Hiram I


Hiram I

Hiram I (Hebrew: חִירָם, "high-born"; Standard Hebrew Unicode|"Ḥiram", Tiberian vocalization "Ḥîrām"), according to the Bible, was the Phoenician king of Tyre from 969 BC to 936 BC, succeeding his father, Abibaal. Hiram was succeeded as king of Tyre by Baal-Eser I (935-919). [Vance, Donald R. (March 1994) "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria: The Phœnician Inscriptions" "The Biblical Archaeologist" 57(1) , pp. 2-19]

Reign

During Hiram's reign, Tyre grew from a satellite of Sidon into the most important of Phoenician cities, and the holder of a large trading empire. He suppressed the rebellion of the first Tyrean colony at Utica, near the later site of Carthage.

The Bible says that he allied himself with King Solomon of Israel, the upcoming power of the region. Through the alliance with Solomon, Hiram ensured himself access to the major trade routes to Egypt, Arabia and Mesopotamia. The two kings also joined forces in starting a trade route over the Red Sea, connecting the Israelite harbour of Ezion-Geber with a land called Ophir.

Both kings grew rich through this trade and Hiram sent Solomon architects, workmen and cedar wood to build the First Temple in Jerusalem. He also extended the Tyrean harbour, enlarged the city by joining the two islands on which it was built, and built a royal palace and a temple for Melqart.

Sarcophagus

The alleged sarcophagus of Hiram is located "two hours" walk southeast of Tyre, a colossal limestone sarcophagus on a high pedestal" [http://gatchina3000.ru/brockhaus-and-efron-encyclopedic-dictionary/110/110262.htm] , so-called Qabr Hiram. [C.R.Conder and H.H.Kitchener, "The Survey of Western Palestine I. Galilee", London 1881, S. 61-64] It is not to be confused with the famous Ahiram sarcophagus.

Freemason tradition

Hiram I is plays a role in Freemasonic tradition as a provider of materials, money and craftsmen for the construction of Solomon's Temple. This comes from the Biblical account of the alliance between Solomon's Israel and Hiram I's Tyre. Most importantly, he is said to have sent his master craftsmen, Hiram Abiff, to serve as the construction's foreman. [See, "e.g.", [http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/historypage.htm "History of Masonry"] ] . Some believe that the two Hirams in the story are the same because they share a name and both are from Tyre. Hiram Abiff should be identified with the "cunning man" sent by King Hiram to help erect the temple in 2 Chronicles 2:13-14. It is likely, therefore, that a mis-interpretation of this Bible passage lead to the duplicate name. The Freemasonic tradition expands on the few, short Biblical references and creates an allegory that is not purported to be factual. During the height of Masonic membership in the United States, Hiram became a common name.

ee also

*List of kings of Tyre

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HIRAM — Heb. חִירוֹם ,חִירָם, My (divine) Brother is Exalted, apparently shortened from Aḥiram, a longer form attested as the name of a king of Byblos). (1) King of Tyre, contemporary of David and Solomon. According to the quotations from Dius and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hiram — ist der Name folgender Personen: Hiram I. (Tyros) (999–935 v. Chr.), phönizischer König Hiram Abif, Architekt nach Freimaurerlegende Hiram Bingham (1875–1956), US amerikanischer Archäologe und Politiker Hiram Bullock (1955–2008), US… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hiram — may be:* Hiram (given name) * Hiram College * Hiram Abiff, Masonic fictional characterPlaces in the United States: * Hiram, Georgia * Hiram, Maine * Hiram, OhioPeople: * Hiram I (died 930s BCE), Phoenician ruler * Hiram II (fl. 730s BCE),… …   Wikipedia

  • Hiram — Hiram, GA U.S. city in Georgia Population (2000): 1361 Housing Units (2000): 506 Land area (2000): 3.007553 sq. miles (7.789527 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.020989 sq. miles (0.054362 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.028542 sq. miles (7.843889 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Hiram, GA — U.S. city in Georgia Population (2000): 1361 Housing Units (2000): 506 Land area (2000): 3.007553 sq. miles (7.789527 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.020989 sq. miles (0.054362 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.028542 sq. miles (7.843889 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Hiram, OH — U.S. village in Ohio Population (2000): 1242 Housing Units (2000): 249 Land area (2000): 0.908451 sq. miles (2.352878 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.908451 sq. miles (2.352878 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Hiram — [hī′rəm] n. [Heb ḥīrām, prob. < aʼ ḥīrām, exalted brother] a masculine name: dim. Hi …   English World dictionary

  • Hiram — masc. proper name, from Phoenician/Hebrew Hiram, perhaps aphetic for Ahiram, lit. brother of the lofty …   Etymology dictionary

  • Hiram [1] — Hiram, 1) Sohn u. Nachfolger Abibaals als König von Tyros von 1023–990 od. 1033–999 (nach Anderen erst 980–947) v. Chr.; er war ein großer Bauliebhaber, besiegte u. unterwarf wieder die Kittier; mit David stand er in gutem Vernehmen u. sandte ihm …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hiram [2] — Hiram, so v.w. Heiligenkleid …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.