Diogenes of Oenoanda

Diogenes of Oenoanda (or Oinoanda) was an Epicurean Greek from the 2nd century AD who carved a summary of the philosophy of Epicurus onto a portico wall in the ancient city of Oenoanda in Lycia (modern day southwest Turkey). The surviving fragments of the wall, which originally extended about 80 meters, form an important source of Epicurean philosophy. The inscription sets out Epicurus' teachings on physics, epistemology, and ethics. It was originally about 25 000 words along and filled 260 square meters of wall space. Less than a third of it has been recovered.



Nothing is known about the life of Diogenes apart from the limited information he reveals to us. The inscription itself, which had been dated to the late 2nd century,[1] has now been assigned on epigraphic grounds to the Hadrianic period.[2] Diogenes was wealthy enough to acquire a large tract of land in the city of Oenoanda to construct (or possibly buy) a piazza to display his inscription. As a man who had found peace by practicing the doctrines of Epicurus, he tells us that in his old age he was motivated "to help also those who come after us" and "to place therefore the remedies of salvation by means of this porch."[3]

The inscription

Diogenes constructed a rectangular piazza surrounded by a portico, and furnished with statues.[3] On one of the smaller sides he placed a portal, with perhaps his mausoleum on the opposite side. On the two larger sides he inscribed a lengthy account of Epicurean doctrines.[3] The inscription was 2.37 meters high,[4] and extended about 80 meters. It was originally about 25 000 words long and filled about 260 square meters of wall space.[5] It was discovered in 1884, and the first 64 fragments were published in 1892. Since then, more fragments have been discovered, notably in a series of excavations led by Martin Ferguson Smith.[4] Perhaps a quarter of the inscription has been recovered.[4] New parts are being discovered in the excavations of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut;[6] among the parts discovered in 2008 was a statement on Plato's theory of cosmogony.[7]

The inscription contains three treatises written by Diogenes as well as various letters and maxims:

  • A Treatise on Ethics, which describes how pleasure is the end of life; how virtue is a means to achieve it; and explains how to achieve the happy life.[8]
  • A Treatise on Physics, which has many parallels with Lucretius, and includes discussions on dreams,[9] the gods, and contains an account of the origin of humans and the invention of clothing, speech and writing.[10]
  • A Treatise on Old Age, which appears to have defended old age against the jibes of the young, although little of this treatise survives.[9]
  • Letters from Diogenes to his friends, which includes a letter addressed to a certain Antipater concerning the Epicurean doctrine of innumerable worlds.[8]
  • Epicurean maxims, a collection of the sayings of Epicurus and other eminent Epicureans, which was appended to the end of the treatise on ethics.[11]
  • Letters of Epicurus, which includes a letter to Epicurus' mother on the subject of dreams.[9]



  • Morford, Mark P. O. (2002), The Roman Philosophers: From the Time of Cato the Censor to the Death of Marcus Aurelius, Routledge, ISBN 0415188520 
  • Powell, John Undershell; Barber, Eric Arthur (1921), New Chapters in the History of Greek Literature: Recent Discoveries in Greek Poetry and Prose of the Fourth and Following Centuries BC, Clarendon Press 
  • Reale, Giovanni (1990), A History of Ancient Philosophy: The Schools of the Imperial Age, SUNY Press, ISBN 0791401294 
  • Smith, Martin Ferguson (1996), The philosophical inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, ISBN 3700125968 
  • Smith, Martin Ferguson (2001), Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, Hackett, ISBN 1591023203 

Further reading

  • Martin Ferguson Smith, (1996), The philosophical inscription of Diogenes of Oinoanda. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3700125968
  • Martin Ferguson Smith, (2003), Supplement to Diogenes of Oinoanda The Epicurean Inscription. Bibliopolis. ISBN 8870884414
  • Pamela Gordon, (1996), Epicurus in Lycia: The Second-century World of Diogenes of Oenoanda. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472104616
  • Clay, Diskin. The Philosophical Inscription of Diogenes of Oenoanda: New Discoveries 1969-1983. edited by W. Haase(1990) 2446-2560 with 10 Plates and Index. (Berlin and New York)
  • Clay, Diskin. Sailing to Lampsacus: Diogenes of Oenoanda, New Fragment 7. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies vol. 14 (1973) 49-59. (reprinted as Chapter 11 of Paradosis and Survival,1998)

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Diogenes von Oinoanda — war ein antiker griechischer Autor aus der Stadt Oinoanda in Lykien (Kleinasien). Er ist der Autor einer umfangreichen Inschrift von wohl ca. 30.000 Wörtern und ca. 60 bis 80 m Länge, die an der Rückwand einer Säulenhalle an der Agora angebracht… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Epicureanism — Stephen Everson It is tempting to portray Epicureanism as the most straightforward, perhaps even simplistic, of the major dogmatic philosophical schools of the Hellenistic age. Starting from an atomic physics, according to which ‘the totality of… …   History of philosophy

  • ДИОГЕН из Эноанды —     ДИОГЕН (Διογένης) из Эноанды (Ликия, М. Азия) (1 я пол. 2 в.) греческий философ, последователь Эпикура. О нем известно по уникальному прижизненному тексту, который Диоген приказал выбить на стенах портика, стоявшего на главной площади Эноанды …   Философская энциклопедия

  • ДИОГЕН — (Διογένης) из Эноанды (Ликия, М.Азия) (1 я пол. 2 в.) – греческий философ, последователь Эпикура. О нем известно по уникальному прижизненному тексту, который Диоген приказал выбить на стенах портика, стоявшего на главной площади Эноанды (открыт в …   Философская энциклопедия

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