- Proto-Indo-European root
The roots of the reconstructed
Proto-Indo-European language(PIE) are basic morphemes carrying a lexicalmeaning. By addition of suffixes, they form stems, and by addition of desinences, these form grammatically inflected words ( nouns or verbs).
PIE roots are subject to ablaut, and except for a very few cases, the root is fully characterized by its constituent consonants, while the vowel may alternate. PIE roots as a rule have a single syllabic core, and by ablaut may either be monosyllabic or unsyllabic.
PIE roots may be of the following form (where K is a voiceless stop, G an unaspirated and Gh an aspirated stop, R a sonorant ("r, l, m, n, w, y") and H a fricative (either laryngeal or "s")
A root has at least one consonant, in some theories at least two ("Unicode|*h₁eḱ" vs. "Unicode|eḱ" "quick"). Depending on the interpretation of laryngeals, some roots seem to have an inherent "a" or "o" vowel, "*ar-" (vs. "Unicode|*h₂ar-") "fit", "*Unicode|ongʷ" (vs. "Unicode|*h₃engʷ") "anoint", "Unicode|*bʰag" "consume", "Unicode|*aḱ" (vs. "Unicode|*h₂eḱ") "keen".
By "root extension", a basic CeC (with C being any consonant) pattern may be extended to CeC-C, and an
s mobilemay extend it to s-CeC.
Calvert Watkins, "The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European roots: Second Edition", Houghton Mifflin, September 14, 2000 - ISBN 0-395-98610-9
Carl Darling Buck, "A dictionary of selected synonyms in the principal Indo-European languages: A contribution to the history of ideas", University of Chicago Press; Reprint edition (June 15, 1988) - ISBN 0-226-07937-6
Karl Brugmannand Berthold Delbrück, " Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen" (1886-1916).
Julius Pokorny, " Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch" (1959).
Gerhard Köbler, " Indogermanisches Wörterbuch" (1980-2005).
Helmut Rix"et al.", " Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben" (1998, 2001).
* [http://www.bartleby.com/61/IEroots.html American Heritage Indo-European Roots Index]
* [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/query.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=1&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary of Russian language]
* [http://homepage.ntlworld.com/richard.wordingham/pok/pok_index.htm Index to the online version of Pokorny's PIE dictionary]
* [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:List_of_Proto-Indo-European_roots Wiktionary List of Proto-Indo-European Roots]
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