Federal Air Marshal Service
The Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) is a
United Statesfederal government law enforcement agencyunder the supervision of the Transportation Security Administrationof the United States Department of Homeland Security. The Air Marshal service is meant to promote confidence in civil aviation by effectively deploying Federal Air Marshals (FAMs) to detect, deter, and defeat hostile acts targeting U.S. air carriers, airports, passengers, and crews.cite web
url = http://www.tsa.gov/lawenforcement/programs/fams.shtm
title = Federal Air Marshals
accessdate = 2006-10-29] FAMs are law enforcement agents of the federal government.
Because of the nature of their occupation, Federal Air Marshals (FAMs) often operate independently without backup. As officers, they are required to maintain one of the highest standards for
handgunaccuracy. A FAM's job is to blend in with other passengers on board aircraft and rely heavily on their training, including investigative techniques, criminal terroristbehavior recognition, firearms proficiency, aircraft specific tactics, and close quarters self-defensemeasures to protect the flying public.
The Federal Air Marshal Service began in 1968 as the
Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) " Sky Marshal" Program. It was initially composed of 6 volunteers from the FAA's Flight Standards Division who were trained in firearms at Brownsville, Texas. Later, it became an integral part of the Civil Aviation Security Division of the FAA and was expanded using volunteers from that division. These personnel were given firearms and some close combat training at the FBI Academy located on the US Marine Corps training grounds at Quantico, VA. In 1985, President Ronald Reaganrequested the expansion of the program and Congress enacted the International Security and Development Cooperation Act, which expanded the statutes that supported the Federal Air Marshal Service. Contrary to the impression given in the TSA Our Mission statement, the FAM program was begun in response to domestic hijackings and FAM operational flights were almost exclusively conducted on domestic US flights until 1985. After the TWA incident in 1985 and the enactment of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act the number of FAMs was increased and their focus became international US Air Carrier operations. Due to resistance of several countries e.g., the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany to having individuals carrying firearms entering their countries the coverage of international flight operations was initially spotty. As resistance to the entrance of armed personnel to their countries was overcome through bilateral negotiations and agreements reached as to the terms and handling of the weapons when they were brought in country, the FAMs were able to operate worldwide in carrying out their mission to protect US aviation from hijackings.
Air Marshals were originally designated as
US CustomsSecurity Officers assigned by order of President John F. Kennedyon an as-needed basis, and later were specially trained FAA personnel [http://www.tsa.gov/lawenforcement/mission/index.shtm] . Also contrary to the impression from the TSA Our Mission statement, the Customs Officers were phased out in 1971-1972. Many of them transferred to the FAA Civil Aviation Security Division to serve as Aviation Security Inspectors and also in the volunteer FAM program directed by the FAA's Civil Aviation Security Division.
Prior to September 11, 2001, the Federal Air Marshal Service consisted of varying numbers of FAMs depending upon the perceived threat and funding availability. Only 33 FAMs were active on 09/11/01.cite news | title=Air marshals grounded over 'security' | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3020570.stm | work = [http://news.bbc.co.uk/ news.bbc.co.uk] | accessdate=2006-08-25|date=2003-06-23] As a result of the 9/11 attacks, President
George W. Bushordered the rapid expansion of the Federal Air Marshal Service. Many new hires were agents from other federal agencies, such as the U.S. Customs Service, U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. Housing and Urban Development Office of the Inspector General (OIG), Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Postal Inspection Service, ATF, and many others [http://public.cq.com/public/20060911_topten_fams.html] . A classified number of applicants were hired, trained, and deployed on flights around the world. As of August, 2006, this number is estimated to be in the thousands.cite news | title=Air marshals to go native; dress code relaxed | url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060825/od_nm/usa_airmarshals_dc_1 | author = Charles, Deborah | date=2006-08-25 | work= [http://news.yahoo.com news.yahoo.com] | accessdate=2006-08-25] Currently, these FAMs serve as the primary law enforcement entity within the Transportation Security Administration(TSA).
On October 16, 2005 Homeland Security Secretary
Michael Chertoffofficially approved the transfer of the Federal Air Marshal Service from the Bureau of Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE) to TSA as part of a broader departmental reorganization to align functions consistent with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) "Second Stage Review" findings for:
# consolidating and strengthening aviation law enforcement and security at the Federal level;
# creating a common approach to stakeholder outreach; and
# improving the coordination and efficiency of aviation security operations.
As part of this realignment, the Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service also became the Assistant Administrator for the TSA Office of Law Enforcement (OLE), which houses nearly all TSA law enforcement services.
Securing other modes of transportation
Since July 2004, TSA has provided supplemental personnel to assist mass transit systems during major events, holidays, and anniversaries of prior attacks. These TSA personnel deploy as Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response Teams (VIPR teams), whose goal is to provide a random, unannounced, unpredictable, high-visibility presence in a mass transit or passenger rail environment. The level of assistance transit systems request depends on a transit system’s local political and security environment. A VIPR team may combine various types of TSA assets including federal air marshals. Beginning in July 2007, TSA significantly increased the number and frequency of VIPR deployments, from an average of one exercise per month to one or two exercises per week. [ [http://www.dhs.gov/xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_08-66_Jun08.pdf DHS-OIG-08-66 "TSA’s Administration and Coordination of Mass Transit Security Programs", June 2008, p. 6] ]
There were issues with federal air marshals and early VIPR deployments. TSA field officials said the initial exercises put their safety at risk. TSA required federal air marshals to wear raid jackets or shirts identifying them as air marshals, which potentially compromised their anonymity. In response to this concern, TSA changed the policy; federal air marshals now attend VIPR exercises in civilian clothes or jackets that simply identify them as DHS officials. Some transit security officials reported that federal air marshals were unfamiliar with local laws, local police procedures, the range of behavior encountered on public transportation, and the parameters of their authority as federal law enforcement officers. [ [http://www.dhs.gov/xoig/assets/mgmtrpts/OIG_08-66_Jun08.pdf DHS-OIG-08-66 "TSA’s Administration and Coordination of Mass Transit Security Programs", June 2008, p. 28-29] ]
*Assistant Administrator TSA Office of Law Enforcement (OLE)/Director of FAMS: Robert S. Bray [http://www.tsa.gov/who_we_are/people/bios/robert_bray_bio.shtm]
*Deputy Assistant Administrator TSA OLE/Deputy Director of FAMS
*Assistant Director, Office of Field Operations
**Deputy Assistant Director, Eastern Region (11 Field Offices)
**Deputy Assistant Director, Western Region (10 Field Offices)
*Assistant Director, Office of Flight Operations
**Transportation Security Operations Center
**Systems Operations Control Division/FAMS Mission Operations Center
**Flight Programs Division
**Emergency Preparedness Division
*Assistant Director, Office of Personnel & Training
**Training Management Division
**Federal Air Marshal Training Center (New Jersey & New Mexico)
*Assistant Director, Office of Security Services & Assessments
**Office of Security
**Office of the National Explosives Detection Canine Team Program
**Security Assessments Division
*Assistant Director, Office of Administrative & Technical Services
**Human Resources Division
**Management & Organization Division
**Management Operations Division
**Operational Procedures Division
**Infrastructure Support & Development Division
Federal Air Marshals go through an intense, two-phase training program. The first phase of the program is a seven-week basic law enforcement course. This training is completed at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in
Artesia, New Mexico; Air Marshals also receive follow-on training at the William J. Hughes Technical Centerin New Jersey. Their training is tailored to the role that the Federal Air Marshals will be performing while on the job. Some of the specific areas covered in this training include constitutional law, marksmanship, physical fitness, behavioral observation, defensive tactics, emergency medical assistance, and other law enforcement techniques.
The second phase trains the candidates for tasks that they will be expected to carry out in the field. This training places an emphasis on perfecting the
marksmanshipskills of the candidates; a necessity of the job due to the tight confines of an aircraft, as well as the number of bystanders. Candidates who successfully complete this training will be assigned to one of 21 field offices, where they will begin their missions.
Equipment and Practices
The Air Marshals may be deployed on as little as an hour's notice and at high risk locations. Undercover Air Marshals were deployed on flights in and out of
New Orleansduring Super Bowl XXXVIin 2002; flights coming near Salt Lake Cityduring the 2002 Winter Olympics; and cities visited by President George W. Bush.cite news | title=Shooting Puts Air Marshals in Spotlight | url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,178039,00.html | accessdate=2006-08-25 | work= [http://www.ap.org/ Associated Press] | date=2005-12-08]
Federal Air Marshals carry the SIG-Sauer P229R service pistol in a
.357 SIGchambering. [http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-12-07-air-marshals_x.htm] As noted above, Air Marshals must be re-certified on their firearm quarterly. According to an anonymous Air Marshal, they are trained to "shoot to stop", typically firing at the largest part of the body (the chest) and then the head to "incapacitate the nervous system".cite news | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-12-07-air-marshals_x.htm | title=Air marshals thrust into spotlight | date=2005-12-08 | author=Thomas Frank, Mimi Hall & Alan Levin | accessdate=2006-08-25 | work = [http://www.usatoday.com USA Today] ]
Under the service's original dress code policy, Air Marshals were required to conform to a strict dress code, well-shaved and with a conservative haircut. Federal Air Marshal
Frank Terreriof the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association(FLEOA) successfully sued senior executives of the Department of Homeland Security complaining that policies prevented Air Marshals from speaking out that current policies (such as their strict dress code, "Federal Air Marshal discount" mandatory grouping hotel policy, airport policies that force Air Marshals to walk up security checkpoint exit lanes, and priority aircraft pre-boarding before handicapped passengers and passengers flying with small children) make Marshals easy targets for any possible hijackers, making them stand out as the government agents concealing firearms, and thus eliminating their effectiveness. [cite web | work=FAMS Director Refuses No Cost Changes Enhancing Aviation Security | title=FAMA Press Release | author=Federal Air Marshal Association | format=PDF | url=http://famaonline.com/MediaRelationsDocuments/PRESSRELEASE20040924.pdf | date=2004-09-24 | accessdate=2006-08-25] A policy change in August, 2006 allows Air Marshals to wear whatever clothing they want and stay at any hotel to protect their anonymity, [cite web | url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,210368,00.html | title=DHS Gets Rid of Dress Code, Hotel Regulations for Air Marshals | work= [http://www.ap.org/ Associated Press] | accessdate=2006-08-25 | date=2006-08-25] but current Director Dana A. Browncontinues to enforce the policies that mandate FAMs to both walk through security checkpoint exit lanes and pre-board aircraft in full view of general passengers in the terminal. [cite web | url=http://blogs.abcnews.com/theblotter/2006/11/air_marshals_de.html | title=Air Marshals Denied Boarding After Altercation With Flight Crew | work= [http://abcnews.go.com/ ABC News] | accessdate=2006-11-15 | date=2006-11-15]
FAMS under Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Budgeting issues within the TSA created tension between funding for airport screeners versus the FAMS, and in time the FAMS was realigned to
Immigration and Customs Enforcement(ICE). The reasoning was that the FAMS could be re-designated as Criminal Investigator/ Special Agents and would have a career path. ICE also had an investigative division with Special Agents specializing in investigating immigration and customs violations. Those immigration and customs agents would be cross trained to serve as supplemental FAMS in the event of a national emergency or in response to intelligence requiring additional marshals on flights.
Ultimately, one of
Asa Hutchinson's final decisions before resigning as head of DHS's Border and Transportation Security Directorate was the issuance of a memorandumdetermining that Air Marshals would not also be ICE Special Agents. In 2005, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoffconducted a second-stage review of DHS' organization and ordered the FAMS to be moved from ICE and back to the TSA. The move to TSA was effective October 1, 2005 [http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0703.shtm] .
Incident involving Rigoberto Alpizar
On December 7, 2005 Federal Air Marshals shot and killed 44-year-old U.S.
citizen Rigoberto Alpizar, a passenger of American Airlines Flight 924, on a boarding bridge at Miami International Airport.
According to initial media reports of the incident, a fight broke out between Alpizar and his wife,cite news | url=http://www.cnn.com/2005/US/12/08/airplane.gunshot/index.html | title=White House backs air marshals' actions | author=Quijano, Elaine et al.| date=2005-12-09 | accessdate=2006-08-25| work= [http://www.cnn.com CNN.com] ] after which Alpizar suddenly ran up the aisle from the back of the plane. Lonny Glover, national safety coordinator for the
Association of Professional Flight Attendants, said: "As the man came forward it was obvious that he was upset ... That's when one of our attendants at the front of plane told him, 'Sir, you can't leave the plane.' His response, she said, was 'I have a bomb.' It was at that point that the air marshals gave up their cover and pursued him out the door and up the jet bridge."
On December 8, 2005,
White Housespokesman Scott McClellansaid that the President was satisfied that air marshals acted appropriately in the Alpizar shooting.
ensitive Security Information (SSI)
Sensitive Security Information(SSI) is a label used for unclassified information that could compromise aviation safety. [cite web | url=http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05677.pdf | title=GAO-05-677 Report on SSI | work= [http://www.gao.gov/ The U.S Government Accountability Office] | accessdate=2005-06-29 | date=2005-06-29]
On July 29, 2003, the FAMS Agency Executive Vice President for the
Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association(FLEOA), FAM Robert MacLean, disclosed that the FAMS planned to remove air marshals from long haul flights in order to avoid the cost of an overnight hotel stay. [cite web | url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A64871-2003Jul29?language=printer | title=Memo Warns Of New Plots To Hijack Jets | work= [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ The Washington Post] | accessdate=2003-07-30 | date=2003-07-30] The plan was ordered when TSA was faced with a budget shortfall and right after DHS issued a July 26, 2003 warning that terrorists were planning to smuggle weapons onboard aircraft leaving the U.S. East Coast, United Kingdom, Italy, and Australia with the intention of hijacking them. After Congressional outrage, the plan was cancelled before going into effect. This plan was at odds with the Aviation and Transportation Security Act(ATSA), whose Section 105 states that "Deployment of Federal Air Marshals... [on] nonstop, long distance flights, such as those targeted on September 11, 2001, should be a priority." [cite web | url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/?&sid=cp107GKkxU&refer=&r_n=hr296.107&db_id=107&item=&sel=TOC_30593& | title=Section 105 of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act | work= [http://thomas.loc.gov/ The Library of Congress (Thomas)] | accessdate=2001-11-17 | date=2001-11-17]
MacLean was fired for "Unauthorized Disclosure of Sensitive Security Information (SSI)" as a result of his whistleblower disclosure. [cite web | url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/functions/print.php?StoryID=20061029-115609-8718r | title=Ex-air marshal to sue over 'SSI' label | work= [http://www.washingtontimes.com/ The Washington Times] | accessdate=2006-10-30 | date=2006-10-30] He is challenging this charge in the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. He claims that his termination was a retaliatory act in violation of the
Whistleblower Protection Act(WPA) [cite web | url=http://www.osc.gov/wbdisc.htm | title=Whistleblower Protection Act | work= [http://www.osc.gov/ U.S. Office of Special Counsel] | accessdate=2006-11-30 | date=2006-11-30] and a spending ban in appropriations law, commonly known as the Anti-Gag Statute.
List of United States federal law enforcement agencies
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
* [http://www.tsa.gov Transportation Security Administration Website]
** [http://www.tsa.gov/lawenforcement/index.shtm TSA Office of Law Enforcement/FAMS Website]
* [http://www.airmarshal.us/ Federal Air Marshal News Archives & Links]
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