Athame


Athame

An athame or athamé is a ceremonial double-edged dagger, one of several magical tools used in Traditional Witchcraft and other pagan beliefs and religions such as Wicca for various ritual knives. It is variously pronounced /ˈæ.θə.meɪ/, /ə.ˈθeɪ.miː/, etc. A black-handled knife called an "arthame" appears in certain versions of the Key of Solomon, a grimoire originating in the Middle Ages. [MacGregor Mathers, S. Liddell (ed.) "The Key of Solomon (Clavicula Salomonis)" Revised by Peterson, Joseph H. (1999, 2004, 2005). Available [http://www.esotericarchives.com/solomon/ksol.htm here] ] .

The athame is mentioned in the writings of Gerald Gardner in the 1950s, who claimed to have been initiated into a surviving tradition of witchcraft called Wicca. The athame was their most important ritual tool, which had many uses, but was not to be used for actual physical cutting [Gardner, Gerald. "Witchcraft Today" (1954) London: Rider. p.150] .

There has been speculation [cite book |last=Heselton |first=Philip |authorlink=Philip Heselton |title=Wiccan Roots] that Gardner's interest and expertise in antique swords and knives, and in particular the magical kris knives of Malaysia and Indonesia, may have contributed to the tool's central importance in modern Wicca [Gardner, Gerald. "Keris and other Malay weapons" (1936) Singapore: Progressive Publishing Company] .

Appearance

An athame can take many forms. It frequently has a double-edged blade with a sharp point, and a handle which is often black. The handle may be inscribed with particular symbols dictated by the tradition [Farrar, Janet and Farrar, Stewart. "The Witches' Way" (1984) (published as Part 2 of "A Witches' Bible", 1996) Custer, Washington, USA: Phoenix Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-919345-92-1 p.253] . Janet and Stewart Farrar in "A Witches' Bible" suggest that the point of an athame be dulled so as to prevent un-intended physical harm during ritual use.

In "eclectic" forms of witchcraft the handle decorations range from astrological glyphs to runes, the symbols being chosen by the owner. Many fantasy-themed athames are also available from medieval and neopagan supply shops.

Use

The athame's primary use is for ritual and magical purposes only, to direct energy; if things such as herbs or cords need to be cut, another knife called a boline - a white-handled knife - is used. An exception is the "kitchen witchcraft" philosophy, which actively encourages the use of magical tools for mundane purposes to increase the witch's familiarity with them.

An athame may be employed in the demarcation of the Magic circle rite.

As a masculine principle, it is often used in combination with the chalice, as feminine principle, evoking the act of procreation, as a symbol of universal creativity. This is a symbol of the Great Rite in Wiccan rituals [Crowley, Vivianne. "Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age" (1989) London: The Aquarian Press. p.159. ISBN 0-85030-737-6] . Some modern witchcraft traditions may prefer not to use iron blades, instead preferring alternatives such as copper, bronze or wood. This is most common amongst traditions that have a particular fondness of the Sidhe, to whom iron is supposedly harmful.

Associations

Many traditions associate the athame with the masculine principle and with the element of either air or fire. Janet and Stewart Farrar suggested this difference is due to the Golden Dawn releasing false information in the hopes of preventing its rituals being used in the correct way. [Janet and Stewart Farrar, "The Witches' Way", p. 252.] . They add that a witch should always choose the association which seems the most correct to them. Touching another person's athame without permission is considered an intrusion of the owner's personal space.

Acquisition

There are rituals of consecration for a newly acquired athame, be it new, or acquired from another person [Jones, Evan John & Valiente, Doreen "Witchcraft: A Tradition Revealed" (1990) London: Robert Hale Ltd p.115] . When purchasing a knife for this purpose (or any ritual tool) it is considered important never to haggle over the price. [Doreen ValienteFact|date=February 2007]

Etymology

[
Key of Solomon. Note the Bolino (Boline) top left, Artavo (athame) below it.] The term athame derives, via a series of corruptions, from the late Latin artavus ("Quill knife"), which is well attested in the oldest mansucripts of the Key of Solomon. It means "a small knife used for sharpening the pens of scribes" ("Cultellus acuendis calamis scriptorii"). Artavus is well-attested in medieval Latin, although it is not a common word. This explains why it was left untranslated in some French and Italian manuscripts, and ultimately became [http://www.esotericarchives.com/solomon/sl3847.htm garbled] in various manuscripts as "artavo", "artavus", "arthana", "artanus", "arthany" or "arthame". [Du Cange, Gall. Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis, Band I, Graz-Austria, 1954, p. 410. Compare J.F. Niermeyer & C. Van de Kieft, revised by J. W. J. Burgers, Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus, Leiden, Brill, 2002, p. 82;] [R.E. Latham, Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources, London, 1975;] [R.E. Latham, Revised Medieval Latin Word-List from British and Irish Sources, London, 1965, p. 32.)] Latham described the etymology of artavus as being dubious, but Joan. de Janua in Catholico derives it from arto, artas, etc (to narrow). [(Du Cange Loc. Cit.)]

Idries Shah, who was personal secretary and close friend of Gerald Gardner, provides an alternate etymology from an alleged Arabic "al-dhammé" "blood-letter", which was supposed to be the ritual knife of a medieval magical cult of Morocco and Andalusia. This etymology is controversial, however. It appears in his book "The Sufis" as a quote from "A History of Secret Societies" by Arkon Daraul (a probable pseudonym of Shah). Robert Graves (an acquaintance of Shah) suggests an Arabic derivation from "al thame" (or "adh-dhame"), which he translates as "the arrow". Facts|date=June 2007

A Latin manuscript version of the Key of Solomon has a drawing that looks like a sickle, labelled "Artavo". Gerald Gardner's use of 'athame' probably came from modern French versions of the Key of Solomon, probably via Grillot de Givry's Witchcraft, Magic andAlchemy (1931), who misinterpreted the term as applying to the main ritual knife, as shown by his index entries "arthane" or "arthame" [de Givry, Emile Grillot. "Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy" (1931) Republished by Dover. ISBN 0-486-22493-7] . [Hutton, Ronald. The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 232.]

Historical parallels

*The Malay kris is a ritual knife regarded as having magical powers, and Gerald Gardner was a recognised authority on these knives prior to his involvement in Wicca. [Gardner, Gerald (1936). "Keris and other Malay weapons". Singapore: Progressive Publishing Company] cite book |title=The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft |first=Ronald |last=Hutton |authorlink=Ronald Hutton |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=New York City |date=2005-05-24 |origyear=1999 |isbn=0198207441 |oclc=41452625]
*The Roman secespita was a ritual knife, however, it was used for sacrifice.
*Zoroastrian priests ("magi") traditionally used a knife ("kaplo"), a spear (or stick with a nail on the end), or even the forefinger, to draw ritual furrows ("karsha") for purpose of protecting the sacred ritual space from evil and ritual pollution. [J. J. Modi, Religious Customs and Customs of the Parsees (Bombay, 1922, pp. 57, 114, 126, 288).]

ee also

* Boline
* Phurba
* Vajrakilaya

References

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