Allahabad


Allahabad

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Allahabad
latd = 25.45
longd = 81.85
state_name = Uttar Pradesh
district = Allahabad
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Mr.Jitendr Nath Singh
altitude = 98
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 1,015,348
population_total_cite = [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20040616075334/www.censusindia.net/results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999] Official census data of Indian cities as on 2001]
population_density =
population_density_cite =
area_magnitude = 7
area_total =
area_telephone = 0532
postal_code = 211xxx
vehicle_code_range = UP-70
footnotes =

Allahabad (Hindi: इलाहाबाद, Urdu: الہ آباد "Ilāhābād") is a city in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, situated at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.

The name is derived from the one given to the city by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1583. The name in Indian languages generally is IAST|Ilāhābād; ilāh being Arabic for "(a) god" (in this context from Din-i-Ilahi, the religion founded by Akbar), and "-ābād" is Persian for "to construct or to create"(opposite of "barbad", or "to destroy").

The ancient name of the city is Prayāga (Sanskrit for "place of sacrifice") and is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. It is one of four sites of the Kumbh Mela, the others being Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik. It has a position of importance in the Hindu religion and mythology since it is situated at the confluence of the holy rivers Ganga and Yamuna, and Hindu belief says that the invisible Sarasvati River joins here also.

Because solar events in Allahabad occur 5 hours and 27.4 minutes ahead of Greenwich, the city is very close to the reference point for IST or Indian Standard Time which is + 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich. Allahabad is -2.6 minutes behind IST and Varanasi is +2 minutes ahead of IST. Actual IST longitude is between these two cities.

Allahabad At A Glance

Allahabad one of the fastest developing cities of UP. It is also one of the cleanest cities of UP.Allahabad is situated at the confluence of river Ganga and Yamuna. It encompasses a large area and is an inland peninsula surrounded by the rivers Ganga and Yamuna from three sides with only one side connected to the mainland. Because of this reason and immense traffic, Allahabad is also famous for its large number of grand and magnificent bridges.

Allahabad is also famous for producing prime ministers of India in some form or another. Jawahar Lal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzari Lal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandrashekhar were all either born in Allahabad, are alumni of Allahabad University or elected from a constituency in Allahabad. In this way Allahabad has produced 7 out of 14 Prime Ministers of India.

History of Allahabad

Allahabad or Prayagraj is a historian's paradise. History lies embedded everywhere, in its fields, forests and settlements. Forty-eight kilometres, towards the southwest, on the placid banks of the Jamuna, the ruins of Kaushambi, at one time capital of the Vatsa kingdom and later a thriving center of Buddhism, bear silent testimony to a forgotten and bygone era. On the eastern side, across the river Ganga and connected to the city by the Shastri Bridge is Jhusi, identified with the ancient city of Pratisthanpur, capital of the Chandra dynasty. About 58 kilometres northwest is the medieval site of Kara with its impressive wreckage of Jayachand's fort. Sringverpur, another ancient site discovered relatively recently, has become a major attraction for tourists and antiquarians alike.

Allahabad is an extremely important and integral part of the Ganga Yamuna Doab, and its history is inherently tied with that of the Doab region, right from the inception of the town.

The city was known earlier as Prayāga - a name that is still commonly used. That fact that it is an ancient town is illustrated by supposed references in the Vedas to Prayag, where Brahma, the Hindu Creator of the Universe, is believed to have attended a sacrificial ritual. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished ware objects in Prayag, further corroborating the conjecture that Prayag existed as a town as early as 600 B.C. Prayag was also important in the ancient Buddhist period as attested by the inscriptions on the Pillar of Asoka.

The Puranas record that Yayati left Prayag and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu. His five sons Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu became the main tribes of the Rigveda.

When the Aryans first settled in what they termed the "Aryavarta", or Madhyadesha, Prayag or Kaushambi was an important part of their territory. The Vatsa (a branch of the early Indo-Aryans) were rulers of Hastinapur (near present day Delhi), and they established the town of Kaushambi near present day Prayag. They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.

In the times of the Ramayana, Prayag was made up of a few rishis' huts at the confluence of the sacred rivers, and much of the vast country was continuous jungle. Lord Rama, the main protagonist in the Ramayana, spent some time here, at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj, before proceeding to nearby Chitrakoot.

The Doaba region, including Prayag was controlled by several empires and dynasties in the ages to come. It became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan empire of the west before becoming part of the local Kannauj empire which became very powerful.

Objects unearthed in Prayag indicate that it was part of the Kushana empire in the 1st century AD. In his memoirs on India, Huien Tsang, the Chinese chronicler who travelled through India during Harshavardhana's reign (A.D. 607-647), writes that he visited Prayag in A.D. 643.

When the Muslim rule came, Prayag became a part of the Delhi Sultanate when the town was annexed by Mhd Ghori in A.D. 1193. Then the Mughals took over from the slave rulers of Delhi and under them Prayag rose to prominence once again.

Acknowledging the strategic position of Prayag in the Doaba or the "Hindostan" region, at the confluence of its defining rivers which had immense navigational potentials, Akbar built a magnificent fortndash one of his largestndash on the banks of the holy Sangam and re-christened the town as Illahabad in 1575. The Akbar fort has an Ashokan pillar and some temples, and is largely a military barracks. On the southwestern extremity of Allahabad lies Khusrobagh; it has three mausoleums, including that of Jehangir's first wife – Shah Begum.

It was from Allahabad that Prince Salim, later to become emperor Jehangir, revolted against his father, the Mughal emperor Akbar. In 1602, prince Salim held a parallel imperial court in Akbar's fort here, ignoring the royal summons to leave Allahabad and proceed to Agra. However, before his death in 1605, Akbar named Salim his successor. The history repeated itself when in his (Muslim League) presidential address on December 29, 1930 at Allahabad, Muhammad Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India named Pakistan.

Before colonial rule was imposed over Allahabad, the city was rocked by Maratha incursions. But the Marathas also left behind two beautiful eighteenth century temples with intricate architecture.

In 1765, the combined forces of the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II lost the Battle of Buxar to the British. Although, the British did not take over their states, they established a garrison at the Prayag fort - realising its strategic position as the gateway to the north west. Governor General Warren Hastings later took Allahabad from Shah Alam and gave it to Awadh alleging that he had placed himself in the power of the Marathas.

In 1801 the Nawab of Awadh ceded the city to the British East India Company. Gradually the other parts of Doaba and adjoining region in its west (including Delhi and Ajmer-Mewara regions) were won by the British. When these north western areas were made into a new Presidency called the "North Western Province of Agra", with its capital at Agra. Allahabad remained an important part of this state.

In 1834, Allahabad became the seat of the Government of the Agra Province and a High Court was established. But a year later both were relocated to Agra.

In 1845, missionaries established the Apostolic Vicariate of Patna, which later became the Diocese of Allahabad.

In 1857, Allahabad was active in the Indian Mutiny. After the mutiny, the British truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with Punjab and transferred the capital of the North west Provinces to Allahabad, which remained so for the next 20 years.

In 1877 the provinces of Agra (NWPA) and Awadh were merged to form a new state which was called the United Provinces. Allahabad was the capital of this new state till the 1920s.

Education

Allahabad has renowned universities, institutes and colleges that are famous not only in India but also abroad.Allahabad is a hub of students coming from all over India to seek knowledge at the prestigious:
*University of Allahabad has recently been bestowed upon the Central University status and is often called the "Oxford of the East".
*MNNIT Allahabad, one of the twenty NITs is among the few Institutes of National Importance of India. It is consistently rated among the most premier T-Schools of India.
*Allahabad Agricultural Institute- Deemed University is the oldest such institute in South Asia. It has produced a number of scientists, agricultural engineers and professionals working in India and abroad.
*Harish Chandra Research Institute is a very famous research institute.
*IIIT-A is a very famous and well known institute started by Ministry of Human Resource Development (Govt. of India) to provide an outstanding and highly rated educational experience with state-of-the-art infrastructure. IIIT-A is also a rated among top 20 Engineering Schools in India.
*BIT Its an extension center of the famous engineering college BIT-Mesra. BIT Mesra is considered of the top engineering colleges of India

Geography

It is located in the southern part of the state, at coord|25|28|N|81|50|E|, and stands at the confluence of the Ganga (Ganges), and Yamuna rivers. The region was known in antiquity as the vats country. To its south west is the Bundelkhand region, to its east and south east is the Baghelkhand region, to its north and north east is the Awadh region and to its west is the (lower) doab of which it itself is a part.

Allahabad stands at a strategic point both geographically and culturally. An important part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doaba region, it is the last point of the Yamuna river and is the last frontier of the Indian west.

The land of the Allahabad district that falls between the Ganga and Yamuna is just like the rest of Doab --- fertile but not too moist, which is especially suitable for the cultivation of wheat. The non-doabi parts of the district (which were not originally a part of Allahabad but were added later by the British) viz., the southern and eastern part of the district are somewhat similar to those of adjoining Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand regions, viz. dry and rocky.

The Indian GMT longitude that is associated with Jabalpur, also passes through Allahabad, which is 343 km north of Jabalpur on the same longitude.

Reorganisation of Allahabad

Allahabad division and the district was majorly reorganised a few years ago. The Etawah and Farrukhabad districts of the Allahabad division were merged with the Agra division, while Kanpur dehat was carved out from the Kanpur district and a separate Kanpur division was created.

Parts of the western areas of Allahabad were carved out to create a new district named Kaushambi. Now the new Allahabad division consists of Allahabad, Kaushambi, Pratapgarh and Fatehpur districts.

Demography

Allahabad City has a population of 1,042,229 as per the 2001 census . It lists as the 32nd most populous city in India. Allahabad has an area of about 65 km² and is 98 m/340 ft above sea level. Languages spoken in and around Allahabad include Hindi, Urdu, Illahabadi (local dialect), and English.

The dialect of Hindi spoken in Allahabad is Awadhi, although Khari boli is most commonly used in the city area.

In the eastern, non-doabi part of the Allahabad district Bagheli dialect is more common.

All major religions are practised in Allahabad. Hindus comprise about 85% and Muslims about 12%. There are small groups of Christians, Sikhs and Buddhists.

Climate

Allahabad experiences all four seasons. The summer season is from April to June with the maximum temperatures ranging between 40 to 45 °C. Monsoon begins in early July and lasts till September. The winter season falls in the months of December, January and February. Temperatures in the cold weather could drop to freezing with maximum at almost 12 to 14 °C. Allahabad also witnesses severe fog in January resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. It does not snow in Allahabad.

Lowest temperature recorded −2 °C; highest, 48 °C. [http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=057424&refer=&units=metric]

Passenger transportation

Air

Allahabad is served by the Bamrauli Air Force Base (IXD) and is linked to Delhi and Kolkata (Calcutta) by Jet Lite and Air India regional. Other larger airports in the vicinity are Varanasi (147 km) and Lucknow (210 km).

Road

National Highway 2 runs through the center of the city. Allahabad is located in between Delhi and Kolkata on this highway. Another highway that links Allahabad is National Highway 27 that is 93 km long and starts at Allahabad and ends at Mangawan in Madhya Pradesh connecting to National Highway 7. There are other highways that link Allahabad to all parts of the country. Allahabad also has three bus stations catering to different routes - at Zero Road, Leader Road and Civil Lines. Golden quadrilateral four lane highway also passes through it. A new expressway- Ganga expressway is also proposed to pass through Allahabad.

Tourist taxis, auto-rickshaws and tempos are available for local transport. There is also a local bus service that connects various parts of the city. But the most convenient method of local transport is the cycle rickshaw. Rates are not fixed and one needs to bargain.

Train

Served by Indian Railway. Allahabad is the headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone, and is well connected by trains with all major cities, namely, Kolkata (Calcutta), Delhi, Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Lucknow,Bangalore and Jaipur. Allahabad has following railway stations with in the city limits- Prayag , Allahabad City (Rambagh), Daraganj, Allahabad Junction, Naini Jn, Prayag Ghat, Subedar Ganj & Bamrauli.

Notable people from Allahabad

*Madan Mohan Malaviya (Freedom fighter)
*Motilal Nehru (advocate and politician)
*Jawaharlal Nehru (politician and Prime Minister)
*Indira Gandhi (Prime Minister)
*Murali Manohar Joshi (politician)
*Harivansh Rai Bachchan (poet)
*Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala' (Hindi poet)
*Mahadevi Verma (poet and writer)
*Firaq Gorakhpuri (Urdu poet)
*Amitabh Bachchan (film actor)
*Dhyanchand (hockey player)
*Mohammad Kaif (cricket player)
*Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (spiritual leader)
*Ravindra Khattree (academic statistician)

ome Interesting Facts about Allahabad

1 World's first official air mail was sent from Allahabad on SATURDAY 18th FEBRUARY 1911. [ [http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Articles/Content/THE%20WORLD.html The World'S First Official Post By Aeroplane ] ]

2 Lord Caning made the famous declaration in 1858 when East India Company officially handed over control of India to the British government. It happened in a park known as Minto Park or Madan Mohan Malviya Park. [ [http://www.whereincity.com/india/uttar-pradesh/allahabad.php Allahabad ] ]

3 India's first jet plane took its flight from allahabad

4. In January 2007, more than 70 million Hindu pilgrims from around the world gathered at Allahabad for the Ardh Kumbh Mela, the world's largest religious festival and also the world's largest gathering5. The IST is calculated from Allahabad

References

External links

* [http://allahabad.nic.in/ Official website of Allahabad]
*
* [http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/42475.html Weather conditions in Allahabad]
* [http://www.studygroup.org.uk/Articles/Content/THE%20WORLD.html THE WORLD'S FIRST OFFICIAL POST BY AEROPLANE ]

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