Colitis Classification and external resources
A micrograph demonstrating cryptitis, a microscopic correlate of colitis. H&E stain.
ICD-10 K50 - K52 ICD-9 556.9 OMIM 191390 DiseasesDB 31340 MedlinePlus 001125 eMedicine ped/435 MeSH C06.405.205.265
In a medical context, the label colitis (without qualification) is used if:
- The aetiology of the inflammation in the colon is undetermined; for example, colitis may be applied to Crohn's disease at a time when the diagnosis has not declared itself.
- The context is clear; for example, an individual with ulcerative colitis is talking about their disease with a physician that knows the diagnosis.
Signs and symptoms
The signs and symptoms of colitides are quite variable and dependent on the etiology (or cause) of the given colitis and factors that modify its course and severity.
Symptoms suggestive of colitis are worked-up by obtaining the medical history, a physical examination and laboratory tests (CBC, electrolytes, stool culture and sensitivity, stool ova and parasites et cetera). Additional tests may include medical imaging (e.g. abdominal computed tomography, abdominal X-rays) and an examination with a camera inserted into the rectum (sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy).
There are many types of colitis. They are usually classified by the etiology.
Types of colitis include:
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic colitides.
- Ulcerative colitis - a chronic colitis that affects the large intestine.
- Crohn's disease - a type of IBD often leads to a colitis.
- Microscopic colitis - a colitis is diagnosed by microscopic examination of colonic tissue; macroscopically it is normal appearing.
- Lymphocytic colitis.
- Collagenous colitis.
- Diversion colitis.
- Chemical colitis.
- Ischemic colitis.
- Infectious colitis.
A well-known subtype of infectious colitis is Clostridium difficile colitis, which is informally abbreviated as "c diff colitis". It classically forms pseudomembranes and is often referred to as pseudomembranous colitis, which is its (non-specific) histomorphologic description.
Enterohemorrhagic colitis may be caused by Shiga toxin in Shigella dysenteriae or Shigatoxigenic group of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotype O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli.
Parasitic infections, like those caused by Entamoeba histolytica, can also cause colitis.
Indeterminate colitis is a term used for a colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease.
Atypical colitis is a phrase that is occasionally used by physicians for a colitis that does not conform to criteria for accepted types of colitis. It is not an accepted diagnosis per se and, as such, a colitis that cannot be definitively classified.
Severity of colitides
Fulminant colitis is any colitis that becomes worse rapidly. In addition to the diarrhea, fever, and anemia seen in colitis, the patient has severe abdominal pain and presents a clinical picture similar to that of septicemia, where shock is present. About half of human patients require surgery. In horses, the fulminant colitis known as colitis X usually results in death within 24 hours.
Irritable bowel syndrome, a separate disease, has been called spastic colitis. This name may lead to confusion, since colitis is not always a feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Since the etiology of IBS is currently unknown and possibly multifactorial, there may be some overlap in symptoms between IBS and the various forms of colitis.
How a given colitis is treated is dependent on its etiology, e.g. infectious colitis are usually treated with antimicrobial agents (e.g. antibiotics); autoimmune mediated colitis is treated with immune modulators/immune suppressants. Severe colitis can be life-threatening and may require surgery.
- ^ "Clostridium Difficile Colitis - Overview". WebMD, LLC. http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/clostridium-difficile-colitis-overview. Retrieved 2006-09-15.
- ^ Beutin L (2006). "Emerging enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, causes and effects of the rise of a human pathogen". J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53 (7): 299–305. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2006.00968.x. PMID 16930272.
- ^ Romano, C.; Famiani, A.; Gallizzi, R.; Comito, D.; Ferrau', V.; Rossi, P. (Dec 2008). "Indeterminate colitis: a distinctive clinical pattern of inflammatory bowel disease in children.". Pediatrics 122 (6): e1278–81. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2306. PMID 19047226.
- ^ Melton, GB.; Kiran, RP.; Fazio, VW.; He, J.; Shen, B.; Goldblum, JR.; Achkar, JP.; Lavery, IC. et al. (Jul 2009). "Do preoperative factors predict subsequent diagnosis of Crohn's disease after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative or indeterminate colitis?". Colorectal Dis 12 (10): 1026–32. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02014.x. PMID 19624520.
Inflammation Acute Chronic Processes Specific locationsCardiovascularDigestivemouth (Stomatitis, Gingivitis, Gingivostomatitis, Glossitis, Tonsillitis, Sialadenitis/Parotitis, Cheilitis, Pulpitis, Gnathitis) · tract (Esophagitis, Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, Enteritis, Colitis, Enterocolitis, Duodenitis, Ileitis, Caecitis, Appendicitis, Proctitis) · accessory (Hepatitis, Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, Pancreatitis) · Peritonitis
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Look at other dictionaries:
Colitis-X — Colitis X, equine colitis X or peracute toxemic colitis is a catchall term for various fatal forms of acute or peracute colitis found in horses, but particularly a fulminant colitis where clinical signs include sudden onset of severe diarrhea,… … Wikipedia
colitis — f. gastrol. Inflamación del colon que puede presentarse de forma aguda o crónica. Clínicamente se traduce por diarrea más o menos profusa que en ocasiones puede ir acompañada de deposiciones líquidas con sangre y pus, dolores abdominales y fiebre … Diccionario médico
colitis — (plural colitis) sustantivo femenino 1. Área: medicina Inflamación del colon. 2. Uso/registro: coloquial. Diarrea causada por la inflamación del colon: Me he agarrado una colitis este verano … Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española
Colitis — Co*li tis, n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? + itis.] (Med.) An inflammation of the large intestine, esp. of its mucous membrane; colonitis. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Colītis — (gr., Med.), Dickdarmentzündung … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Colitis — vgl. Kolitis … Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke
colitis — 1860, from comb. form of COLON (Cf. colon) (2) + ITIS (Cf. itis) … Etymology dictionary
colitis — f. Med. Inflamación del colon … Diccionario de la lengua española
colitis — [kō līt′is, kəlīt′is] n. [ModL < Gr kolon, colon, large intestine + ITIS] inflammation of the large intestine … English World dictionary
Colitis — Kolitis (auch Colitis) ist in der Medizin ein Oberbegriff für verschiedene akut oder chronisch verlaufende Entzündungen des Dick oder Grimmdarmes (Colon), die meist mit Durchfall einhergehen. Hierzu zählen: Chronisch entzündliche Darmerkrankungen … Deutsch Wikipedia