.
June 13, 2006— President Olusegun Obasanjomeets with his Camerooniancounterpart Paul Biya, and UN Secretary General, Kofi Ananin New Yorkto resolve dispute talks over Bakassi.
August 1, 2006— Nigerian troops begin to pull out of Bakassi; Bakassibecomes Cameroonianterritory.
March 15, 2007— The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) releases the names of 24 candidates for the presidential elections. Vice President Atiku Abubakaris excluded from the list.
April 21, 2007— Umaru Yar'Adua, Governor of Katsina State, is elected as the President of Nigeria.
* [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/0aeb0a416fb1f9b4c51f60a0f5ec00d9.htm REUTERS - Nigeria Chronology]
* [http://www.brookings.edu/fp/saban/events/20051207.htm Muslim Civic Cultures and Conflict Resolution: The Challenge of Democratic Federalism in Nigeria — John N. Paden]
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