- 1 Esdras
1 Esdras (Εσδράς A′) is a book from the
Septuaginttranslation of the Old Testamentregarded as canonical in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but regarded as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. It is listed among the Apocrypha in "Article VI" of the Thirty-Nine Articlesof the Church of England. [ [http://www.episcopalian.org/pbs1928/articles/AnglicanTeaching/042.htm Article VI at episcopalian.org] ] It is similar to the Book of Ezra, but under a different arrangement and with 99 additional verses, which include a polished conclusion that the much shorter Ezra lacks. Modern texts begin with the last two short chapters of the preceding Biblical work — II Chronicles ( Paralipomenon) — and the work properly begins in Chapter 2. Josephusand the Church Fathersquoted 1 Esdras extensively; it was considered part of the Canon of the Old Testament,Fact|date=July 2007 and indeed it is found in Origen's Hexapla.
In the Slavonic editions of the
Biblethis book is called 2 Esdras; in the Vulgateit is called 3 Esdras, and in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible it is called Ezra Kali which means 2 Ezra. For information about the book called "1 Esdras" in the Vulgate and Slavonic editions, see the article on Book of Ezra.
Naming and numbering
The book now called 1 Esdras presents various problems of naming. In most editions of the
Septuagint, the book is titled in Greek: Εσδρας Α′ and is placed before the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, which are together titled in Greek: Εσδρας Β′.
Since most modern translations use the more Hebraic transliteration of "Ezra" for the Hebrew book, the Vulgate's 3 Esdras is styled 1 Esdras in most English Bibles. The Vulgate's 4 Esdras becomes
Russian Orthodox Church, considers this book canonical but has Latin Ezra in an Appendix to the Slavonic Bible. It calls the Hebrew book of Ezra "1 Esdras", with Nehemiah listed separately, and it calls Greek Ezra 2 Esdras and it calls Latin Esdras "3 Esdras".
The majority of the content of 1 Esdras completely parallels Ezra, Nehemiah, and II Chronicles. In particular:
* Chapter 1 = 2 Chron 35:1-36:21.
Josiah's death, history of Jerusalemup to its destruction. Two verses in this chapter are original to this book.
* Chapter 2:1-14 = Ezra 1:1-11. The edict of
* Chapter 2:15-26 = Ezra 4:7-24. First attempt to rebuild the temple.
* Chapter 3:1-5, 3 (original) Three courtiers of Darius dispute whether wine, the king, or women (but above all the truth) is the strongest. The winner of the dispute is to receive great honor from Darius. Darius concurs with
Zerubbabel, who said women and truth, and at his request, sends him with the Jews, ordering the restoration of the temple.
* Chapter 5:4-6 (original) Beginning of a list of the exiles who returned.
* Chapter 5:7-73 = Ezra 2:1-4, 5. List of exiles returning. Work on the temple. Interruption of building until Darius' time.
* Chapter 6-7:9 = Ezra 5:1-6, 18. Correspondence between Sisinnes and Darius about the temple. Completion of the
* Chapter 7:10-15 = Ezra 6:19-22. Celebration of the Passover.
* Chapter 8:1-9, 36 = Ezra 7:1-10, 44. Return of exiles under Ezra. Preaching against mixed marriages.
* Chapter 9:37-55 = Nehemiah 7:73-8:12. Ezra reads the Law.
Author and criticism
The purpose of the book seems to be the presentation of the dispute among the courtiers, to which details from the other books are added to complete the story. Since there are various discrepancies in the account, most scholars hold that the work was written by more than one author. However, some scholars believe that this work may have been the original, or at least the more authoritative; the variances that are contained in this work are so striking that more research is being conducted. Because of similarities to the vocabulary in the
Book of Daniel, it is presumed by some that the authors came from Lower Egypt and some or all may have even had a hand in the translation of Daniel. Assuming this theory is correct, many scholars consider the possibility that one "chronicler" wrote this book. Josephusmakes use of the book and some scholars believe that the composition is likely to have taken place in the first century BCor the first century AD. Many Protestant and Catholic scholars assign no historical value to the "original" sections of the book. The citations of the other books of the Bible, however, provide a pre- Septuaginttranslation of those texts, which increases its value to scholars.
In the current Greek texts, the book breaks off in the middle of a sentence; that particular verse thus had to be reconstructed from an early Latin translation. However, it is generally presumed that the original work extended to the Feast of Tabernacles, as described in Nehemiah 8:13-18. An additional difficulty with the text is the apparent ignorance of its author regarding the historical sequence of events. Artaxerxes is mentioned before Darius, who is mentioned before Cyrus. (Such jumbling of the order of events, however, is also suspected by some authors to exist in the canonical Ezra and Nehemiah.)
Use in the Christian canon
The book was widely quoted by early Christian authors and it found a place in
Origen's " Hexapla". It was not included in early canons of the Western Church, and Clement VIIIrelegated it to an appendix following the New Testamentin the Vulgate"lest [it] perish entirely" [http://sacredbible.org/vulgate1861/scans/817-Apocrypha.jpg] . However, the use of the book continued in the Eastern Church, and it remains a part of the Eastern Orthodox canon.
* [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/ot2www-pubeng?specfile=/texts/english/modeng/publicsearch/modengpub.o2w&act=text&offset=418496006&textreg=3&query=esdras&id=KjvEsdr Full text of 1 Esdras] from the University of Virginia's Etext Center
* [http://www.ccel.org/wwsb/1Esdras/ Various translations of 1 Esdras] at the World Wide Study Bible
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05535a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia: Esdras: THE BOOKS OF ESDRAS: III Esdras]
* [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=463&letter=E&search=Books%20of%20Esdras#1248 Jewish Encyclopedia: Esdras, Books of: I Esdras]
* [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/1esdras.html 1Esdras at earlyjewishwritings.com]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Esdras (Ezra) — Esdras † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Esdras (Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel s restoration after the Exile. The chief sources of information touching his life are the… … Catholic encyclopedia
ESDRAS (LIVRES D’) — ESDRAS LIVRES D’ Plusieurs livres, juifs bibliques ou non et chrétiens, ont été attribués à Esdras. Arrivé à Jérusalem en ESDRAS (LIVRES D’) 428, avec un groupe important de nouveaux immigrants, ce personnage joua le premier rôle dans la réforme… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Esdras — ( el. Εσδρας) is a Greco Latin variation of the name of the scribe Ezra. It is still often used to refer to several books of Bible associated with the scribe.Differences in namesThe books associated with the scribe Ezra are titled differently in… … Wikipedia
ESDRAS — (ESDRAS Ve ESDRAS IVe s.) Prêtre juif, chargé des affaires juives à la cour de Perse, vraisemblablement sous le règne d’Artaxerxès II (ESDRAS 404 ESDRAS 359), Esdras est avec Néhémie le principal «maître d’œuvre» de la reconstruction de Jérusalem … Encyclopédie Universelle
Esdras Edzard — Esdras Edzardus (auch Edzard oder falsch Edzardi) (* 28. Juni 1629 in Hamburg; † 1. Januar 1708 ebenda) war ein deutscher Orientalist, Privatgelehrter und Aktivist der Judenmission. Leben Edzardus war Sohn eines lutherischen Pastors in Hamburg.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Esdras, books of — Esdras is the Greek form of the name Ezra. The first book of Esdras is an alternative Greek version of part of 2 Chron., the whole of Ezra, and part of Nehemiah, and is included in the LXX together with the primary version of those works. It is… … Dictionary of the Bible
Esdras (given name) — Esdras is a given name, and may refer to:* Esdras Alfred de St Georges (1849 1890), Quebec lawyer, physician and political figure * Esdras Minville (1896 1975), Quebec writer, economist and sociologist * Esdras Padilla (21st century), Honduran… … Wikipedia
Esdras Edzardus — (auch Edzard oder falsch Edzardi) (* 28. Juni 1629 in Hamburg; † 1. Januar 1708 ebenda) war ein deutscher Orientalist, Privatgelehrter und Aktivist der Judenmission. Leben Edzardus war Sohn eines lutherischen Pastors in Hamburg. Nach seiner… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Esdras — m Biblical: Greek form of the Hebrew name EZRA (SEE Ezra), used in the Douay Bible as the title of the Books of Ezra (I Esdras) and Nehemiah (2 Esdras) and of two further books (3 and 4 Esdras) not included in the Protestant canon … First names dictionary
Esdras Minville — (7 novembre 1896 à Grande Vallée 9 décembre 1975) était un écrivain, un économiste et un sociologue québécois. Doyen de la Faculté des sciences sociales de l Université de Montréal, il fut le premier canadien français à… … Wikipédia en Français
Esdras Parra — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Esdras Parra Nació en Santa Cruz de Mora, Estado Mérida de Venezuela en 1939 y falleció en Caracas en el año 2004. Fue una poeta, ensayista, narradora, traductora. En los años sesenta publicó narrativa: El insurgente … Wikipedia Español