Zand dynasty


Zand dynasty

Infobox Former Country
native_name =امپراتوری ایران
conventional_long_name = Persian Empire
common_name = Persia
continent = Asia
region = Middle East
country = Iran
status = Empire
year_start = 1750
year_end = 1794
date_start =
date_end =
event_start = Zand dynasty begins
event_end = Qajar dynasty begins
p1 = Afsharid dynasty
flag_p1 = Nadir Shah Flag.pngp2 =
flag_p2 =
s1 = Qajar dynasty
flag_s1 = Flag of Persia (1910).svg





image_map_caption =
national_anthem =
capital = Shiraz
common_languages = Persian
government_type = Monarchy
title_leader = Shah
leader1 = Karim Khan Zand (first)
year_leader1 = 1750-1779
leader2 = Lotf Ali Khan Zand (last)
year_leader2 = 1789-1794
footnotes =

The Zand dynasty (audio|zand.ogg|Zand) (سلسله زندیه) ruled southern and central Iran (1750–1794) in the eighteenth century.

History

Karim Khan Zand

The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe. He became one of Nadir Shah's generals. [ [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/zand/zand.php History of Iran: Zand Dynasty ] ] Nadershah moved the Zand tribe form their home in Lorestan to the eastern steppes of Khorasan. After Nader’s death, the Zand tribe, under the guidance of Karim Khan, went back to their original land. [http://www.iranologie.com/history/history13.html] After Adil Shah was made king Karim Khan and his soldiers defected from the army and along with Ali Morad Khan Bakhtiari and Abolfath Khan Haft Lang, two other local chiefs, became a major contender but was challenged by several adversaries. [http://www.farhangsara.com/history_afshar.htm History of Iran ] ] Abolfath Khan was the Prime Minister, Karim Khan got became the army chief commander and Ali Morad Khan became the regent. Karim Khan declared Shiraz his capital. He gained control of central and southern parts of Iran. In order to add legitimacy to his claim, Karim Khan placed the infant Shah Ismail III, the grandson of the last Safavid king in 1757 on the throne. Ismail was a figurehead king and real power being vested in Karim Khan. Karim Khan chose to be the military commander and Alimardan Khan was the civil administrator. Soon enough Karim Khan managed to eliminate his partner as well as the puppet king and in 1760, founded his own dynasty. He refused to accept the title of the king and instead named himself "The Advocate of the People".

By 1760 Karim Khan had defeated all his rivals and controlled all of Iran except Khorasan, in the northeast, which was ruled by Shah Rukh. His foreign campaigns against Azad Khan in Azerbaijan and against the Ottomans in Mesopotamia brought Azerbaijan and the province of Basra into his control. But he never stopped his campaigns against his arch-enemey, Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar, the chief of the Quvanlu Qajars. The latter was finally defeated by Karim Khan and his sons, Agha Mohammad Khan and Hosseingholi Khan, were brought to Shiraz as hostages.

Karim Khan's monuments in Shiraz include the famous Arg of Karim Khan, Vakil Bazaar, and several mosques and gardens. He is also responsible for building of a palace in the town of Tehran, the future capital of the Qajar dynasty.

Decline and Fall

Karim Khan's death in 1779 left his territory vulnerable to threats from his enemies. His son and successor Abu al-Fath was an incompetent ruler who was heavily influenced by his half uncle (and Karim Khan's commander), Zaki Khan. Other rulers such as Ali Morad and Jafar Khan also failed to follow the policies of Karim Khan and soon enough, the country was under attack from all sides.

The biggest enemies of the Zands, the Qajar chiefs, lead by the former hostage, Agha Mohammad Khan, were advancing fast against the declining kingdom. Finally, in 1789, Lotf Ali Khan, a grand-nephew of Karim Khan, declared himself the new king. His reign (until 1794) was spent mostly in war with the Qajar khan. He was finally captured and brutally killed in the fortress of Bam, putting an effective end to the Zand Dynasty.

Politically, it is also important that the Zands, especially Karim Khan, chose to call themselves "Vakilol Ro'aya" ("Advocate of the People") instead of kings. Other than the obvious propaganda value of the title, it can be a reflection of the popular demands of the time, expecting rulers with popular leanings instead of absolute monarchs who were totally detached from the population, like the earlier Safavids.

After the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Zand was the only dynasty whose names on public places and monuments were not removed by the new Republican government.

Culture

The Zand era was an era of relative peace and economic growth for the country. Many territories that were captured by the Ottomans in the late Safavid times were taken back and Iran was once again a coherent and prosperous country. After Iranian painting reached its height at the end of the 17th century, a special school of painting took shape during the Zand era in the 17th and 18th centuries. [ [http://www2.irib.ir/worldservice/englishRADIO/IRAN/iranart.htm New Page 1 ] ] The art of this era is remarkable and despite the short length of the dynasty, a distinct Zand art had the time to emerge. Many Qajar artistic traits were copied from the Zand examples.

In foreign policy, Karim Khan attempted to revive the Safavid era trade by allowing the British to establish a trading post in the port of Bushehr. This opened the hands of the British East India company in Iran and increased their influence in the country. [ [http://www.iranvisitor.com/index.php?cID=417&pID=1159 Iran & Iranian History - Afshar and Zand :: Iran Visitor ] ] The taxation system was reorganized in a way that taxes were levied fairly. The judicial system was fair and generally humane. Capital punishment was rarely implemented. [ [http://www.infohub.com/forums/showthread.php?t=2812 History of Iran - Kajar Dynasty - InfoHub ] ]

Kings of the Zand dynasty

* Karim Khan, 17501779
* Abol Fath Khan, 1779
* Ali Murad Khan, 1779
* Mohammad Ali Khan, 1779
* Sadiq Khan, 17791782
* Ali Murad Khan, 17821785
* Jafar Khan, 17851789
* Lotf Ali Khan, 17891794

External links

* [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/zand/zand.php http://www.iranchamber.com/history/zand/zand.php]
* [http://www.iranologie.com/history/history13.html http://www.iranologie.com/history/history13.html]
* [http://www.friesian.com/iran.htm#zand http://www.friesian.com/iran.htm#zand]

ee also

*History of Iran
*List of kings of Persia

References


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