Gene nomenclature

Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms. An international committee published recommendations for genetic symbols and nomenclature in 1957. [Report of the International Committee on Genetic Symbols and Nomenclature (1957). "Union of International Sci Biol Ser B", Colloquia No. 30.] The need to develop formal guidelines for human gene names and symbols was recognized in the 1960's and full guidelines were issued in 1979 (Edinburgh Human Genome Meeting). [ [http://www.genenames.org/aboutHGNC.html About the HGNC] ] Several other species-specific research communities (e.g., Drosophila, mouse) have adopted nomenclature standards, as well, and have published them on the relevant model organism websites and in scientific journals, including the "Trends in Genetics" Genetic Nomenclature Guide. [Genetic nomenclature guide (1995). "Trends Genet".] [The "Trends In Genetics" Nomenclature Guide (1998). Elsevier, Cambridge.] Scientists familiar with a particular gene family may work together to revise the nomenclature for the entire set of genes when new information becomes available. [ [http://www.genenames.org/guidelines.html Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature] ] For many genes and their corresponding proteins, however, an assortment of alternate names is in use across the scientific literature and public biological databases, thus posing a challenge to effective organization and exchange of biological information. [Fundel and Zimmer (2006). [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/7/372 Gene and protein nomenclature in public databases.] "BMC Bioinformatics" 7:372.]

Nomenclature guidelines

pecies-specific resources

The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee is responsible for providing human gene naming guidelines and approving new, unique human gene names and symbols (short form abbreviations). For some non-human species, model organism databases serve as central repositories of guidelines and help resources, including advice from curators and nomenclature committees. In addition to species-specific databases, approved gene names and symbols for many species can be located in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene Entrez Gene] database.

Vertebrate gene symbol formatting

The research communities of vertebrate model organisms have adopted guidelines whereby genes in these species are given, whenever possible, the same names as their human orthologs. The use of prefixes on gene symbols to indicate species (e.g., "Z" for zebrafish) is discouraged. The recommended formatting of printed gene and protein symbols varies between species.

Human

Gene symbols generally are italicised, with all letters in uppercase (e.g., "SHH", for sonic hedgehog). Italics are not necessary in gene catalogs. Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; all letters are in uppercase (SHH). mRNAs and cDNAs use the same formatting conventions as the gene symbol. [ [http://www.genenames.org/guidelines.html Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature] ]

Mouse and rat

Gene symbols generally are italicised, with only the first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase ("Shh"). Italics are not required on web pages. Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; all letters are in uppercase (SHH). [ [http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/gene.shtml Rules for Nomenclature of Genes, Genetic Markers, Alleles, and Mutations in Mouse and Rat] ]

Frog ("Xenopus" sp.)

Gene symbols are not italicised and all letters are in lowercase (shh). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, are not italicised, and all letters are in uppercase (SHH). [ [http://www.xenbase.org/gene/static/geneNomenclature.jsp Suggested Xenopus Gene Name Guidelines] ]

Zebrafish

Gene symbols are italicised, with all letters in lowercase ("shh"). Protein designations are the same as the gene symbol, but are not italicised; the first letter is in uppercase and the remaining letters are in lowercase (Shh). [ [http://zfin.org/zf_info/nomen.html Zebrafish Nomenclature Guidelines] ]

References

External links

*The Council of Science Editors (CSE) - [http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/publications/resources.cfm Resources for Genetic and Cytogenetic Nomenclature]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee — The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) approves a unique and meaningful name for every known human gene. In addition to the long name, the HGNC also assigns an abbreviation (referred to as symbol by HGNC) to every gene. The HGNC is part of… …   Wikipedia

  • HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee — Стиль этой статьи неэнциклопедичен или нарушает нормы русского языка. Статью следует исправить согласно стилистическим правилам Википедии. HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) утверждает уникальные и значимые имена для всех известных… …   Википедия

  • Gene — For a non technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). This stylistic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). The… …   Wikipedia

  • Nomenclature — For conventions governing Wikipedia article names, see Wikipedia:Naming conventions, for soviet class, see Nomenklatura. Nomenclature is a term that applies to either a list of names and/or terms, or to the system of principles, procedures and… …   Wikipedia

  • Gene expression profiling — Heat maps of gene expression values show how experimental conditions influenced production (expression) of mRNA for a set of genes. Green indicates reduced expression. Cluster analysis has placed a group of down regulated genes in the upper left… …   Wikipedia

  • Gene Wiki — The Gene Wiki is a project that facilitates transferring information on human genes to Wikipedia article with the goal of promoting collaboration and expansion of the articles.cite journal | author = Huss JW, Orozco C, Goodale J, Wu C, Batalov S …   Wikipedia

  • Gene — The basic biological unit of heredity. A segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) needed to contribute to a function. An official definition: According to the official Guidelines for Human Gene Nomenclature, a gene is defined as a DNA segment that… …   Medical dictionary

  • Nomenclature des genes de levure — Nomenclature des gènes de levure Le nom des gènes de levure contient 3 lettres et jusqu’à 3 chiffres : RHO1, RAD21… Le choix de ces 3 lettres est souvent lié à la fonction du gène. Le gène sauvage est écrit en majuscule et en italique  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gène — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Gène (homonymie). Représentation simplifiée d un gène d eucaryote (les exons sont des séquences codantes, alors que les introns sont des séquences non codantes) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nomenclature des gènes de levure — Le nom des gènes de levure contient 3 lettres et jusqu’à 3 chiffres : RHO1, RAD21… Le choix de ces 3 lettres est souvent lié à la fonction du gène. Le gène sauvage est écrit en majuscule et en italique : RHO1, RAD21… Les gènes portant… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.