- Artificial reef
An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. Artificial reefs may also serve to improve
hydrodynamicsfor surfing or to control beach erosion.
Artificial reefs can be built in a number of different methods. Many reefs are built by deploying existing materials in order to create a reef. This can be done by sinking oil rigs (through the
Rigs-to-Reefsprogram), scuttling ships, or by deploying rubble, tires, or construction debris. Other artificial reefs are purpose built (e.g. the enormously successful and effective reef balls) from PVC and/or concrete. Historic or modern shipwrecks become unintended artificial reefs when preserved on the sea floor. Regardless of construction method, artificial reefs are generally designed to provide hard surfaces to which algaeand invertebrates such as barnacles, corals, and oysters attach; the accumulation of attached marine life in turn provides intricate structure and food for assemblages of fish.
The construction of artificial reefs is thousands of years old, although the historic usages were related to
sea powerrather than aquaculture.Ancient Persians blocked the mouth of the Tigris Riverto thwart Indian pirates by building an artificial reef, [Thomas Wayne Williams, "A Case Study of Artificial Reef Decision-Making in the Florida Keys", Virginia CommonwealthUniversity [http://etd.vcu.edu/theses/available/etd-08042006-093035/unrestricted/williamstw_phd.pdf] Last accessed 20 December 2006] and during the First Punic Warthe Romans built a reef across the mouth of the Carthaginian harbor in Sicily to trap the enemy ships within [ Ron Hess, Denis Rushworth, Michael V. Hynes, John E. Peters, "Disposal Options for Ships," Chapter 5, "Reefing," Rand Corporation, [http://184.108.40.206/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1377/MR1377.ch5.pdf] Last accessed 20 December 2006] and assist in driving the Carthaginians from the island.
The use of artificial reefs to increase fish yields or for
algaculturealso has a long history. During the 1600s reefs of building rubble and rocks were used in Japanto grow kelp, [ "Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries", National Academies Press [http://www.nap.edu/nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?recid=1024&ch
] Last accessed 20 December 2006] while the earliest recorded construction of artificial reef in the
United Statesis from 1830s when logs from huts were used off the coast of South Carolinato improve fishing. [Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, "GUIDELINES FOR MARINE ARTIFICIAL REEF MATERIALS", [http://www.gsmfc.org/pubs/SFRP/Guidelines_for_Marine_Artificial_Reef_Materials_January_1997.pdf] Last accessed 20 December 2006]
In the early 1970s, a series of thousands of disused vehicle
tireswere dumped off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Floridato form an artificial reef, causing environmental problems over time. See Fort Lauderdale tire reef.
In Late 2000, The
MTA New York City Transithad decided to phase out its outdated fleet of subway cars to make room for the R142& R142Atrains. These subway cars commonly referred to as Redbirds ran on the IRTlines in the New York City Subwaysystem for over 40 years. Each car was sold, stripped, decontaminated, loaded on a barge, and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean. In some cases, few of the cars had their number plates removed because of rust. Over 1,200 subway cars had been sunk.
In September 2007, The MTA had approved a contract, worth over $6 million, that would send more than 1,600 of its retired subway cars to be used as artificial reefs. Most of these trains ran on The BMT/IND lines. The Trains include the
R32, R38 , and R40, all of these models are stainless steel all to be replaced with the R160A& R160Btrains. Most of the trains had plastic front ends. These plastic pieces were removed before being sunk. The retired fleet also included old work trains along with some subway cars that have been severely damaged beyond repair.
Artificial surfing reefs
Artificial surfing reefs have been created for surfing, coastal protection, habitat enhancement and coastal research. The world's first attempt was made in
El Segundo, near Los Angeles, in California. The next attempt was at Cable Beach, Perth, Western Australia. This reef was constructed of large granite rocks placed in a pyramidal shape to form an appropriate breaking wave form that would suit surfers. An artificial reef constructed of over 400 massive, geotextile bags (each one larger than a bus) filled with sand was constructed in 2000 at Narrowneck on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. This artificial reef had two objectives: stabilizing beach nourishment and improving surfing conditions. Initially the structure produced some exceptional surfing conditions, however settlement of the geotexile sandbags, as well as huge differences between the design and final reef shape means that the surfing has only been moderately improved.
Artificial surfing reefs typically resemble a "submerged breakwater", and proponents have suggested additional benefits beyond improving surfing conditions. In Hawaii and California, long stretches of coast are subject to powerful waves that crash directly onshore. An artificial reef situated 150-300 yards offshore might not only create surfing opportunities but, by dissipating wave energy before it strikes the shore, create safer swimming areas and reduce coastal erosion.
USS Spiegel Grovewas sunk in 2002 to make an artificial reef. In United States, in particular, complex coastal permitting requirements combined with environmental opposition provide a major obstacle to building surfing reefs. As of February 2006, the only reef built in the U. S. specifically for surfing purposes is " Pratte's Reef" in southern California. Artificial reefs built for enhancement of marine habitat face far less environmental opposition, in part because they are located in much deeper water some distance offshore. A number of such man-made reefs exist off of Florida and in Hawaii.
Artificial surfaces are being grown using a process called "mineral accretion". In mineral accretion, a low voltage current is applied to a metallic structure to cause limestone to accrete or build on the surface, upon which coral planulae can attach and grow. This greatly speeds the coral growth process on artificial surfaces. The voltage is low enough that it can be generated by floating solar panels or from wave motion.
A coalition of scientists known as the Global Coral Reef Alliance (GCRA) has been developing a technique called the Biorock Process using mineral accretion for reef restoration, mariculture, and shore Protection.
The multi-million-dollar cleanup of
Osborne Reef, a tire dump near Fort Lauderdale, Florida, has prompted questions about the risks of creating artificial reefs. In Florida, the tires posed a particular threat after breaking free from their restraints. The tires then migrated shoreward and ran into a living reef tract, climbed up its slope and killed everything in their path. According to The Ocean Conservancy, a Washington-based environmental group, the Florida reef may be an indication that the benefits of artificial reefs need to be re-examined. Jack Sobel, a senior scientist at the group, has said "There's little evidence that artificial reefs have a net benefit." [http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=13101&ref=rss Florida Raises Ill-Fated Artificial Reefs] ]
Osborne Reef, a failed artificial reef constructed of old tires
Sinking ships for wreck diving sites
* [http://www.bournemouth-surf.com/bournemouth_surf_reef.aspx Bournemouth Surf Reef]
* [http://www.bournemouthsurfreef.com/ www.bournemouthsurfreef.com]
* [http://www.artificialreef.bc.ca/ Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia]
* [http://www.cwr.uwa.edu.au/cwr/outreach/envirowa/coastal/cables/cables.html Cables Beach surfing reef] Perth, Australia
* [http://www.calreefs.org/ California Artificial Reef Enhancement Program] (CARE)
* [http://www.reefball.org The Reef Ball Foundation]
* [http://www.bournemouthreef.com Plans for Europe's First Artificial Reef] Bournemouth UK
* [http://www.globalcoral.org/ The Global Coral Reef Alliance]
* [http://biorock.net/ Biorock Process]
* [http://www.nycsubway.org/cars/redbird-scrap.html NYC Subway Redbird car scrappings]
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