George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield
name = George Augustus Eliott
1st Baron Heathfield
imagesize = 320px
caption = 1787 portrait of Lord Heathfield
birth_date = birth date|1717|12|25
birth_place = Wells House, nr Stobs,
death_date = death date and age|1790|07|06|1717|12|25
death_place = Schloss Kalkofen,
death_cause = Palsy / Stroke
occupation = General
title = PC, KB
spouse = Anne Pollexfen Drake (1726-1772)
children = Francis Augustus Eliott, 2nd and last Baron Heathfield (
December 31 1750- January 26 1813)
Anne Pollexfen Eliott (
1754- February 24 1835)
Gilbert Eliott, 3rd Baronetand Eleanor Elliot
George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield, KB (
1717-12-25- 1790-07-06) was a British Armyofficer most notable for his command of the Gibraltargarrison during the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
Eliott was born at Wells House, near Stobs Castle,
Roxburghshire, the 10th (and 8th surviving) son of Sir Gilbert Eliott, 3rd Baronet of Stobs, by his distant cousin Eleanor, daughter of William Elliot of Wells, also in Roxburghshire. His aunt Charlotte Elliot, sister of Eleanor, had married Roger Elliott, another Governor of Gibraltar.
Eliott was educated at
University of Leidenand studied artillery and other military subjects at the "école militaire" of La Fère in France. He served with the Prussian Army 1735-1736, and, in 1741, joined the 2nd Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards, of which his mother's brother, William Elliot of Wells, was then Lieutenant-Colonel, and of which Eliott was afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel. He served throughout the War of Austrian Succession1742-1748, being wounded at the Battle of Dettingenand present at the Battle of Fontenoy.
Eliott was made ADC from 1756-1759 to King George II. On
10 March 1759, he raised, and was appointed colonel of, the 1st Light Horse [Light Horse cavalry was introduced into the British army at the instigation of George's 1st cousin, General Granville Elliott- the son of Roger Elliott- who coincidentally fought and died of injuries received at the Battle of Mindenin 1759] (later 15th Light Dragoons, then 15th Hussars), and he distinguished himself in the German campaign, particularly the Battle of Minden.
He was promoted to Major-General in 1759 and took part in the
British expedition against Cubain 1762, being 2nd-in-charge at the capture of Havana. He was promoted to Lieutenant-General in 1765, antedated to 1761. With his share of the prize money from the Havana expedition, Eliott purchased Bayley Park, a country housein the village of Heathfield, Sussex, from which he later took his title. (After his death, Bayley Park was renamed Heathfield Park.)
October 22 1772, his wife died. But from 1774 to 1775 he was C-in-C Ireland, Governor of Londonderry and Culmore. On March 6 1775, he became a Privy Counsellor, and on May 25 1777he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar, succeeding Robert Boyd, the acting Governor. He was promoted to General in 1778.
Great Siege of Gibraltar
In July 1779, Gibraltar was besieged by the French and Spanish. By August, it was very apparent that the Spanish intended to starve the garrison. The
Great Siege of Gibraltarwould eventually last from 1779 to 1783. A notable letter from George to the Misses Fuller survives, dated September 21 1779and delivered October 4, it said simply "Nothing new. G.A.E."
September 13 1782, the French and Spanish initiated a grand attack, involving 100,000 men, 48 ships and 450 cannon. Under great duress, the Garrison withheld and, by 1783, the siege was finishing. On January 8 1783, the British Parliament sent official thanks to George Eliott and he was awarded the Knight of the Bath. By February 6 1783, the siege was over. George was invested with his honour at Gibraltar on April 23.
A portrait from 1784, "The Siege of Gibraltar" [ [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?search=sp&sText=Siege+of+Gibraltar&rNo=0 NPG 1752; The Siege of Gibraltar, 1782 (includes Sir Robert Boyd; Major Vallotton; George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield; Sir William Green, 1st Bt; Sir Charles Holloway and 19 other known sitters) ] ] (1782) by George Carter survives in the National Portrait Gallery.
In 1787, George returned to England. On
July 6 1787, he was created Lord Heathfield, Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar. A Bronze Medal "George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield" [ [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?search=ss&sText=George+Augustus+Eliott&LinkID=mp02119&rNo=2&role=sit NPG 6079; George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield ] ] by Jean-Pierre Droz and a Portrait "George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield" [ [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?search=ss&sText=George+Augustus+Eliott&LinkID=mp02119&rNo=1&role=sit NPG 170; George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield ] ] by John Singleton Copleysurvive from 1787 in the National Portrait Gallery.
In August and September 1787, George's portrait was painted by Sir
Joshua Reynoldsand now resides in the National Gallery.
A will exists dated
February 27 1788. On 19 May 1788George was formally installed as Knight of the Bath, and, in June 1788, a portrait "The Installation Supper" [ [http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?search=sp&sText=The+installation+supper&rNo=0 NPG D13065; 'The installation-supper, as given at the Pantheon, by the Knights of the Bath on the 26th of May, 1788' (includes Edmund Burke; Warren Hastings; Anna Maria Appolonia Hastings; Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford; King George IV; Frederick, Duke of...) ] ] was painted by James Gillrayand resides in the National Portrait Gallery.
About this time, George was making his way overland back to Gibraltar where he was still Governor. However, he became ill and stayed in the
Aachenarea for recuperation. During 1790, he stayed at: Grossen Hotel, Dubigk; Karlsbad (bei Herr Brammertz); Kaiserbad, Aachen(bei Herr Mohren). In June 1790 he rented the Schloss Kalkofen, Aachen (nowadays Talbotstrasse, Aachen, Germany) and moved in his furniture. However, on July 6, he died at the Schloss of palsy / stroke, allegedly brought on by drinking too much of the local mineral water, and was initially buried in the grounds of the Schloss [ [http://www.aachen.de/DE/kultur_freizeit/kultur/geschichte/stadtarchiv/ Stadtarchiv, Aachen (courtesy of Frau Nicole Brillo)] ] . His personal estate was probated by July 27and his furniture sold off by his heirs. In 1790, his body was disinterred and reburied at Heathfield, East Sussex. Later still, his body was again disinterred and reburied at St Andrew's Church, Buckland Monachorum, Devonin the church associated with his wife's Drake ancestry.
September 8 1748, George married Anne Pollexfen Drake (1726-1772), a collateral descendant of Sir Francis Drake, at St Sepulchre-without-Newgate, London. They had two children:
* Francis Augustus Eliott, 2nd and last Baron Heathfield (
December 31 1750- January 26 1813)
* Anne Pollexfen Eliott (
1754- February 24 1835), who married John Trayton Fuller on 21 May 1777
Governors of Gibraltar
* [http://www.npg.org.uk National Portrait Gallery, London]
* [http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk National Gallery, London]
NAME = Eliott, George Augustus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = 1st Baron Heathfield, Army General, Governor of Gibraltar
DATE OF BIRTH =
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
Schloss Kalkofen, Aachen, Germany
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