Yakovlev Yak-28

infobox Aircraft
name = Yak-28
type = Medium bomber reconnaissance electronic warfare interceptor
manufacturer = Yakovlev



caption = Yak-28I
designer =
first flight = 5 March 1958
introduced = 1960
retired = 1992 (Russia)
status = Retired
primary user = Soviet Air Force
more users = Soviet Anti-Air Defense Russian Air Force Ukrainian Air Force
produced =
number built =
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =

The Yakovlev Yak-28 was a swept wing, turbojet-powered combat aircraft used by the Soviet Union. Produced initially as a bomber, it was also manufactured in reconnaissance, electronic warfare, interceptor, and trainer versions, known by the NATO reporting names Brewer, Firebar, and Maestro respectively. It was based on prototypes first flown on 5 March 1958, it began to enter service in 1960.

It was first seen by the West at the Tushino air show on May Day 1961. Western analysts initially believed it to be a fighter rather than an attack aircraft - and a continuation of the Yak-25M, at that - and it was designated 'Flashlight.' After its actual role was realized, the Yak-28 bomber series was redesignated 'Brewer.'

Total production of all Yak-28s was 1180. The Yak-28P was withdrawn in the early 1980s, but trainer and other versions soldiered on until after the fall of the Soviet Union, flying until at least 1992. The 'Brewer' recce and ECM aircraft were eventually replaced by variants of the Sukhoi Su-24 'Fencer.'

Description

The Yak-28 had a large mid-mounted wing, swept at 45 degrees. The tailplane is set halfway up the vertical fin (with cut-outs to allow rudder movement). Slotted flaps are mounted on the leading edges of the wings. The two Tumansky R-11 turbojet engines, initially with 57 kN (12,795 lbf) thrust each, are mounted in pods, similar to the previous Yak-25. The wing-mounted engines and bicycle-type main landing gear (supplemented by outrigger wheels in fairings near the wingtips) are widely spaced, allowing most of the fuselage to be used for fuel and equipment. It was primarily transsonic, although Mach 1 could be exceeded at higher altitude.

Variants

Many versions of the Yak-28 were produced. The first three, designated 'Brewer-A', 'Brewer-B', and 'Brewer-C' by NATO, were tactical bombers, with a glazed nose section for a navigator/bombardier, an internal weapons bay for up to 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) of ordnance, a forward-firing cannon (initially the 23 mm NR-23, later the GSh-23L twin-barrel weapon), and wing pylons for additional bombs or rocket pods. The original 'Brewer-A' and 'Brewer-B' models did not enter mass production, and the first series-produced model was the Yak-28B ('Brewer-C'), with longer engine inlets and a redesigned navigator station. A notable feature was the RBP-3 radar bombsight.

In 1961 the Yak-28B was upgraded to the Yak-28L, with a new 'Lotos' radar bombing system, and in 1962 replaced by the Yak-28I, with 'Initiativa' radar. Engines were replaced by the R-11AF2-300 with 61 kN or 13,700 lbf) thrust. Some Yak-28Bs were upgraded with the 'Initiativa' radar and redesignated Yak-28BI. Some Yak-28Ls were later modified for monitoring of radioactive contamination, with the designation Yak-28RR.

The Yak-28R (NATO 'Brewer-D') was a dedicated reconnaissance version, retaining the glazed nose, but adding a search radar with a ventral radome.

The Yak-28PP (NATO 'Brewer-E') was a modified 'Brewer-C' outfitted for the electronic warfare/electronic countermeasures role. It used its weapons bay for an extensive EW suite. Wing pylons were retained for fuel tanks or rocket pods. Early Yak-28PPs may have retained their cannon, but it was eventually deleted.

The Yak-28U (NATO 'Maestro') was a trainer version with an instructor cockpit behind the standard cockpit.

A dedicated long-range interceptor version, the Yak-28P (NATO 'Firebar') was developed in 1965-1966. It omitted the internal weapons bay in favor of additional fuselage tanks (its fuel capacity was considerable, limited by weight rather than volume), and added a new 'Oriol-D' interception radar compatible with the R-98 (AA-3 'Anab') air-to-air missile. The cannon was eventually deleted.

Operators

;RUS
*Russian Air Force;USSR
*Soviet Air Force
*Soviet Anti-Air Defense;UKR
*Ukrainian Air Force operated 35 aircraft.

In fiction

In the Japanese anime series "Stratos 4", the fictional "Yak-28MST" aircraft is based on the Yak-28.

pecifications (Yak-28P)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet
crew=two
length main=21.6 m
length alt=75 ft 0 in
span main=12.50 m
span alt=41 ft 0 in
height main=3.95 m
height alt=12 ft 11 in
area main=37.6 m²
area alt=405 ft²
empty weight main=13,150 kg
empty weight alt=29,000 lb
loaded weight main=15,000 kg
loaded weight alt=33,000 lb
max takeoff weight main=20,000 kg
max takeoff weight alt=44,000 lb
engine (jet)=Tumansky R-11
type of jet= afterburning turbojets
number of jets=2
thrust main=46 kN dry, 62 kN with afterburning
thrust alt=10,140 lbf dry, 13,670 lbf with afterburning

max speed main=1,200 km/h
max speed alt=750 mph
range main=2,500 km
range alt=1,550 miles
ceiling main=16,750 m
ceiling alt=55,000 ft
climb rate main= m/s
climb rate alt= ft/min
loading main=531 kg/m²
loading alt=108.6 lb/ft²
thrust/weight=0.62

armament=
*2x R-98M (AA-3 'Anab') air-to-air missiles, usually one R-98TM infrared and one R-98RM semi-active radar homing
*2x K-13A (AA-2 'Atoll') short-range missiles (occasionally fitted)

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Yakovlev Yak-25
* Yakovlev Yak-27

similar aircraft=
* Douglas B-66
* A3D Skywarrior
* Blackburn Buccaneer
* F-101 Voodoo
* Sud Aviation Vautour

sequence=

External links

* [http://www.vectorsite.net/avyak25.html The Yakovlev Yak-25 & Yak-28] – From the [http://www.vectorsite.net/indexav.html Air Vectors]
*http://www.suchoj.com/andere/Jak-28/home.shtml de icon


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