Krishnaism, is a term that is often used to describe a number of
Hindureligious traditions, that are among the Hindu denominationscentered on devotion to Radha Krishnaor other forms of Krishna, or Vishnuin a sentiment of Krishna. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE3D61038F931A15756C0A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all SPREADING THE GOSPEL AT HARVARD] The New York Times May 22, 1988 Retrieved on 5-21-2008] And it is based on didactics of Bhagavad Gita, which is called sometimes the "Bible of Krishnaism" [James Mulhern (1959) A History of Education: A Social Interpretation p. 93] [Franklin Edgerton (1925) The Bhagavad Gita: Or, Song of the Blessed One, India's Favorite Bible [http://books.google.com/books?id=Y1guGAfGr6UC&pg=RA2-PA87&dq=%22bible+of+Krsnaism%22&ei=cKCPSJulJZD0jgGAr8CGCQ&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U3aHo_Nj-OFUc057nkj5rPLirfn8A pp. 87-91] ] [ Charlotte Vaudeville has said, [http://books.google.com/books?id=1oqTYiPeAxMC&pg=PT119&dq=%22bible+of+Krsnaism%22&ei=cKCPSJulJZD0jgGAr8CGCQ&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U0-7wQkZxeQEkWtv89fsSAi4Ockwg it is the 'real Bible of Krsnaism'] . Quoted in: Matchett, 2000] Out of many deities Krishnais particularly important, and traditions of Vaishnavalines, are generally centered either on Vishnuor on Krishna, as supreme. The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the cults of Krishna, reserving term "Vaishnavism" for cults focusing on Vishnu in which Krishnais an avatara, rather then a transcended being. [Flood,(1996) p. 117]
Era in which Krishnaism triumphed is placed historically prior to the historical struggles associated with the start of Buddhism in India, [cite book |author=Mauss, Marcel |title=The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies |publisher=W.W. Norton & Company |location=New York |year=2000 |chapter=note 71 |isbn=0-393-32043-X |pages=p. 148] and is earlier then Christianity, while some historians suggested that both cults have evolved from the common source of the savior-God religion. [cite book |author=Jackson, John |title=Christianity Before Christ |publisher=American Atheist Press |location= |year=1985 |pages=p. 166 |isbn=0-910309-20-5|quote=John M. Robertson wrote a learned treatise entitled Christ and Krishna, and in that work he argued that there was no direct contact between Krishnaism and Christianity; but that both cults were derived from an earlier common source.] "Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of
Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopalaof late Vedic period. [ [http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/hindu/devot/vaish.html Vaishnava] University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008] The principal basis of emotional Krishna bhakti 'in separation' is when Krishna abandoned his earthly mistresses, gopis who then spent their days of separation anxious for his return. This powerful theme found expression not only in myth, but also in the devotion and poetry of a religious culture which evolved in South India and was documented in a work called "Viraha-bhakti" by Friedhelm Hardy. In this work the author styles this type of Krishnaism, imbued the theme of separation with ecstatic features and claiming that it evolved as one of the highlights of Indian religion and culture. The work is a detailed analysis of the history of Krishnaism specifically all pre-11 century sources starting with the stories of Krishna and the gopi, milkmaids in Northern Literature, including Mayonmysticism of the Vaishnava Tamilsaints, Sangam Tamil literatureand Alvars' Krishna-centered devotion in the rasa of the emotional union and the dating and history of the Bhagavata Purana.cite book |author=Hardy, Friedhelm |title=Viraha-Bhakti: The Early History of Krsna Devotion in South India (Oxford University South Asian Studies Series) |publisher=Oxford University Press, USA |location= |year=2001 |pages= |isbn=0-19-564916-8] [cite web
title=Book review - FRIEDHELM HARDY, Viraha Bhakti: The Early History of Krishna Devotion in South India. Oxford University Press, Nagaswamy 23 (4): 443 -- Indian Economic & Social History Review
accessdate=2008-07-29] Neo-Krishnaism is sometimes being presented as the viable alternative to
Christianity.cite book |author=Walls, Andrew F. |title=The cross-cultural process in Christian history: studies in the transmission and appropriation of faith |publisher=Orbis Books |location=Maryknoll, N.Y |year=2002 |pages=p. 270 |isbn=1-57075-373-3] And today this faith with this ancient history has a significant following outside of India as well with a number of celebrities, such as George Harrisonpublicly proclaiming this following.cite book |author=Giuliano, Geoffrey |title=Dark horse: the life and art of George Harrison |publisher=Da Capo Press |location=New York |year=1997 |pages=p. 12 |isbn=0-306-80747-5] cite book
author=Graham M. Schweig
title=Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story
publisher=Princeton University Press
Vaishnavismis a monotheism, or sometimes described as ' polymorphic monotheism', with implication that there are many forms of one original deity, defined as belief in a single unitary deity who takes many forms. In Krishnaism this deity is Krishna, sometimes referred as intimate deity - as compared with the numerous four-armed forms of Narayanaor Vishnu. [Scheweig, (2004) pp. 13-17] While in common language the term is not often used as many prefers a wider term " Vaishnavism", which appeared to relate to Vishnu (more specifically as Vishnu-ism), there are a few theories as to the origins and the definitions of the Krishnaism.
There was some academic debate as to the relationship of Krishnaism and
Christianityin the 19th century. Albrecht Weberwas the first to make a serious attempt to support this view. On the other hand one of the main opponents of Weber, Auguste Barth, considers that the essence of Krishnaism is no different from that of "any religion which reaches the stage of monotheism". Based on historical evidence even supporters of Weber never denied that the essence of Krishnaism, bhaktior the principle of "God is love", was pre-Christian.cite book
author = Dahlaquist, A.
year = 1996
title = Megasthenes and Indian Religion: A Study in Motives and Types
publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
pp.9-17] That certainly goes against the definition of Krishnaism as "worship of Krishna the 8th avatar of Vishnu".
On the other hand, despite Weber's claims on the closeness of the two traditions, some missionaries after experiencing India define it almost categorically as "Krishnaism is deified lust. Many of the Puranic legends are unfit to he read." [ OBSERVATIONS OF AN ITINERANT, A Brief Exposition of some Missionary Problems, Methods and Results. [http://www.google.ie/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=18&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdigilib.bu.edu%3A8080%2Fdspace%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F2144%2F1060%2Fobservations.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=oNE1SPecC4GS7QWbo6TKDQ&usg=AFQjCNFWHjJZWUk1JK3xFTdGtcDmoijHAw&sig2=zJyqgGopcJ5yJt-ki1K18w REV. J. E. SCOTT, PH.D. , S.T.D.,] 1905]
This view can be contrasted with the views of Count Volney, who supported the idea that the story of Jesus of the New Testament, was directly derived from the biography of Krishna, John M. Robertson on the other hand in his treatise entitled "Christ and Krishna" argued that there was no direct contact between Krishnaism and
Christianitybut both cults derived from an earlier common source.cite book
title=Christianity Before Christ
publisher=American Atheist Press
In the early 20th century Krishnaism was sometimes contrasted with Christianity and "clearly neo-Krishnaism was being presented as the alternative to Christianity."cite book
author=WALLS, Andrew F.
title=The cross-cultural process in Christian history: studies in the transmission and appropriation of faith
Within Vaishnavism, Krishnaim contrasts with "
Vishnuism". Vishnuism believes in Vishnuas the supreme being, manifested himself as Krishna, while Krishnaism accepts Krishna to be Svayam bhagavanor "authentic", that manifested himself as Vishnu. As such Krishnaism is believed to be one of the early attempts to make philosophical Hinduismappealing to the masses.cite book
author=Wilson, Bill; McDowell, Josh
title=The best of Josh McDowell: a ready defense
Historically, it was
Caitanya Mahaprabhuwho founded Krishnaism in the early 1500s after becoming a sannyasi.
A notable event happened in the recent history of Krishnaism as in the 1930s, Abhay Charan (who would later become known as Swami
Prabhupada) was initiated into this particular faith and founded the ISKCON.cite book
title=So What's the Difference?
publisher=Gospel Light Publications
Krishna is a
deityof Krishnaism that is also worshiped across many other traditions of Hinduism. Krishna is often described as having the appearance of a dark-skinned person and is depicted as a young cowherd boy playing a flute or as a youthful prince giving philosophical direction and guidance, as in the Bhagavad Gita.cite book
author = Elkman, S.M.
coauthors = Gosvami, J.
year = 1986
title = Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement
publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Pub
Krishna and the stories associated with him appear across a broad spectrum of different Hindu philosophical and theological traditions, where its believed that
Godappears to his devoted worshippers in many different forms, depending on their particular desires. These forms include the different avataras of Krishna described in traditional Vaishnavatexts, but they are not limited to these. Indeed, it is said that the different expansions of the Svayam bhagavanare uncountable and they cannot be fully described in the finite scriptures of any one religious community. [ [http://vedabase.net/cc/madhya/20/165/en Chaitanya Charitamrita "Madhya" 20.165] ] cite journal
author = Richard Thompson, Ph. D.
year = December 1994
title = Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism
url = http://www.iskcon.com/icj/1_2/12thompson.html
accessdate = 2008-04-12] Many of the
Hindu scripturessometimes differ in details reflecting the concerns of a particular tradition, while some core features of the view on Krishna are shared by all.cite journal| author = Mahony, W.K. | year = 1987 | title = Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities | journal = History of Religions | volume = 26| issue = 3 | pages = 333-335 | url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710(198702)26%3A3%3C333%3APOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0
;NorthernGopala Krsna of Krishnaism is often contrasted with
Vedismespecially based on the story appearing in the Bhagavata Puranawhen Krishna asks his followers to desist from Vedic demigod, Indra worship. Thus the character of Gopala Krishnais often considered to be non-Vedic, while it can also be based on the popular understanding or rather misunderstanding of the Rigvedic texts. [cite book |author= Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar |title= Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar as an Indologist: A Symposium |publisher= Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute|location=India |year= 1976 |pages= p. 38-40]
Krishnaism appears to emerge as early as the
4th century BC, based on evidence in Megasthenesand the and in the Arthasastraof Kautilya. Worship of Krishna, the deified tribal hero and religious leader of the Yadavas, took sectarian form as the Pancaratraand earlier as Bhagavatareligions. This sect has at a later stage merged with the cult of Narayana.
Early Krishnaism thus consist of an amalgamation of the heroic
Krishna Vasudeva, the "divine child" Bala Krishnaand the Gopalatraditions.
While some believe it being of non-Vedic origin, it is accepted that at the later stage of
Vedic periodKrishnaism began to affiliate itself with Vedismin order to become acceptable to orthodoxy, in particular aligning itself with Rigvedic Vishnu. By the Early Medieval period, Krishnaism had risen to a major current of Vaishnavism.cite book
author = KLOSTERMAIER, Klaus K.
pages = p.206
year = 2005
title = A Survey of Hinduism
publisher = State University of New York Press; 3 edition
isbn = 0791470814
quote = Present day Krishna worship is an amalgam of various elements. According to historical testimonies
Krishna-Vasudevaworship already flourished in and around Mathura several centuries before Christ. A second important element is the cult of Krishna Govinda. Still later is the worship of Bala-Krishna, the Divine Child Krishna - a quite prominent feature of modern Krishnaism. The last element seems to have been Krishna Gopijanavallabha, Krishna the lover of the Gopis, among whom Radhaoccupies a special position. In some books Krishna is presented as the founder and first teacher of the Bhagavata religion.]
;SouthernAccording to Hardy's study of the various connections between records and traditions there is evidence of early "southern Krishnaism", even there is a tendency to allocate this tradition to the Northern traditions. There is a narrative context in which the early writings in
Dravidianculture such as " Manimekalai" and the " Cilappatikaram" present Krishna, his brother, and favorite female companions in the similar terms. Fred Hardyargues that the Sanskrit Bhagavata Purana is essentially a Sanskrit "translation" of the bhakti of the Tamil alvars. [Norman Cutler (1987) "Songs of Experience: The Poetics of Tamil Devotion", [http://books.google.com/books?id=veSItWingx8C&pg=PA13&dq=Friedhelm+Hardy+Viraha+Bhakti&ei=aYCPSL2TJ4uUiAGg_rjPDA&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U2vlStPA_NURdx8gHxhv-nq2FSRaQ p. 13] ] Whether to accept this radical suggestion, it an accepted view that South Indian texts illustrate close parallels to the Sanskrit traditions of Krishna and his gopi companions, so ubiquitous in later North Indian text and imagery.MONIUS, Anne E.: "Dance Before Doom. Krishna In The Non-Hindu Literature of Early Medieval South India." In: Beck, Guy L., ed. "Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity". Albany: State University of New York Press 2005; Ch. 8. pp. 139-149.]
While some refer to devotion to indigenous Mal (
Tirumal) as early forms of Krishnaism, since Mal appears as a divine figure, largely like Krishna with some elements of Vishnu.cite web
title=Devotion to Mal (Mayon)
first=] It has been suggested by Hardy that the term "Mayonism" should be used instead of "Krishnaism" when referring to Mal or Mayon. On the other hand another prominent early evidence gathered from the poetry of
Alvars, whose name can be translated "sages" or "saints", is that they were devotees of Mal. In their poems there comes a pronounced orientation to the Vaishnava and often Krishna side of Mal. Its is however important to note that they do not make the distinction between Krishna and Vishnuon the basis of the concept or theory of the avataras.
Early and medieval traditions
Vaishnavism in the 8th century came into contact with the
Advaitadoctrine of Adi Shankara.There were counter-movements in South India to Shankara's theory of Brahmanin particular, Ramanujain the 11th century and Madhvain the 15th, building on the devotional tradition of the Alvars( Shri Vaishnavas).
Bhakti movementof late medieval Hinduism emerges in the 9th or 10th century, and is based on the Bhagavata Purana. On opinion of others it is Bhagavad Gitathat may be said to constitute the gospel of Krishnaism. It is believed to be the most seminal of all Hindu scriptures.cite book |author=G. Widengren |title=Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions - Religions of the Present |publisher=Brill Academic Publishers |location=Boston |year=1997 |pages=p.270 |isbn=90-04-02598-7 |oclc= |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=3rrQY1tzLQUC&pg=PA270 |accessdate=]
In North India, Krishnaism gave rise to various late Medieval movements:
Nimbarkaand Ramanandain the 14th century, Kabir in the 15th and Vallabhaand Caitanyain the 16th.
South Indian traditions and evidence
Radha Krishna traditions
Krishna worship alone w/o Radha
Krishna worship as an avatar
Mixed modes traditions
A number of interpretations according to traditions possess a common root of personalism in the understanding of worship. Some proclaiming the supremacy of Krishna and the reality and eternality of individual selves. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=110]
One of the middle ages Kings of
Manipur, Gareeb Nivaz ruling from 1709 to 1748 and he was initiated into Krishnaism and practiced this religion for nearly twenty years.cite book |author= |title=Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology |publisher=Sahitya Akademi |location=New Delhi |year=1997 |pages= |isbn=81-260-0365-0 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= [http://books.google.com/books?id=KYLpvaKJIMEC&pg=RA1-PA327 p.327] ] Since that period of time Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but Radha-Krishna. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=g-wbAAAAIAAJ&q=Manipur+Radha&dq=Manipur+Radha&lr=&client=firefox-a Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature - p. 4290] , Amaresh Datta, Mohan Lal,1994] With the spread of the worship of Krishna and Radha, it becomes the dominant form in the Manipur region.cite book |author=Shanti Swarup |title=5000 Years of Arts and Crafts in India and Pakistan |publisher= [http://books.google.com/books?q=inpublisher:%22D.+B.+Taraporevala%22&lr=&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 D. B. Taraporevala] |location=New Delhi |year=1968 |pages=272 |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |accessdate= [http://books.google.com/books?id=lnVQAAAAMAAJ&q=Manipur+Radha&dq=Manipur+Radha&pgis=1 p.183] ]
Charlotte Vaudeville, in the article ‘"Evolution of Love Symbolism in Bhagavatism"’ draws some parallel to Nappinnai, appearing in Godha’s magnum opus Thiruppavai and also in
Nammalwar’s references to Nappinnani, the daughter-in-law of Nandagopa. Nappinnai is believed to be the source of Radha’s conception in Prakritand Sanskritliterature although their characteristic relations with Krishna are different.
Yasastilaka Champukavya (AD 959) makes references to
Radhaand Krishna well before Jayadeva's period. There are elaborate references to Radhain Brahma vaivartaand Padma Puranas. [ [http://www.sankeertanam.com/saints%20texts/Jayadeva%20&%20Gita%20Govindam_2003_SK.pdf Musical Saints of India] www.sankeertanam.com]
Bengali literature gives a vivid description of the depiction and evolution of understanding of Radhaand Krishna.cite journal
author = Chatterji, S.K.
title = Purana Legends and the Prakrit Tradition in New Indo-Aryan
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1356-1898(1936)8%3A2%2F3%3C457%3APLATPT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U
accessdate = 2008-05-15literary study of their lyric literature of Bengal
Vaishnavism, has given a usefulconspectus of the "Historical Development of the Radha-Krsna Legend"] However the source of Jayadeva Goswamis heroine in his poem Gita Govinda remains a puzzle in Sanskrit Literature.cite journal
author = Miller, S.B.S.
year = 1975
title = Radha: Consort of Krsna's Vernal Passion
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
volume = 95
issue = 4
pages = 655-671
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(197510%2F12)95%3A4%3C655%3ARCOKVP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
accessdate = 2008-05-15]
Caitanya Vaishnavismmetaphysical status and Radha-worship is considered to be established by Krsnadasa in his Caitanya Caritamrtawhere he represents the doctrine that prevailed among the VrindavanCaitanyaites following Caitanya's demise in 1533. It is believed that Krishna desired to experience fully what it is like to love Krishna as Radha does has appeared as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. And what Radha (appearing as Caitanya) does in her longing for Krishna is to chant his names. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|pp=30-31]
One of the self manifested Deities established by
Gopala Bhatta Goswamiis called Radharamana, it is not surprising that Radharamana is seen as not only Krishna but also as Radha-Krishna. [Harvnb|Valpey|2006|p=52] A
The adepts and followers of the
Nimbarka Sampradayaworship the youthful Krishna, alone or with his consort Radhaare representing the earliest of the second wave of Greater Krishnaism, dating at least to the 12th century, matching and extending beyond tradition of the Rudra Sampradayadoes. [The penny cyclopædia [ed. by G. Long] . 1843, p.390 [http://books.google.com/books?id=_8cWRilIuE0C&pg=RA1-PA390&dq=rudra+sampradaya&as_brr=3#PRA1-PA390,M1] ] According to Nimbarka, Radhawas the eternal consort of Vishnu-Krishna and there is also
a suggestion, though not a clear statement, that she became the wife of her beloved Krishna. [Sharda Arya, Sudesh Narang, "Religion and Philosophy of the Padma-purāṇa: Dharmaśāstra." Miranda House (University of Delhi). Dept. of Sanskrit, India University Grants Commission, 1988. 547, p.30]
Vallabhacharyaintroduced the worship of Radha Krishna, where according to some sects, for example, the devotees identify mainly with the female companion ("sakhi") of Radha who is privileged to witness the Radha-Krsna private relationship.cite journal
author = White, C.S.J.
year = 1990
title = Vallabhacarya on the Love Games of Krsna
journal = Journal of the American Oriental Society
volume = 110
issue = 2
pages = 373-374
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279(199004%2F06)110%3A2%3C373%3AVOTLGO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R
accessdate = 2008-05-15]
Swaminarayan Faithnew-Hinduism, spreading very rapidly thought the world, Radha KrishnaDev has a special place as Swaminarayanhimself made a reference to Radha Krishnain the Shikshapatrihe wrote. [cite web | url =http://www.swaminarayan.nu/sampraday/shiksha.shtml | title= Shikshapatri, verse 109 by Bhagwan Swaminarayan]
Vrindavanais often considered to be a holy place by majority of traditions of Krishnaism. Its a center of Krishna worship and the area is including places like Govardhanaand Gokulaassociated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of "bhaktas" or devotees of Krishnavisit these paces of pilgimage every year and participate in a number of festivals that relate to the scenes from Krishnas life on Earth. cite book
author = KLOSTERMAIER, Klaus K.
pages = p.204
year = 2007
title = A Survey of Hinduism
publisher = State University of New York Press; 3 edition
isbn = 0791470814
quote = ..
Bhagavad Gitaand the Bhagavata Purana, certainly the most popular religious books in the whole of India. Not only was Krsnaism influenced by the identification of Krsna with Vishnu, but also Vaishnavism as a whole was partly transformed and reinvented in the light of the popular and powerful Krishna religion. Bhagavatism may have brought an element of cosmic religion into Krishna worship; Krishna has certainly brought a strongly human element into Bhagavatism. ... The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna "bhaktas" visit these places ever year and participate in the numerous festivals that reenact scenes from Krshnas life on Earth]
Common scriptures of Krishnaism
While every tradition of Krishnaism has its own canon, in all Krishna is accepted as a teacher of the path in the early scriptures of
Bhagavad Gitaand the Bhagavata Purana, certainly the most popular religious books in the whole of India.
As Krishna says in the
Bhagavad Gita, establishing the basis of Krishnaism himself:
* "And of all yogins, he who full of faith worships Me, with his inner self abiding in Me, him, I hold to be the most attuned (to me in Yoga)." [Radhakrishan(1970), ninth edition, Blackie and son India Ltd., p.211, Verse 6.47]
* "After attaining Me, the great souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world, because they have attained the highest perfection." [cite web
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
title = Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 8.15
publisher = Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON)
url = http://vedabase.net/bg/8/15
accessdate = 2008-01-14]
author = Gupta, Ravi M.
year = 2007
Caitanya Vaisnava Vedantaof Jiva Gosvami
publisher = Routledge
isbn = 0415405483] ] In
Gaudiya Vaishnava, Vallabha Sampradaya Nimbarka sampradayaand the old Bhagavatschool, Krishna believed to be fully represented in his original form in the Bhagavata Purana, that at the end of the list of "avataras" concludes with the following text:Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=153Bhag. Purana 1.3.28: "IAST|ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam" :"IAST|indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge"] Quotation|All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead ("Svayam Bhagavan"). [ [http://srimadbhagavatam.com/1/3/28/en 1.3.28] cite web
title=Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 1 Chapter 3 Verse 28
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
Not all commentators on the Bhagavata Purana stress this verse, however a majority of Krishna-centered and contemporary commentaries highlight this verse as a significant statement. [cite web
Jiva Goswamihas called it "Paribhasa-sutra", the “thesis statement” upon which the entire book or even theology is based. [cite book
title=Waves of Devotion
accessdate= - cite web
title=Waves of Devotion
Hari-namamr†a-vyakarana, Jiva Gosvamidefines paribhasa-sutra as "aniyame niyama-karini paribhasa": “A "paribhasa-sutra" implies a rule or theme where it is not explicitly stated.” In other words, it gives the context in which to understand a series of apparently unrelated statements in a book.]
In another place of the
Bhagavata Purana10.83.5-43 those who are named as wives of Krishnaall explain to Uraupadi how the 'Lord himself' (" Svayam Bhagavan", Bhagavata Purana10.83.7) came to marry them. As they relate these episodes, several of the wives speak of themselves as Krishna's devotees.Harvnb|Matchett|2000|p=141] In the tenth canto of The Bhagavata Purana describes " svayam bhagavans" Krishna's childhood pastimes as that of a much-loved child raised by cowherds in Vrindavan, near to the Yamuna River. The young Krishna enjoys numerous pleasures, such as thieving balls of butter or playing in the forest with his cowherd friends. He also endures episodes of carefree bravery protecting the town from demons. More importantly, however, he steals the hearts of the cowherd girls ( Gopis). Through his magical ways, he multiplies himself to give each the attention needed to allow her to be so much in love with Krishna that she feels at one with him and only desires to serve him. This love, represented by the grief they feel when Krishna is called away on a heroic mission and their intense longing for him, is presented as models of the way of extreme devotion ( bhakti) to the Supreme Lord.Harvnb|Matchett|2000|loc=10th canto transl.]
Each particular tradition or Krishna-centered
sampradayas has a specific set of scriptural written body:
In the warkari movement
warkarimovement following scriptures are considered sacred in addition to general body of the common writing:
In the Chaitanya movement
# Sad Sandarbhas
# Brahma Samhita
Relationship to other traditions in Hinduism
Heliodorus pillarthat was made by Heliodorus 110 BCE after his conversion to Bhagavata Monotheism.] While some consider Vishnu to be the primary deity in the traditions, this view is believed by some academics to be a recent addition as there is some evidence that worship of Vasudevaand not Vishnucame at the beginning of Vaishnavism. This earliest phase was established from the sixth to the fifth centuries BCE at the time of Panini, who in his "Astadhyayi" explained the word "vasudevaka" as a bhakta, devotee, of Vasudeva. Since then this term "Vasudeva" has been interpreted by by much later Adi Shankara, using the earlier Vishnu Puranaas a support, as meaning the 'supreme self' or Vishnu, dwelling everywhere and in all things.Ganguli translation of Mahabharata, [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m13/m13b113.htm Ch.148] ] Many other schools of Indian thought has a different interpretation of this key concept. However the primary meaning remains enshrined in the inscription of the Heliodorus pillar110 BCE.
There is also evidence that cult which flourished with the decline of Vedism was centred on Krishna, the deified tribal hero and religious leader of the Yadavas.cite web
first=] It is believed that at a later stage Krishnaism started to align with Vedism so that the orthodoxy would find it acceptable. It is also believed that at this stage that Vishnu of the
Rig Vedawas assimilated into Krishnaism and became the equivalent of the supreme God. While there is a considerable debate as to Shivaismversus Vishnuism, and foisting of Krishnaism upon a dummy Vishnu to be passed as a Vedicdeity, some consider that, "stated in this way, such scarcely can have been the case". [Hopkins,"The Religions of India",ISBN 160303143X, p.645]
However, such views distinguishing Vishnu from Krishna are believed to be without basis by some. For example, the
Mahabharataitself, is believed by some to predate the BhagavatamFact|date=July 2008 and in the interpretations of Vishnu sahasranamacomposed by Bhishmain glorification of Krishna, where Krishnaaccording to some commentators, is identified as an avatarof Vishnu[Vishnu Sahasranama, with Sankara's commentary, by Swami Tapasyananda, Ramakrishna Press, p. 177] and worship of Krishna was seen as identical to worship of Vishnu.
Notably, in the 149th chapter of "Anushāsanaparva" in the epic
Mahabharata, Bhismastates, with Krishnapresent, that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the " Vishnu sahasranama"' which are the thousand names of the all-pervading supreme being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, supreme over the "devas" and who is one with Brahman. This seems to indicate that Krishna is identical with Vishnu. Indeed, Krishnahimself said, "Arjuna, one may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” [ [http://www.srivaishnavan.com/tomcat/visnu.html Srivaishnavism ] ]
author = MULLICK, Bulloram
year = 1898
title = Krishna and Krishnaism
publisher = S.K. Lahiri & Co
*HARDY, Friedhelm E.: "Krsnaism". In: The Encyclopedia of Religion 8 (Ed. Mircea Eliade) (1987) 387/2 - 392/1
*CLÉMENTIN-OJHA, Catherine: "La renaissance du Nimbarka Sampradaya au XVI"e siècle". Contribution à l'étude d'une secte Krsnaïte. Journal asiatique 278 (1990) 327-376.
author = BRZEZINSKI, J.K.
year = 1992
title = Prabodhananda, Hita Harivamsa and the Radharasasudhanidhi
journal = Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
volume = 55
issue = 3
pages = 472-497
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X(1992)55%3A3%3C472%3APHHAT%22%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P
accessdate = 2008-05-04
author = FLOOD, G.D.
year = 1996
title = An Introduction to Hinduism
publisher = Cambridge University Press
isbn = 0521438780
title=Krishna: The Living God of Braj
*GUY, John: "New evidence for the Jagannatha cult in seventeenth century Nepal". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society [3rd Ser.] 2 (1992) 213-230.
*REDINGTON, James D.: "Elements of a Vallabhite Bhakti-synthesis". Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1992) 287-294.
*HUDSON D. (1993). "Vasudeva Krsna in Theology and Architecture: A Background to Srivaisnavism". "Journal of Vaisnava Studies" (2).
*CHATTERJEE, Asoke: "Srimadbhagavata and Caitanya-Sampradaya". Journal of the Asiatic Society 37/4 (1995)1-14.
*ROSENSTEIN, Ludmila L.: "The Devotional Poetry of Svami Haridas". A Study of Early Braj Bhasa Verse. (Groningen Oriental Studies 12). Groningen 1997
*SINHA, K.P.: "A critique of A.C.Bhaktivedanta". Calcutta 1997.
*MISHRA, Baba: "Radha and her contour in Orissan culture". In: Orissan history, culture and archaeology. In Felicitation of Prof. P.K. Mishra. Ed. by S. Pradhan. (Reconstructing Indian History & Culture 16). New Delhi 1999; pp. 243-259.
title=Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana
*PAUWELS, Heidi: "Paradise Found, Paradise Lost: Hariram Vyas's Love for Vrindaban and what Hagiographers made of it". In: Pilgrims, Patrons, and Place: Localizing Sanctity in Asian Religions. Ed. by Phyllis Granoff and Koichi Shinohara. (Asian Religions and Society Series). Vancouver, Toronto 2003; pp. 124-180.
*BECK, Guy L., ed. "Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity". Albany: State University of New York Press 2005.
*MONIUS, Anne E.: "Dance Before Doom. Krishna In The Non-Hindu Literature of Early Medieval South India." In: Beck, Guy L., ed. "Alternative Krishnas. Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity". Albany: State University of New York Press 2005; pp. 139-149.
*PATEL, Gautam: "Concept of God According to Vallabhacarya". In: Encyclopaedia of Indian Wisdom. Prof. Satya Vrat Shastri Felicitation Volume. Vol. 2. Editor: Ramkaran Sharma. Delhi, Varanasi 2005, pp. 127-136.
*SCHWEIG, G.M. (2005). "Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story". Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford. ISBN 0691114463.
*COUTURE, André: "The emergence of a group of four characters (Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) in the Harivamsa: points for consideration". Journal of Indian Philosophy 34,6 (2006) 571-585.
*HAWLEY, John Stratton: "Three Bhakti Voices. Mirabai, Surdas, and Kabir in Their Time and Ours". 2nd impression. Oxford 2006.
*KLOSTERMAIER, Klaus K. (2007). "A Survey of Hinduism". State University of New York Press; 3 edition, p.204." ISBN 0791470814
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