Infobox Information appliance
name = iPod
caption = An assortment of iPod models. From back left to front right: fifth generation
iPod classic, fourth generation iPod classic, iPod mini, second generation Product Red iPod nano, second generation iPod shuffle.
Portable media player(PMP)
unitssold = Over 150 million worldwide as of March 2008 [cite web | url=http://www.systemshootouts.org/ipod_sales.html | title=iPod Sales: Quarterly & Total | author=Charles Gaba | accessdate=2008-04-28]
iPod is a popular brand of
portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc.and launched on October 23, 2001. As of 2008, the product line-up includes the hard drive-based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the video-capable iPod Nano, the screenless iPod Shuffleand the iPhone. Former products include the compact iPod Miniand the spin-off iPod Photo(since reintegrated into the main iPod Classic line). iPod Classic models store media on an internal hard drive, while all other models use flash memoryto enable their smaller size (the discontinued Mini used a Microdriveminiature hard drive). As with many other digital music players, iPods, excluding the iPod Touch, can also serve as external data storage devices. Storage capacity varies by model.
iTunessoftware can be used to transfer music to the devices from computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating systems. [cite web | url=http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/ | title=iTunes system requirements. Apple iTunes software currently runs on Macintosh OS X 10.3.9 or OS X 10.4.9 or later and on Microsoft Windows XP (Service Pack 2) or Vista | author=Apple Inc. | accessdate=2008-05-28] For users who choose not to use Apple's software or whose computers cannot run iTunes software, several open source alternatives to iTunes are also available. [cite web | url=http://www.simplehelp.net/2007/07/08/10-alternatives-to-itunes-for-managing-your-ipod/ | title=Alternatives to iTunes for managing your iPod | author=Ross McKillop, simplehelp.net | accessdate=2008-05-28] iTunes and its alternatives may also transfer photos, videos, games, contact information, e-mail settings, Web bookmarks, and calendars to iPod models supporting those features. Apple focused its development on the iPod line's unique user interfaceand its ease of use, rather than on technical capability. As of September 2007, more than 150 million iPods had been sold worldwide, making it the best-selling digital audio playerseries in history. [cite web | url=http://www.engadget.com/2007/09/05/steve-jobs-live-apples-the-beat-goes-on-special-event/17 | title=Steve Jobs live -- Apple's "The beat goes on" special event | author=Ryan Block | date=5 September 2007 | work=Engadget | accessdate=2008-03-10]
History and design
iPod came from Apple's "digital hub" category,Kahney, Leander. [http://www.wired.com/news/columns/cultofmac/0,71956-0.html Straight Dope on the iPod's Birth] , "
Wired News", 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.] when the company began creating software for the growing market of personal digital devices. Digital cameras, camcorders and organizers had well-established mainstream markets, but the company found existing digital music players "big and clunky or small and useless" with user interfaces that were "unbelievably awful," so Apple decided to develop its own. As ordered by CEO Steve Jobs, Apple's hardware engineering chief Jon Rubinsteinassembled a team of engineers to design the iPod line, including hardware engineers Tony Fadelland Michael Dhuey, [" [http://www.designnews.com/article/CA6478178.html 2007 Engineer of the Year Finalist Michael Dhuey’s Hardware Knowledge Helps Breathe Life Into iPod, TelePresence] ", "Design News", 24 September 2007.] and design engineer Jonathan Ive. The product was developed in less than one year and unveiled on 23 October 2001. Jobs announced it as a Mac-compatible product with a 5 GB hard drive that put "1,000 songs in your pocket."
Uncharacteristically, Apple did not develop the iPod software entirely in-house, instead using
PortalPlayer's reference platform based on 2 ARM cores. The platform had rudimentary software running on a commercial microkernel embedded operating system. PortalPlayer had previously been working on an IBM-branded MP3 player with Bluetoothheadphones. Apple contracted another company, Pixo, to help design and implement the user interface under the direct supervision of Steve Jobs. As development progressed, Apple continued to refine the software's look and feel. Starting with the iPod Mini, the Chicago font was replaced with Espy Sans. Later iPods switched fonts again to Podium Sans— a font similar to Apple's corporate font, Myriad. iPods with color displays then adopted some Mac OS Xthemes like Aqua progress bars, and brushed metal in the lock interface. In 2007, Apple modified the iPod interface again with the introduction of the sixth-generation iPod Classicand third-generation iPod Nanoby changing the font to Helveticaand, in most cases, splitting the screen in half by displaying the menus on the left and album artwork, photos, or videos on the right (whichever was appropriate for the selected item).
In September 2007, during the course of a lawsuit with
patent holding companyBurst.com, Apple drew attention to a patent for a similar device that was developed in 1979. Kane Kramerpatented the idea of a "plastic music box" in 1979, which he called the IXI.Boffey, Daniel [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1053152/Apple-admit-Briton-DID-invent-iPod-hes-getting-money.html Apple admit Briton DID invent iPod, but he's still not getting any money] " Daily Mail", 2008-09-08. Retrieved on 2008-09-08.] He was unable to secure funding to renew the $120,000 worldwide patent, so it lapsed and Kramer never profited from his idea. Kramer is now in talks with the company to discuss how he will be reimbursed.
The name "iPod" was proposed by Vinnie Chieco, a freelance copywriter, who (with others) was called by Apple to figure out how to introduce the new player to the public. After Chieco saw a prototype, he thought of the movie "" and the phrase "Open the pod bay door, Hal!", which refers to the white
EVA Pods of the Discovery Onespaceship. Apple researched the trademark and found that it was already in use. Joseph N. Grasso of New Jerseyhad originally listed an "iPod" trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in July 2000 for Internet kiosks. The first iPod kiosks had been demonstrated to the public in New Jersey in March 1998, and commercial use began in January 2000, but had apparently been discontinued by 2001. The trademark was registered by the USPTO in November 2003, and Grasso assigned it to Apple Computer, Inc. in 2005. [Serial No. 78018061, Registration No. 2781793, records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. InPub, LLC, filed an "IPOD" trademark on 1 June 1999, for "computer software and hardware." The trademark was abandoned 18 May 2000, without commercial use.]
The iPod line can play several
audio file formats including MP3, AAC/M4A, Protected AAC, AIFF, WAV, Audible audiobook, and Apple Lossless. The iPod Photo introduced the ability to display JPEG, BMP, GIF, TIFF, and PNG image file formats. Fifth and sixth generation iPod Classics, as well as third generation iPod Nanos, can additionally play MPEG-4( H.264/MPEG-4 AVC) and QuickTimevideo formats, with restrictions on video dimensions, encoding techniques and data-rates. [ [http://www.apple.com/ipodclassic/specs.html iPod Classic Technical Specs] ] Originally, iPod software only worked with Mac OS; iPod software for Microsoft Windowswas launched with the second generation model. [ [http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/ iTunes Downloads] ] Unlike most other media players, Apple does not support Microsoft's WMA audio format — but a converter for WMA files without Digital Rights Management(DRM) is provided with the Windows version of iTunes. MIDIfiles also cannot be played, but can be converted to audio files using the "Advanced" menu in iTunes. Alternative open-source audio formats, such as Ogg Vorbisand FLAC, are not supported without installing custom firmware onto an iPod (e.g. Rockbox).
During installation, an iPod is associated with one host computer. Each time an iPod connects to its host computer, iTunes can synchronize entire music libraries or music playlists either automatically or manually. Song ratings can be set on an iPod and synchronized later to the iTunes library, and vice versa. A user can access, play, and add music on a second computer if an iPod is set to manual and not automatic sync, but anything added or edited will be reversed upon connecting and syncing with the main computer and its library. If a user wishes to automatically sync music with another computer, an iPod's library will be entirely wiped and replaced with the other computer's library.
iPods with color displays use anti-aliased graphics and text, with sliding animations. All iPods (except shuffle and touch) have five buttons and the later generations have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — an innovation that gives an uncluttered, minimalist
interface. The buttons perform basic functions such as play, next track, etc. Other operations such as scrolling through menu items and controlling the volume are performed by using the click wheel in a rotational manner. The iPod Shuffle does not have a click wheel and instead has five buttons positioned differently from the larger models. The iPod Touch uses no buttons for any of these functions, instead relying on a multi-touchinput style similar to that of the iPhone.
The iTunes Store is an online media store run by Apple and accessed via iTunes. It was introduced on 29 April 2003 and it sells individual songs, with typical prices being US $0.99, AU $1.69 (inc. GST), NZ $1.79 (inc. GST), €0.99 (inc. VAT), or £0.79 (inc. VAT) per song. Since no other portable player supports the DRM used, only iPods can play protected content from the iTunes Store. The store became the market leader soon after its launch [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2004/aug/10itms.html iTunes Music Store Catalog Tops One Million Songs] , "
Apple Inc.", 2004-08-10. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.] and Apple announced the sale of videos through the store on 12 October 2005. Full-length movies became available on 12 September 2006. [Scott-Joynt, Jeremy. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5339470.stm Apple targets TV and film market] , " BBC News", 2006-09-12. Retrieved on 2006-09-12.]
Purchased audio files use the AAC format with added encryption. The encryption is based on the
FairPlayDRM system. Up to five authorized computers and an unlimited number of iPods can play the files. Burning the files onto an audio CD, then re-compressing can create music files without the DRM, although this results in reduced quality. The DRM can also be removed using third-party software. However, in a deal with Apple, EMIbegan selling DRM-free, higher-quality songs on the iTunes Stores, in a category called "iTunes Plus." While individual songs were made available at a cost of US$1.29, 30¢ more than the cost of a regular DRM song, entire albums were available for the same price, US$9.99, as DRM encoded albums. On 17 October 2007, Apple lowered the cost of individual iTunes Plus songs to US$0.99 per song, the same as DRM encoded tracks.
iPods cannot play music files from competing music stores that use rival-DRM technologies like
Microsoft's protected WMA or RealNetworks' Helix DRM. Example stores include Napsterand MSN Music. RealNetworks claims that Apple is creating problems for itself [Kanellos, Michael. [http://news.com.com/2100-1025_3-5177914.html Real's Glaser exhorts Apple to open iPod] , "CNet News", 2004-03-23. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] by using FairPlay to lock users into using the iTunes Store. Steve Jobs has stated that Apple makes little profit from song sales, although Apple uses the store to promote iPod sales. [Orlowski, Andrew. [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/11/07/your_99c_belong/ Your 99c belong to the RIAA – Steve Jobs] , " The Register", 2003-11-07. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] However, iPods can also play music files from online stores that do not use DRM, such as eMusicor Amie Street. Universal Music Groupdecided not to renew their contract with the iTunes Music Store on 3 July 2007. Universal will now supply iTunes in an 'at will' capacity. [Evans, Jonny. [http://www.macworld.co.uk/ipod-itunes/news/index.cfm?newsid=18459 Universal confirms iTunes contract change] , " Macworld UK", 2007-07-04. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.]
Apple debuted the
iTunes Wi-FiMusic Store on 5 September 2007, in its Media Event entitled "The Beat Goes On..." This service allows users to access the Music Store from either an iPhone or an iPod Touch and download songs directly to the device that can be synced to the user's iTunes Library.
File storage and transfer
All iPods except for the iPod Touch can function in "disk mode" as mass storage devices to store data files [ [http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=306414 iPod touch: Appears in iTunes but not in Finder or Windows Desktop ] ] . If an iPod is formatted on a Mac OS X computer it uses the HFS+ file system format, which allows it to serve as a
boot diskfor a Mac computer. [ [http://lifehacker.com/software/how-to/boot-up-your-mac-from-your-ipod-260157.php How To: Boot up your Mac from your iPod ] ] If it is formatted on Windows, the FAT32 format is used. With the advent of the Windows-compatible iPod, the default file system used on the iPod line switched from HFS+ to FAT32, although it can be reformatted to either filesystem (excluding the iPod shuffle which is strictly FAT32). Generally, if a new iPod (excluding the iPod Shuffle) is initially plugged into a computer running Windows, it will be formatted with FAT32, and if initially plugged into a Mac running Mac OS X it will be formatted with HFS+.
Unlike many other MP3 players, simply copying audio or video files to the drive with a typical
file managementapplication will not allow an iPod to properly access them. The user must use software that has been specifically designed to transfer media files to iPods, so that the files are playable and viewable. Aside from iTunes, several alternative third-party applications are available on a number of different platforms.
iTunes 7 and above can transfer purchased media of the iTunes Store from an iPod to a computer, provided that the DRM media is transferred to any of the five computers allowed for authorization with DRM media.
Media files are stored on an iPod in a hidden folder, together with a proprietary database file. The hidden content can be accessed on the host operating system by enabling
hidden filesto be shown. The audio can then be recovered manually by dragging the files or folders onto the iTunes Library or by using third-party software.
If the sound is enhanced with the iPods software's equalizer (EQ), some EQ settings — like R&B, Rock, Acoustic, and Bass Booster — can cause bass distortion too easily. [Kuzmanoski, Brian. [http://www.dapreview.net/content.php?article.133 Analysis of the iPod's equalizer] , "DAP review". Retrieved on
2007-02-17.] [ [http://www.macintouch.com/ipod14.html MacInTouch reader report of iPod sound distortion] , "MacInTouch", July 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] The equalizer amplifies the digital audio level beyond the software's limit, causing distortion (clipping) on songs that have a bass drum or use a bassy instrument, even when the amplifier level is low.Fact|date=March 2008 One possible workaround is to reduce the volume level of the songs by modifying the audio files.Fact|date=March 2008
FireWireconnection to the host computer was used to update songs or recharge the battery. The battery could also be charged with a power adapter that was included with the first four generations. The third generation began including a dock connector, allowing for FireWire or USB connectivity. This provided better compatibility with PCs, as most of them did not have FireWire ports at the time. The dock connector also brought opportunities to exchange data, sound and power with an iPod, which ultimately created a large market of accessories, manufactured by third parties such as Belkinand Griffin. The second generation iPod Shuffle uses a single 3.5 mm jack which acts as both a headphone jack and a data port for the dock.
Eventually Apple began shipping iPods with USB cables instead of FireWire, although the latter was available separately. As of the first generation iPod Nano and the fifth generation iPod Classic, Apple discontinued using FireWire for data transfer and made a full transition to
USB 2.0in an attempt to reduce cost and form factor. With these changes, FireWire could only be used for recharging.
iPod dock connector
Introduced in the third-generation iPod, a 30-pin
dock connectorallows iPods to be connected to a variety of accessories, which can range from televisions to speaker systems. Some peripherals utilize their own interface, while others use an iPod's own screen for access. Such accessories may be used for music, video, and photo playback. Because the dock connector is a proprietary interface, the implementation of the interface requires paying royalties to Apple. [cite news |first= Joel |last= Johnson |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= How the "Apple Tax" Boosts Prices on iPod & iPhone Accessories|url= http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/industry/4272628.html?page=1|work= |publisher= Popular Mechanics|date= 2008-07-10 |accessdate=2008-09-09 ]
Many accessories have been made for the iPod line. A large number are made by third party companies, although many, such as the late
iPod Hi-Fi, are made by Apple. This market is sometimes described as the iPod ecosystem. [Darlin, Damon. [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/03/technology/03ipod.html?ex=1296622800&en=91f4e87dd848693f&ei=5088 The iPod Ecosystem] . " New York Times", 2006-02-03. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.] Some accessories add extra features that other music players have, such as sound recorders, FM radio tuners, wired remote controls, and audio/visual cables for TV connections. Other accessories offer unique features like the Nike+iPodpedometer and the iPod Camera Connector. Other notable accessories include external speakers, wireless remote controls, protective cases/films and wireless earphones. [ [http://www.etymotic.com/ephp/er88.aspx In-The-Ear Bluetooth Earphones] . Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] Among the first accessory manufacturers were Griffin Technology, Belkin, JBL, Bose, Monster Cable, and SendStation.
The white earphones (or "earbuds") that ship with all iPods have become symbolic of the brand. Advertisements feature them prominently, often contrasting the white earphones (and cords) with people shown as dark
silhouettes. The original earphones came with the first generation iPod. They were revised to be smaller after Apple received complaints of the earbuds being too large. The revised earphones were shipped with second through early fifth generation iPods, the iPod Mini, and the first generation Nanos. The earbuds were revised again in 2006, featuring an even smaller and more streamlined design. This third design was shipped with late fifth generation iPods and the second-generation nanos. All first generation iPod Shuffles and the second generation up until 30 January 2007 (when color models were introduced) were shipped with the second design; those that shipped after that date were destributed with the third design of the earbuds.
In 2005, New York's Metropolitan Transportation Authority placed advertisements on the subways warning passengers that "Earphones are a giveaway. Protect your device", [Dianner. [http://flickr.com/photos/65441232@N00/27561488/ Earphones are a giveaway] , "
Flickr", 2005-07-21. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.] after iPod thefts on the subway rose from zero in 2004 to 50 in the first three months of 2005. [MacMillan, Robert. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/04/28/AR2005042800461.html Somebody Out There Wants Your iPod] , " Washington Post", 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.] BMWreleased the first iPod automobile interface, [ [http://www.ipodyourbmw.com/ iPod Your BMW] . Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] allowing drivers of newer BMW vehicles to control an iPod using either the built-in steering wheel controls or the radio head-unit buttons. Apple announced in 2005 that similar systems would be available for other vehicle brands, including Mercedes-Benz, [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2005/jan/11mercedes.html Apple & Mercedes-Benz Unveil iPod Integration Kit] , " Apple Inc.", 2005-01-11. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] Volvo, [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2005/jan/11volvo.html Apple & Volvo Announce iPod Connectivity For Entire 2005 US Model Line] , " Apple Inc.", 2005-01-11. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] Nissan, Toyota[http://www.gizmag.com/go/7945/] , Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2005/jan/11cars.html Apple & Leading Car Companies Team Up to Deliver iPod Integration in 2005] , " Apple Inc.", 2005-01-11. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] Acura, Audi, Honda, [ [http://automobiles.honda.com/models/audio_accessories.asp?ModelName=Accord%20Coupe&PHOTO=0 Honda Music Link for iPods] , " Honda". Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] Renault, Infiniti[ [http://www.apple.com/ipod/carintegration/#car_browser_infiniti Apple Car Integration page] ] and Volkswagen. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2005/sep/07ipod_auto.html Apple Teams Up With Acura, Audi, Honda & Volkswagen to Deliver Seamless iPod Experience] , " Apple Inc.", 2005-09-07. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.] Scion offers standard iPod connectivity on all their cars.
Some independent stereo manufacturers including
JVC, Pioneer, Kenwood, Alpine, Sony, and Harman Kardonalso have iPod-specific integration solutions. Alternative connection methods include adaptor kits (that use the cassette deck or the CD changer port), audio input jacks, and FM transmitters such as the iTrip— although personal FM transmitters are illegal in some countries. Many car manufacturers have added audio input jacks as standard. [ [http://www.apple.com/ipod/carintegration.html Car Integration: iPod your car] , " Apple Inc.". Retrieved on 2007-02-17.]
Beginning in mid-2007, four major airlines, United, Continental, Delta, and Emirates reached agreements to install iPod seat connections. The free service will allow passengers to power and charge an iPod, and view video and music libraries on individual seat-back displays. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/nov/14ipod.html Apple Teams Up With Continental, Delta, Emirates, & United to deliver iPod Integration] , "
Apple Inc.", 2006-11-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.] Originally KLMand Air Francewere reported to be part of the deal with Apple, but they later released statements explaining that they were only contemplating the possibility of incorporating such systems. [Marsal, Katie. [http://www.appleinsider.com/article.php?id=2240 Two of six airlines say there's no ink on iPod deal] , "AppleInsider", 2006-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.]
The third generation iPod had a weak bass response, as shown in audio tests.Machrone, Bill. [http://home.comcast.net./~machrone/playertest/playertest.htm iPod audio measurements] , "
PC Magazine", 2005. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] [Heijligers, Marc. [http://members.chello.nl/~m.heijligers/ipod/Performance/measurements.html iPod audio measurements] . Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] The combination of the undersized DC-blocking capacitors and the typical low-impedance of most consumer headphones form a high-pass filter, which attenuates the low-frequency bass output. Similar capacitors were used in the fourth generation iPods. [Heijligers, Marc. [http://homepage.mac.com/marc.heijligers/audio/ipod/engineering/engineering.html iPod circuit design engineering] , May 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] The problem is reduced when using high-impedance headphones and is completely masked when driving high-impedance (line level) loads, such as an external headphone amplifier. The first generation iPod Shuffle uses a dual-transistor output stage, rather than a single capacitor-coupled output, and does not exhibit reduced bass response for any load.
The iPod line has been upgraded many times, and each significant revision is called a "
generation". Only the most recent (highest numbered) generation and refurbished units of previous generations of the iPod line are available from Apple for each model (Classic, Nano, Shuffle, Touch). Each new generation usually has more features and refinements while typically being physically smaller and lighter than its predecessor, while usually (but not always) retaining the older model's price tag. Notable changes include the touch-sensitive click wheel replacing the mechanical scroll wheel, use of color displays, and flash memoryreplacing hard disks.
The software bundled with the first generation iPod was Macintosh-only, so Windows users had to use third-party software like
ephPodor XPlayto manage their music. When Apple introduced the second generation of iPods in July 2002, they sold two versions, one that included iTunes for Macintosh users and another that included Musicmatch Jukeboxfor Windows users. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2002/jul/17ipod.html Apple Unveils New iPods] , " Apple Inc.", 2002-07-17. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.] In October 2003, Apple released the Windows version of iTunes, [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2003/oct/16itms.html Apple Launches iTunes for Windows] , " Apple Inc.", 2003-10-16. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.] and started selling iPods that included both Macintosh and Windows versions of iTunes so that they could be used with either platform. Current iPods no longer ship with iTunes, which must be downloaded from Apple's website.
In December 2002, Apple unveiled its first limited edition iPods, with either Madonna’s,
Tony Hawk’s, or Beck’s signature or No Doubt's band logo engraved on the back for an extra US$50. [Dalrymple, Jim. [http://www.macworld.com/news/2002/12/10/ipod/index.php Limited Edition Madonna, Tony Hawk, Beck iPods] . " Macworld", 2002-09-10. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.] On 26 October 2004, Apple introduced a special edition of its fourth generation monochrome iPod, designed in the color scheme of the album " How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb" by Irish rock band U2. It had a black case with a red click wheel and the back had the engraved signatures of U2's band members. This iPod was updated alongside the iPod Photoand fifth generation iPod.
On 13 October 2006, Apple released a special edition 4 GB red iPod Nano as part of the
Product Redcampaign. An 8 GB version was released three weeks later and both of them sold for the same price as the standard models. US$10 from each sale is donated to The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria. On 5 September 2007, Apple also added a Product Red iPod Shuffle model. They did not disclose how much will be donated to charity from this model. Apple also released Special Edition Harry PotteriPods to accompany the iPod Photo. These were engraved with the HogwartsCrest on the back and were only available to purchasers of the "Harry Potter" audiobooks. They were updated when the fifth generation iPods were released, but were only available for a limited time.
In 2007, a
Cubismospecial edition 2 GB silver iPod Nano was made available only in the former Yugoslav republics. [ [http://store.apple.hr/IMC-Apple-Store/WebObjects/Asto.woa/wa/stockPageByName?name=iPod%20nano%20CUBISMO Apple trgovina ] ]
In 2005, Apple faced two lawsuits claiming
patent infringementby the iPod line and its associated technologies: [ [http://www.channelregister.co.uk/2005/03/10/apple_ipod_patent_lawsuits/ Apple faces patent lawsuits over its iPod] , "ChannelRegister", 2005-03-10. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] Advanced Audio Devices claimed the iPod line breached its patenton a "music jukebox", [ [http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT6587403&id=oawMAAAAEBAJ&dq=6,587,403 U.S. Patent 6,587,403] — Advanced Audio Devices' "music jukebox" patent.] while a Hong Kong-based IP portfolio company called Pat-rights filed a suit claiming that Apple's FairPlay technology breached a patent [ [http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT6665797&id=QrR2AAAAEBAJ&dq=6,665,797 U.S. Patent 6,665,797] — "Protection of software again against unauthorized use" (corrected to "Computer Apparatus/Software Access Control").] issued to inventor Ho Keung Tse. The latter case also includes the online music stores of Sony, RealNetworks, Napster, and Musicmatch as defendants. [ [http://www.appleinsider.com/article.php?id=1235 Apple, Sony among those named in new DRM lawsuit] , "AppleInsider", 2005-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.]
Apple's application to the
United States Patent and Trademark Officefor a patent on "rotational user inputs", [ [http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=%2260/346,237%22&OS=%2260/346,237%22&RS=%2260/346,237%22 U.S. patent application 20030095096] Apple's application on "rotational user inputs".] as used on the iPod interface, received a third "non-final rejection" (NFR) in August 2005. Also in August 2005, Creative Technology, one of Apple's main rivals in the MP3 player market, announced that it held a patent [ [http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT6928433&id=sJoVAAAAEBAJ&dq=6,928,433 U.S. Patent 6,928,433] Creative Technology's "Zen" patent.] on part of the music selection interface used by the iPod line, which Creative dubbed the "Zen Patent", granted on 9 August 2005. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4198360.stm Creative wins MP3 player patent] , " BBC News", 2005-08-30. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] On 15 May 2006, Creative filed another suit against Apple with the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. Creative also asked the United States International Trade Commissionto investigate whether Apple was breaching U.S. trade laws by importing iPods into the United States. [ [http://www.macworld.co.uk/news/index.cfm?NewsID=14646 Creative sues Apple over patent] , " Macworld UK", 2006-05-16. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.]
On 24 August 2006, Apple and Creative announced a broad settlement to end their legal disputes. Apple will pay Creative US$100 million for a paid-up license, to use Creative's awarded patent in all Apple products. As part of the agreement, Apple will recoup part of its payment, if Creative is successful in licensing the patent. Creative then announced its intention to produce iPod accessories by joining the "Made for iPod" program. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2006/aug/23settlement.html Apple & Creative Announce Broad Settlement...] , , "
Apple Inc.". Retrieved on 2007-02-17.]
Since October 2004, the iPod line has dominated digital music player sales in the United States, with over 90% of the market for hard drive-based players and over 70% of the market for all types of players. [Marsal, Katie. [http://www.appleinsider.com/article.php?id=1770 iPod: how big can it get?] , "
AppleInsider", 2006-05-24. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] During the year from January 2004 to January 2005, the high rate of sales caused its U.S. market share to increase from 31% to 65% and in July 2005, this market share was measured at 74%. In January 2007 the iPod market share reached 72.7% according to Bloomberg Online.
The release of the iPod Mini helped to ensure this success at a time when competing flash-based music players were once dominant. [jomy [http://homepage.mac.com/jomy/PhotoAlbum14.html Apple Computer (presentation slides)] ,
2005-10-18. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.] On 8 January 2004, Hewlett-Packard(HP) announced that they would sell HP-branded iPods under a license agreement from Apple. Several new retail channels were used—including Wal-Mart—and these iPods eventually made up 5% of all iPod sales. In July 2005, HP stopped selling iPods due to unfavorable terms and conditions imposed by Apple. [ [http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/05/07/29/hp_to_stop_selling_apples_ipods.html HP to stop selling Apple's iPods] , "AppleInsider", 2005-07-29. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.]
In January 2007, Apple reported record quarterly revenue of US$7.1 billion, of which 48% was made from iPod sales. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/01/17results.html Apple Reports First Quarter Results] , "
Apple Inc.", 2007-01-17. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.]
On 9 April 2007, it was announced that Apple had sold its one-hundred millionth iPod, making it the biggest selling digital music player of all time. In April 2007, Apple reported second quarter revenue of US$5.2 billion, of which 32% was made from iPod sales. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/04/25results.html Apple Reports Second Quarter Results] , "
Apple Inc.". Retrieved on 2007-04-25.] Apple and several industry analysts suggest that iPod users are likely to purchase other Apple products such as Mac computers. [Orlowski, Andrew. [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/10/11/apple_q4_2005/ For Apple, Halo effect eclipses Osborne effect] , " The Register", 2005-10-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-13.]
On 5 September 2007, during their "The Beat Goes On" event, Apple announced that the iPod line had surpassed 110 million units sold.
On 22 October 2007, Apple reported quarterly revenue of US$6.22 billion, of which 30.69% came from Apple notebook sales, 19.22% from desktop sales and 26% from iPod sales. Apple's 2007 year revenue increased to US$24.01 billion with US$3.5 billion in profits. Apple ended the fiscal year 2007 with US$15.4 billion in cash and no debt. [ [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2007/10/22results.html Apple Reports Fourth Quarter 2007 Results] , "
Apple Inc.", 2007-10-22. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.]
On 22 January 2008, Apple reported the best quarter revenue and earnings in Apple's history so far. Apple posted record revenue of $9.6 billion and record net quarterly profit of $1.58 billion. 42% of Apple's revenue for the First fiscal quarter of 2008 came from iPod sales, followed by 21% from notebook sales and 16% from desktop sales. [Apple Inc. (22 January 2008). [http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2008/01/22results.html Apple Reports First Quarter Results] . Press release. Retrieved on 2008-1-23] Apple has sold over 163M iPods to date (see chart). It also posted record Mac and iPod sales to date.
iPods have won several awards ranging from engineering excellence, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4605881.stm iPod and Bluetooth lead to prizes] , "
BBC News", 2005-06-03. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.] to most innovative audio product,cite web|coauthors = PC World Editors| title = The 25 Most Innovative Products of the Year| publisher = PC World| date = 2007-08-03| url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123942-page,2/article.html Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] to fourth best computer product of 2006. [ [http://www.macnn.com/articles/06/05/31/top.100.products.announced/ Apple wins 5 'World Class' awards] , "MacNN". Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] iPods often receive favorable reviews; scoring on looks, clean design, and ease of use. PC World says that iPod line has "altered the landscape for portable audio players".cite web|coauthors = PC World Editors| title = The 25 Most Innovative Products of the Year| publisher = PC World| date = 2007-08-03| url = http://www.pcworld.com/article/id,123942-page,2/article.html] Several industries are modifying their products to work better with both the iPod line and the AAC audio format. Examples include CD copy-protection schemes, [ [http://www.macrumors.com/pages/2004/07/20040720124549.shtml Apple, iPod, and CD Copy Protection] , "MacRumors". Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] and mobile phones, such as phones from Sony Ericssonand Nokia, which play AAC files rather than WMA.
In addition to its reputation as a respected entertainment device, iPods have also become accepted as business devices. Government departments, major institutions and international organisations have turned to the iPod line as a delivery mechanism for business communication and training, such as the Royal and Western Infirmaries in
Glasgow, Scotland where iPods are used to train new staff. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4859302.stm Hospitals train staff with iPods] , " BBC News", 2006-03-29. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.]
iPods have also gained popularity for use in education. Apple offers more information on educational uses for iPods on their website, [ [http://www.apple.com/education/itunesu_mobilelearning/ipod.html iTunes U and Mobile Learning] ] including a collection of lesson plans. [ [http://www.apple.com/au/education/ipod/lessons/ iPod in the Classroom] ] There has also been academic research done in this area in nursing educationcite journal | author = Maag, M.E.D. | year = 2006 | title = Podcasting and MP3 Players: Emerging Education Technologies. | journal = CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing | volume = 24 | issue = 1 | pages = 9–13 | url = http://www.cinjournal.com/pt/re/cin/fulltext.00024665-200601000-00005.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-08 | doi = 10.1186/1742-5581-3-1 ] and more general K-16 education.cite journal | author = Slykhuis, D. | year = 2006 | title = Have an iPod? Then you need to know this about how to use it in your classroom. | url = http://www.aace.org/newdl/index.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=22435 | accessdate = 2008-02-08 ] Duke University provided iPods to all incoming freshmen in the fall of 2004, and the iPod program continues today with modifications. [ [http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2006/04/28/ipod Duke’s Ever-Evolving iPod Initiative] ]
The advertised battery life on most models is different from the real-world achievable life. For example, the fifth generation 30 GB iPod is advertised as having up to 14 hours of music playback. An MP3.com report stated that this was virtually unachievable under real-life usage conditions, with a writer for MP3.com getting on average less than 8 hours from an iPod. [ [http://www.mp3.com/features/stories/3646.html MP3 Insider: The truth about your battery life] , "mp3.com",
2006-03-13. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.] In 2003, class action lawsuits were brought against Apple complaining that the battery charges lasted for shorter lengths of time than stated and that the battery degraded over time. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3477497.stm Apple investigates iPod batteries] , " BBC News", 2004-02-10. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.] The lawsuits were settled by offering individuals either US$50 store credit or a free battery replacement. [Horwitz, Jeremy. [http://www.ilounge.com/index.php/articles/comments/apples-ipod-battery-settlement-explained/ Apple’s iPod Battery Settlement, Explained] , "iLounge", 2005-06-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.]
iPod batteries are not designed to be removed or replaced by the user, although some users have been able to open the case themselves, usually following instructions from third-party vendors of iPod replacement batteries. Compounding the problem, Apple initially would not replace worn-out batteries. The official policy was that the customer should buy a refurbished replacement iPod, at a cost almost equivalent to a brand new one. All lithium-ion batteries eventually lose capacity during their lifetime [ [http://www.mp3newswire.net/stories/6002/li_ion.html The Curse of Lithium Ion Batteries] , "
MP3 Newswire", 2006-01-06. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.] (guidelines are available for prolonging life-span) and this situation led to a small market for third-party battery replacement kits.
Apple announced a battery replacement program on 14 November 2003, a week before [ [http://ipodbatteryfaq.com/#18 iPod Battery FAQ] . Retrieved on
2006-11-26.] a high publicity stunt and website by the Neistat Brothers. [Neistat, Casey. [http://www.ipodsdirtysecret.com/message.html A Message From the Neistat Brothers] , 2003-11-20. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] The initial cost was US$99, [ [http://www.macminute.com/2003/11/14/ipodbattery Apple offers iPod battery replacement service] , " MacMinute", 2003-11-14. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.] and it was lowered to US$59 in 2005. One week later, Apple offered an extended iPod warranty for US$59. [ [http://www.macminute.com/2003/11/21/ipodapplecare/ AppleCare for iPod now available] , " MacMinute", 2003-11-21. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.] For the iPod Nano, solderingtools are needed because the battery is soldered onto the main board. Fifth generation iPods have their battery attached to the backplate with adhesive. [Ecker, Clint. [http://arstechnica.com/reviews/hardware/video-ipod.ars/6 Vivisection of the Video iPod] , " Ars Technica", 2005-10-19. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.] [ [http://www.ipodmods.com/guides/Video/videodisassemblyguide.htm Disassemble Guide for Video iPod] . Retrieved on 2006-11-26.]
Reliability and durability
iPods have been criticized for their short life-span and fragile hard drives. A 2005 survey conducted on the MacInTouch website found that the iPod line had an average failure rate of 13.7% (although they note that comments from respondants indicate that "the true iPod failure rate may be lower than it appears"). It concluded that some models were more durable than others. [ [http://www.macintouch.com/reliability/ipodfailures.html iPod Reliability Survey] , "MacInTouch",
2005-11-28. Retrieved on 2006-10-29.] In particular, failure rates for iPods employing hard drives was usually above 20% while those with flash memory had a failure rate below 10%, indicating poor hard drive durability. In late 2005, many users complained that the surface of the first generation iPod Nano can become scratched easily, rendering the screen unusable. [ [http://www.macworld.com/news/2005/09/27/nanoscreen/index.php Apple responds to iPod nano screen concerns] , " Macworld", 2005-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] [Arthur, Charles. [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/09/23/ipod_nano_scratching/ iPod Nano owners in screen scratch trauma] , " The Register", 2005-09-25. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] A class action lawsuit was also filed. [Fried, Ina. [http://news.com.com/Suit+filed+over+Nano+scratches/2100-1047_3-5906399.html Suit filed over Nano scratches] , "CNet News", 2005-10-21. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] Apple initially considered the issue a minor defect, but later began shipping these iPods with protective sleeves.
Allegations of worker exploitation
On 11 June 2006, the British newspaper "Mail on Sunday" reported that iPods are mainly manufactured by workers who earn no more than US$50 per month and work 15-hour shifts. [ [http://www.macworld.co.uk/news/index.cfm?NewsID=14915 Inside Apple's iPod factories] , "
Macworld UK", 2006-06-12. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.] Apple investigated the case with independent auditors and found that, while some of the plant's labour practices met Apple's Code of Conduct, others did not: Employees worked over 60 hours a week for 35% of the time, and worked more than six consecutive days for 25% of the time. [Millard, Elizabeth. [http://www.newsfactor.com/story.xhtml?story_id=13100EV85O19&page=2 Is It Ethical To Own an iPod?] . Retrieved on 2007-03-20.] Foxconn, Apple's manufacturer, initially denied the abuses, [ [http://www.macnn.com/articles/06/06/19/ipod.sweatshop.claims/ Foxconn denies iPod 'sweatshop' claims] , "MacNN", 2006-06-19. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.] but when an auditing team from Apple found that workers had been working longer hours than were allowed under Chinese law, they promised to prevent workers working more hours than the code allowed. Apple hired a workplace standards auditing company, Verité, and joined the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct Implementation Group to oversee the measures. On 31 December 2006, workers at the Longhua, Shenzhenfactory (owned by Foxconn) formed a union. The union is affiliated with the world's largest and most powerful federation of trade unions, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions. [Bodeen, Chistopher. [http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/01/17/ap3334400.html Official Union Forms at Taiwanese Plant] , " Forbes", 2007-01-17. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.]
Comparison of portable media players
Comparison of iPod managers
* [http://www.apple.com/itunes/ Apple iPod] — Official website
* [http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?artnum=32222 iPod troubleshooting basics and service FAQ] — From the official website
* [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2001/11/12/313342/index.htm "Apple's 21st century Walkman"] — Brent Schlender, "Fortune", October 2001
* [http://www.newsweek.com/id/54529 iPod Nation] —
Steven Levy, " Newsweek", July 2004
* [http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.11/ipod.html The Perfect Thing] —
Steven Levy, "Wired", November 2006
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