Why Men Rule
Infobox Book |
name = Why Men Rule
cover_artist = Todd Sanders
country = United States of America
language = English
Open Court Publishing Company
release_date = 1993
media_type = Print (
pages = xii+254
isbn = 0-8126-9237-3
The Inevitability of Patriarchy
"Why Men Rule" is a book by
Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Companyin 1993. The hypothesisproposed by Goldberg is that social institutions like patriarchy, that are characterised by male dominance, can be explained by the biological differences between men and women. Thus, in his view, male dominance is quite possibly inevitable.
"Why Men Rule" is Goldberg's second book on this subject. The
library of congresscataloging-in-publication data consider it a revised editionof the first book.
* IntroductionPart I: The Inevitability of Patriarchy
# A Question and Some Ground Rules
Anthropologyand the Limits of Social Variation
# Differentiation of Dominance Tendency
# Physiological Differentiation
# Social Conformation to Psychophysical RealityPart II: Objections and Implications
# The Inadequacy of a Non-Physiological Explanation
# Confusion and
Fallacyin the Environmentalist Analysis
# Common Objections to the
Theoryof Male DominancePart III: Cognitive Differentiation
# Possible Sexual Differentiation in Cognitive
Geniusin the Arts and SciencesPart IV: The Meaning of Male and Female
# Male and Female
* Appendix: Alleged Exceptions to the Universality of Patriarchy and Male Dominance
As can be seen from the table of contents above, Goldberg divides his presentation into four sections. The first section is the main section and presents a case for the theory of male dominance. The second section claims to considers "all" the objections actually raised against this theory. ["It is possible to respond to all [this] criticism with a generic list of fallacies and errors and the questions that expose them."Why Men Rule" (Open Court: 1993), p. 155.] It also considers the implications that would follow were the theory true. The third section considers the area of cognitive differences between men and women. These lie between basic biological differences and the high-order social differences. Less information is available regarding this area, but its broad correspondence with the others is considered. Finally, the fourth section provides more philosophical reflection on the meaning and significance of "male" and "female". [Steven Goldberg, "Why Men Rule", (Chicago: Open Court, 1993).]
There is a lengthy appendix, with detailed bibliographic data regarding ethnographic reports of societies that have been claimed by some to be matriarchal. In every case the ethnographers record sufficient information to establish Goldberg's point – that these societies are actually patriarchal, not matriarchal. For a similar list at
Wikipediasee the appendix to the patriarchy article.
Part I: The Inevitability of Patriarchy
In this section Goldberg presents his main case. It has three steps.
Step One. The first thing Goldberg considers is the historical evidence of all known human societies, as observed (or written about) at different times and places, by people of both sexes and various ideological pursuasions and cultural backgrounds. As yet, out of a couple of thousand different known cultures, he believes that all demonstrate male dominance. ["Ibid"., pp. 13 ff.]
Goldberg notes that:
# There may have been cultures before recorded history without male dominance; but we just can't know.
# There may be cultures in the future without male dominance; but again we just don't know.
# Nearly all societies have dominant women from time to time; but they are exceptional.
Many societies have been put forward as demonstrating either male dominance or no dominance at all; the reader is referred to the appendix (mentioned above).
Step Two. The second thing Goldberg considers is the results of medical research into human hermaphroditism, and the biological research into sexually dimorphic behaviour of animals. In both cases, there is a clear correlation between hormones and social behaviour.POV-statement|date=August 2008 ["Ibid"., pp. 77 ff.]
Step Three. Goldberg's final step is to explain observed male dominancePOV-statement|date=August 2008, as social reinforcement of patterns of behaviour prompted by biological predispositions, some of which are mediated by hormones. ["Ibid"., pp. 103 ff.]
Part II: Objections and Implications
In this section Goldberg considers criticism of his theory as originally published.
Firstly he clarifies precisely what the evidence is, that needs some kind of explanation (this is taken from Part I above).
* He claims that anthropology shows all known societies to express male dominance.
* Hermaphroditism shows traditional gender differences in behaviour are correlated with biological differences.
* Sexual dimorphism in the behaviour of social mammals is influenced by biology. ["Ibid"., p. 121.]
Then he provides two alternative (biological, but not hormonal) explanations offered by his critics.
# Men are physically larger and stronger.
# Women have been too busy as mothers to compete. ["Ibid"., p. 125.]
He considers these inadequate because:
# Small and physically weak men are frequently found in dominant positions (certainly more often than women).
# It is only recent, wealthy societies that have freed some women to full-time motherhood. Most women have always been workers. ["Ibid"., pp. 125 f.]
He notes that these alternatives are less common among his critics than a "technological" argument, which claims male dominance is no longer necessary for the good of society. Social issues that previously needed brute strength for resolution will be solved by more efficient methods in future.
To this Goldberg answers that we have to "wait and see." The historical evidence, in his opinion, suggests men have taken on the responsible roles in hierarchies due to psychological preference, rather than due to practical necessity. Even were necessity no longer an issue, psychological preference will remain; therefore, so will male dominance. ["Ibid"., pp. 127 ff.]
This section is extensive and very thorough.Or|date=August 2008 One of the subsections is titled "Twenty-five Questions to Ask about Any Criticism of the Theory of Male Dominance". What has been summarized so far is sufficient to give an accurate impression of the nature of the section.
Part III: Cognitive Differentiation
In this section Goldberg considers the most interesting, but least understood aspect of male-female differences.
Goldberg makes it clear that even were there no cognitive differences between men and women, it would not change the factPOV-statement|date=August 2008 that men dominate socially, and they do so for biological reasons. ["Ibid"., p. 197.] However, Goldberg notes there "is" evidence to suggest that there are significant differences in male and female ways of thinking. ["Ibid"., pp. 198 ff.] So, if research uncovers more of these differences, and demonstrates the influence of biological factors more convincingly, these could well provide "additional" evidence for or against the biological foundation of male dominance.Lopsided|date=September 2008 In fact, there have been such findings since Goldberg wrote (see the literature below).
Part IV: The Meaning of Male and Female
In this section Goldberg moves from scientific sociology to philosophical sociology – from facts to significance. In other words, if the theory is true, what use is it? ["Ibid"., p. 223.]
Goldberg suggests that occupational roles find their significance in a wider set of values. In other words, changing occupational roles do not challenge society as deeply as changing values. However, in this section, Goldberg does not argue that American society has "changed" its values regarding
gender differences, rather he argues that it has "abandoned" its values. This produces, in Goldberg's opinion, an unsatisfying and unsustainable social structure. ["Ibid"., p. 224.]
Goldberg concludes the section and the book dramatically.
* [http://www.narth.com/docs/politics-gender.html 'The Politics of Gender'.]
From back cover of Open Court, soft cover, first edition, 1993.
* "Splendid—one of those rare books that changes one's mind about a profound issue. ... A book that has endured and is even more imposing than when it was first written. ... Goldberg has one of the keenest minds in the social sciences today." Joseph Adelson
* "Iron clad."
* "... persuasive and accurate. It is true, as Professor Goldberg points out, that all the claims so glibly made for societies ruled by women are nonsense. We have no reason to believe that they ever existed. ... men everywhere have been in charge of running the show. ... men have always been the leaders in public affairs and the final authorities at home."
* "Coolly, tightly, cogently, even brilliantly reasoned."
* "Absolutely plausible and a sound corrective to the psuedoscientific fad that tries to disregard genetic and hereditary influences." "
Journal of Sex Research"
* "Intellectually challenging." Rosemary Campbell,
* "The most significant work on sex differences in decades."
* "A classic."
* "A classic."
Ernest van den Haag
* "A classic."
When Wish Replaces Thought"
Fads and Fallacies in the Social Sciences"
* Baron-Cohen, Simon. "The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain". New York: Perseus Books Group, 2003.
* Brown, Donald. "
Human Universals". New York: McGraw Hill, 1991.
* Brizendine, Louann. "The Female Brain". New York: Morgan Road Books, 2006.
* Mead, Margaret. 'Do We Undervalue Full-Time Wives'. "
Redbook" 122 (1963).
* Moir, Anne and David Jessel. "
Brain Sex: The Real Difference Between Men and Women".
* Pinker, Steven. "
The Blank Slate: A Modern Denial of Human Nature". London: Penguin Books, 2002.
* Goldberg, Steven. " [http://www.amazon.com/Why-Men-Rule-Theory-Dominance/dp/0812692373 Why Men Rule:] A Theory of Male Dominance". Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993.
* Seligman, Daniel. ' [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_n6_v46/ai_14987616 Why Men Rule:] A Theory of Male Dominance'. "National Review", April 4, 1994.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Rule of St. Augustine — • Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine s relation to monasticism Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Rule of… … Catholic encyclopedia
Rule of law — The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. Thomas Paine stated in his pamphlet Common Sense (1776): For as in absolute governments the king is law, so in free countries the law ought to be king; and… … Wikipedia
Rule of three (writing) — For other uses, see Rule of Three. The Three Bears The rule of three is a principle in writing that suggests that things that come in threes are inherently funnier, more satisfying, or more effective than other numbers of things. The… … Wikipedia
Why Man Creates — Infobox Film name = Why Man Creates image size = caption = director = Elaine Bass Saul Bass producer = writer = narrator = starring = music = cinematography = editing = distributor = released = 1968 runtime = 29 minutes country = USA language =… … Wikipedia
why should the devil have all the best tunes? — Many hymns are sung to popular secular melodies, a practice that was especially favoured by the Methodists. This saying is commonly attributed to the English evangelist Rowland Hill (1744–1833). 1859 W. CHAPPELL Popular Music II. 748 The… … Proverbs new dictionary
The Golden Rule — Not to be confused with the Golden Law or the Golden ratio. This term refers to the maxim do as you would be done by . For other uses, see Golden Rule (disambiguation). The maxim of the golden rule is exemplified in many Christian stories … Wikipedia
List of Mr. Men — The following is a list of Mr. Men, from the children s book series by Roger Hargreaves, also adapted into the children s television programme The Mr. Men Show. Books one (Mr. Tickle) to forty three (Mr. Cheerful) were written by Hargreaves, and… … Wikipedia
List of X-Men (TV series) episodes — This list regards the 1990s X Men series; for the series starting in 2000, see List of X Men: Evolution episodes; for the 2011 anime series, see List of Marvel Anime episodes. The 1992 X Men animated series debuted on October 31, 1992 on the Fox… … Wikipedia
NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship — NCAA Men s Basketball Championship redirects here. For other division tournaments, see NCAA basketball tournament (disambiguation). NCAA Men s Division I Basketball Championship Current season or competition: 2011 NCAA Men s Division I Basketball … Wikipedia
Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia — History of Cambodia This article is part of a series Early history … Wikipedia