- This article is about the US military research agency. Not to be confused with the Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA). For the skipper butterfly genus, see Darpa (butterfly)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Agency overview Formed 1958 Headquarters Arlington, Virginia Employees 240 Annual budget $3.2 billion Agency executive Regina E. Dugan, Director Parent agency Department of Defense Website DARPA.mil
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. DARPA has been responsible for funding the development of many technologies which have had a major effect on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS, which was both the first hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface.
Its original name was simply Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but it was renamed to "DARPA" (for Defense) in March 1972, then renamed "ARPA" again in February 1993, and then renamed "DARPA" again in March 1996.
DARPA was established during 1958 (as ARPA) in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik during 1957, with the mission of keeping U.S. military technology more sophisticated than that of the nation's potential enemies. From DARPA's own introduction,
DARPA’s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA’s mission is still to prevent technological surprise to the US, but also to create technological surprise for its enemies.
DARPA is independent from other more conventional military R&D and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has around 240 personnel (about 140 technical) directly managing a $3.2 billion budget. These figures are "on average" since DARPA focuses on short-term (two to four-year) projects run by small, purpose-built teams.
DARPA's own introduction:
DARPA is a Defense Agency with a unique role within DoD. DARPA is not tied to a specific operational mission: DARPA supplies technological options for the entire Department, and is designed to be the “technological engine” for transforming DoD.
Near-term needs and requirements generally drive the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force to focus on those needs at the expense of major change. Consequently, a large organization like DoD needs a place like DARPA whose only charter is radical innovation.
DARPA looks beyond today’s known needs and requirements. As military historian John Chambers noted, “None of the most important weapons transforming warfare in the 20th century – the airplane, tank, radar, jet engine, helicopter, electronic computer, not even the atomic bomb – owed its initial development to a doctrinal requirement or request of the military.” And to this list, DARPA would add unmanned systems, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Internet technologies.
DARPA’s approach is to imagine what capabilities a military commander might want in the future and accelerate those capabilities into being through technology demonstrations. These not only provide options to the commander, but also change minds about what is technologically possible today.
DARPA as a model
According to former DARPA Director Tony Tether and W. B. Bonvillian (“Power Play,” W. B. Bonvillian, The American Interest, Volume II, p 39, November–December 2006), DARPA's key characteristics to be replicated to reproduce DARPA's success are:
- Small and flexible: DARPA has only about 140 technical professionals; DARPA presents itself as “100 geniuses connected by a travel agent.”
- Flat organization: DARPA avoids hierarchy, essentially operating at only two management levels to ensure the free and rapid flow of information and ideas, and rapid decision-making.
- Autonomy and freedom from bureaucratic impediments: DARPA has an exemption from Title V civilian personnel specifications, which provides for a direct authority to hire talents with the expediency not allowed by the standard civil service process.
- Eclectic, world-class technical staff and performers: DARPA seeks great talents and ideas from industry, universities, government laboratories, and individuals, mixing disciplines and theoretical and experimental strength. DARPA neither owns nor operates any laboratories or facilities, and the overwhelming majority of the research it sponsors is done in industry and universities. Very little of DARPA’s research is performed at government labs.
- Teams and networks: At its very best, DARPA creates and sustains great teams of researchers from different disciplines that collaborate and share in the teams’ advances.
- Hiring continuity and change: DARPA’s technical staff is hired or assigned for four to six years. Like any strong organization, DARPA mixes experience and change. It retains a base of experienced experts – its Office Directors and support staff – who are knowledgeable about DoD. The staff is rotated to ensure fresh thinking and perspectives, and to have room to bring technical staff from new areas into DARPA. It also allows the program managers to be bold and not fear failure.
- Project-based assignments organized around a challenge model: DARPA organizes a significant part of its portfolio around specific technology challenges. It foresees new innovation-based capabilities and then works back to the fundamental breakthroughs required to make them possible. Although individual projects typically last three to five years, major technological challenges may be addressed over longer time periods, ensuring patient investment on a series of focused steps and keeping teams together for ongoing collaboration. Continued funding for DARPA projects is based on passing specific milestones, sometimes called “go/no-go’s.”
- Outsourced support personnel: DARPA extensively leverages technical, contracting, and administrative services from other DoD agencies and branches of the military. This provides DARPA the flexibility to get into and out of an area without the burden of sustaining staff, while building cooperative alliances with its “agents.” These outside agents help create a constituency in their respective organizations for adopting the technology.
- Outstanding program managers: The best DARPA program managers have always been freewheeling zealots in pursuit of their goals. The Director’s most important task is to recruit and hire very creative people with big ideas, and empower them.
- Acceptance of failure: DARPA pursues breakthrough opportunities and is very tolerant of technical failure if the payoff from success will be great enough.
- Orientation to revolutionary breakthroughs in a connected approach: DARPA historically has focused not on incremental but radical innovation. It emphasizes high-risk investment, moves from fundamental technological advances to prototyping, and then hands off the system development and production to the military services or the commercial sector.
- Mix of connected collaborators: DARPA typically builds strong teams and networks of collaborators, bringing in a range of technical expertise and applicable disciplines, and involving university researchers and technology firms that are often not significant defense contractors or beltway consultants.
DARPA was created as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by Public Law 85-325 and Department of Defense Directive 5105.15, in February 1958. Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U.S. realization that the Soviet Union had developed the capacity to rapidly exploit military technology. Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines which address the full spectrum of national security needs.
From 1958-1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space, ballistic missile defense, and nuclear test detection. During 1960, all of its civilian space programs were transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the military space programs to the individual Services. This allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender (defense against ballistic missiles), Project Vela (nuclear test detection), and Project AGILE (counterinsurgency R&D) Programs, and to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, and materials sciences. The DEFENDER and AGILE Programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor, surveillance, and directed energy R&D, particularly in the study of radar, infrared sensing, and x-ray/gamma ray detection.
During the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its role and concentrated on a diverse set of relatively small, essentially exploratory research programs. The agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972, and during the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, and tactical technologies.
Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress, initially through its support of the development of time-sharing (all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the Multics system, developed by a cooperation between Bell Labs, General Electric and MIT, which DARPA supported by funding Project MAC at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant), and later through the evolution of the ARPANET (the first wide-area packet switching network), Packet Radio Network, Packet Satellite Network and ultimately, the Internet and research in the artificial intelligence (AI) fields of speech recognition and signal processing. DARPA also funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and the Aspen Movie Map, which was probably the first hypermedia system and an important precursor of virtual reality.
The Mansfield Amendment of 1973 expressly limited appropriations for defense research (through ARPA/DARPA) to projects with direct military application. Some[who?] contend that the amendment devastated American science, since ARPA/DARPA was a major funding source for basic science projects of the time; the National Science Foundation never made up the difference as expected. But the resulting "brain drain" is also credited with boosting the development of the fledgling personal computer industry. Many young computer scientists fled from the universities to startups and private research labs like Xerox PARC.
From 1976-1981, DARPA's major thrusts were dominated by air, land, sea, and space technology, tactical armor and anti-armor programs, infrared sensing for space-based surveillance, high-energy laser technology for space-based missile defense, antisubmarine warfare, advanced cruise missiles, advanced aircraft, and defense applications of advanced computing. These large-scale technological program demonstrations were joined by integrated circuit research, which resulted in submicrometre electronic technology and electron devices that evolved into the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Program and the Congressionally mandated charged particle beam program. Many of the successful programs were transitioned to the Services, such as the foundation technologies in automatic target recognition, space based sensing, propulsion, and materials that were transferred to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), later known as the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), now titled the Missile Defense Agency (MDA).
During the 1980s, the attention of the Agency was centered on information processing and aircraft-related programs, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) or Hypersonic Research Program. The Strategic Computing Program enabled DARPA to exploit advanced processing and networking technologies and to rebuild and strengthen relationships with universities after the Vietnam War. In addition, DARPA began to pursue new concepts for small, lightweight satellites (LIGHTSAT) and directed new programs regarding defense manufacturing, submarine technology, and armor/anti-armor.
On October 28, 2009 the agency broke ground on a new facility in Arlington, Virginia a few miles from the Pentagon.
Directors Name Tenure Roy W. Johnson 1958–1959 Austin W. Betts 1960–1961 Jack P. Ruina 1961–1963 Robert L. Sproull 1963–1965 Charles M. Herzfeld 1965–1967 Eberhardt Rechtin 1967–1970 Steve J. Lukasik 1970–1975 George H. Heilmeier 1975–1977 Robert R. Fossum 1977–1981 Robert S. Cooper 1981–1985 Robert C. Duncan 1985–1988 Ray S. Colladay 1988–1989 Craig I. Fields 1989–1990 Victor H. Reis 1990–1992 Gary L. Denman 1992–1995 Verne L. "Larry" Lynn 1995–1998 Fernando L. "Frank" Fernandez 1998–2001 Anthony J. Tether 2001–2009 Regina E. Dugan 2009 – present
Current program offices
DARPA has six program offices, all of which report to the DARPA director.
- The Adaptive Execution Office (AEO) is one of two new DARPA offices created in 2009 by the current DARPA Director, Regina Dugan. Four thrust areas that have been identified, but not verified in DARPA publications: technology transition, assessment, rapid productivity and adaptive systems. On the DARPA website the AEO mission is defined as follows:
Conceive and execute novel technology and system developments that are adaptive both in end function and in the process by which they are developed. Improve the transition worthiness of DARPA programs across the enterprise.
- The Defense Sciences Office (DSO) vigorously pursues the most promising technologies within a broad spectrum of the science and engineering research communities and develops those technologies into important, radically new military capabilities.
- The Information Innovation Office (I2O) aims to ensure U.S. technological superiority in all areas where information can provide a decisive military advantage.
- The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) mission focuses on the heterogeneous microchip-scale integration of electronics, photonics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Their high risk/high payoff technology is aimed at solving the national level problems of protection from biological, chemical and information attack and to provide operational dominance for mobile distributed command and control, combined manned/unmanned warfare, and dynamic, adaptive military planning and execution.
- The Strategic Technology Office (STO) mission is to focus on technologies that have a global theater-wide impact and that involve multiple Services.
- The Tactical Technology Office (TTO) engages in high-risk, high-payoff advanced military research, emphasizing the "system" and "subsystem" approach to the development of aeronautic, space, and land systems as well as embedded processors and control systems. This research includes an effort within the TTO to develop a small satellite launch vehicle. This vehicle is under development by AirLaunch LLC. This is part of the Force Application and Launch from Continental United States (FALCON) effort.
- Information Awareness Office - 2002-2003
- The Advanced Technology Office (ATO) researched, demonstrated, and developed high payoff projects in maritime, communications, special operations, command and control, and information assurance and survivability mission areas.
- The Special Projects Office (SPO) researched, developed, demonstrated, and transitioned technologies focused on addressing present and emerging national challenges. SPO investments ranged from the development of enabling technologies to the demonstration of large prototype systems. SPO developed technologies to counter the emerging threat of underground facilities used for purposes ranging from command-and-control, to weapons storage and staging, to the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction. SPO developed significantly more cost-effective ways to counter proliferated, inexpensive cruise missiles, UAVs, and other platforms used for weapon delivery, jamming, and surveillance. SPO invested in novel space technologies across the spectrum of space control applications including rapid access, space situational awareness, counterspace, and persistent tactical grade sensing approaches including extremely large space apertures and structures.
- The Information Systems Office (ISO) in the 1990s developed system applications of advanced information technologies. It was a predecessor to the Information Exploitation Office.
A 1991 reorganization created several offices which existed throughout the early 1990s:
- The Electronic Systems Technology Office combined areas of the Defense Sciences Office and the Defense Manufacturing Office. This new office will focus on the boundary between general-purpose computers and the physical world, such as sensors, displays and the first few layers of specialized signal-processing that couple these modules to standard computer interfaces."
- The Computing Systems Technology Office combined functions of the old Information Sciences and Tactical Technology office. The office "will work scalable parallel and distributed heterogeneous computing systems technologies," DoD said.
- The Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office and the Computing Systems office will have responsibility associated with the Presidential High-Performance Computing Initiative. The Software office will also be responsible for "software systems technology, machine intelligence and software engineering."
- The Land Systems Office was created to develop advanced land vehicle and anti-armor systems, once the domain of the Tactical Technology Office
- The Undersea Warfare Office combined areas of the Advanced Vehicle Systems and Tactical Technology offices to develop and demonstrate submarine stealth and counterstealth and automation.
Reorganization in 2010 merged two offices:
- The Transformational Convergence Technology Office (TCTO) mission was to advance new crosscutting capabilities derived from a broad range of emerging technological and social trends, particularly in areas related to computing and computing-reliant subareas of the life sciences, social sciences, manufacturing, and commerce. The TCTO was folded into the I2O in 2010.
- The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) focused on inventing the networking, computing, and software technologies vital to ensuring DOD military superiority. The IPTO was combined with TCTO in 2010 to form the I2O.
- ACTUV - A project to build an unmanned Anti-submarine warfare vessel.
- ArcLight (missile) - Ship based weapon system that is capable of striking targets nearly anywhere on the globe. It is based on the Standard Missile 3.
- Boeing X-37
- Integrated Sensor is Structure
- Boomerang (mobile shooter detection system) - an acoustic Gunshot Location Detection System developed by BBN Technologies for detecting snipers on military combat vehicles.
- CALO or "Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes" - software
- Combat Zones That See - "track everything that moves" in a city by linking up a massive network of surveillance cameras
- DARPA XG - technology for Dynamic Spectrum Access for assured military communications
- EATR An autonomous tactical robotic system
- High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System
- High Productivity Computing Systems
- Human Universal Load Carrier battery-powered human exoskeleton
- MAHEM Molten penetrating munition
- MEMS Exchange MEMS Implementation Environment
- Mind's Eye - A visual intelligence system capable of detecting and analysing activity from video feeds.
- Northrop Grumman Switchblade - an unmanned oblique-wing flying aircraft for high speed, long range and long endurance flight
- Persistent Close Air Support
- Protein Design Processes
- Proto 2 - a thought-controlled prosthetic arm
- Remote-controlled insects
- DARPA Shredder Challenge - Reconstruction of shredded documents
- DARPA Silent Talk - A planned program attempting to identify EEG patterns for words and transmit these for covert communications.
- SyNAPSE - Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics
- System F6 - Fractionated Spacecraft demonstrator
- XOS - powered military exoskeleton
- Transformer - flying armoured car
- Project AGILE
- ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet
- Aspen Movie Map
- ASTOVL, precursor of the Joint Strike Fighter Program
- Boeing X-45
- CPOF - the command post of the future - networked information system for Command control.
- DARPA Grand Challenge - driverless car competition
- DARPA Network Challenge
- High Performance Knowledge Bases
- Hypersonic Research Program
- I3 (Intelligent Integration of Information), supported the Digital Library research effort through NSF
- Project MAC
- Luke Arm, a DEKA creation
- MQ-1 Predator
- NLS/Augment, the origin of the canonical contemporary computer user interface
- Onion routing
- Passive radar
- Policy Analysis Market
- Rapid Knowledge Formation
- Sea Shadow
- Strategic Computing Program
- Synthetic Aperture Ladar for Tactical Applications (SALTI)
- SURAN (1983–87)
- Project Vela (1963)
ARPA/DARPA is well known as a high-tech government agency, and as such has many appearances in popular fiction. Some realistic references to ARPA in fiction are in Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X (DARPA consults on a technical threat), in episodes of television program The West Wing (the ARPA-DARPA distinction), the television program Numb3rs  (DARPA research into creating the first self-aware computer), and in the motion picture Executive Decision (use of a one-of-a-kind experimental prototype in an emergency).
Other references often attribute to DARPA an operational or political role, in addition to its high-tech responsibilities. Examples are the Matthew Reilly books Temple and Hell Island, the James Rollins' books Sandstorm, Map of Bones, The Judas Strain, The Doomsday Key and Black Order, and the video game series Metal Gear Solid, as well as the video games Infamous and Vanquish. DARPA also appears in two novels by Andy McDermott, The Search for Excalibur and The Covenant of Genesis.
- ARPA-E - a similar organization within the Department of Energy.
- DSTL - UK equivalent
- Defence Science and Technology Organisation - Australian Equivalent
- HSARPA - a similar organization within the Department of Homeland Security
- Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA)
- Defence Research and Development Canada - Similar organization in Canada
- People: Barry Boehm, Vint Cerf, Douglas Engelbart, Robert Fano, Anup K. Ghosh, James Hendler, Bob Kahn, JCR Licklider, John Poindexter, Larry Roberts, Robert Sproull, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, Gio Wiederhold.
- History of the Internet
- ^ Darpa.mil
- ^ a b "50 years of Bridging the Gap"
- ^ John Chambers, ed., The Oxford Companion to American Military History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) p. 791.
- ^ Statement by Dr. Tony Tether (Director of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) to Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities (House Armed Services Committee - United States House of Representatives) on March 13, 2008 section DARPA as a model in which he says this is content he agrees with that he is repeating from “Power Play,” W. B. Bonvillian, The American Interest, Volume II, p 39 (November–December 2006).
- ^ Susan Nichols, "Overview", DARPA SBIR Presentation (March, 2009), Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA)
- ^ Washington Times, "Pentagon Agency Breaks Ground", October 29, 2009.
- ^ Mollet, C. (2009-02-20). "DARPA Directors, 1958–2008" (PDF). DARPA. http://www.darpa.mil/Docs/DARPA_Directors_200807171322095.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- ^ Oral history interview with Charles Herzfeld Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Herzfeld discusses programs in and administration of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
- ^ Oral history interview with Stephen Lukasik. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Lukasik discusses his tenure at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the development of computer networks and the ARPANET.
- ^ a b c http://www.darpa.mil/offices.html DARPA Offices. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- ^ DSO Official homepage
- ^ "Falcon". DARPA. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20080822050303/http://www.darpa.mil/tto/programs/Falcon.htm.
- ^ "Airlaunchllc News". Airlaunch. http://www.airlaunchllc.com/News.htm.
- ^ "DARPA restructures/creates new offices". Defense Daily. 1991. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6712/is_n27_v171/ai_n28601257/.
- ^ "DARPA Kicks Off Mind's Eye program". Darpa.mil. 2011-01-04. http://www.darpa.mil/news/2011/MindsEyeNewsRelease.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
- ^ Ewen Callaway (2009-10-01). "Free-flying cyborg insects steered from a distance". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17895-freeflying-cyborg-insects-steered-from-a-distance.html. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- ^ "DARPA Shredder Challenge". DARPA. http://www.shredderchallenge.com. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
- ^ Warwick, Graham (May 22, 2009). "Darpa Plans Triple-Target Missile Demo". Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/TRIPLE052209.xml.
- ^ Transformer (TX) darpa.mil. Retrieved: 4 August 2010.
- ^ "CAN YOU DESIGN, BUILD AND FLY THE NEXT-GENERATION UAV?". Darpa.mil. 2011-05-25. http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2011/2011/05/25_CAN_YOU_DESIGN,_BUILD_AND_FLY_THE_NEXT-GENERATION_UAV_.aspx. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
- ^ "STO: WolfPack". Strategic Technology Office. Darpa.mil. http://www.darpa.mil/STO/strategic/wolfpack.html. Retrieved 2010-04-04. [dead link]
- ^ A history of the Joint Strike Fighter Program, Martin-Baker. Retrieved 4 August 2010
- ^ "DARPA Network Challenge". Darpa.mil. https://networkchallenge.darpa.mil/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- ^ Carnegie-Mellon University
- ^ Victor Appleton II, 1961. Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X, originally published by Grosset & Dunlap of New York, now re-published by Project Gutenberg. ARPA is referred to on page 68 published 1961
- ^ Numb3ers, Season 1, Episode 5, and Season 5, Episode 17
- This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.
- Castell, Manuel The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham UK 2004
- "The Men from Darpa" by John Sedgwick, Playboy magazine, August 1991
- DARPA Home Page
- DARPA TransTac speech-to-speech translation project
- PDF (1.59 MB)
- Ongoing Research Programs
- Defense Sciences Office
- Information Processing Techniques Office
- Microsystems Technology Office
- Strategic Technology Office
- Tactical Technology Office
- Hybrid Insect MEMS
- Surveillance Dust, DARPA website
- Surveillance Dust, Conversation with C. Keers and N. Marano, U.S. Marine Corps. Background information provided by Dr. Bill Howard, Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- DARPA Network Challenge 2009
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