Dyskinesia

Infobox_Disease
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DiseasesDB = 17912
ICD10 = ICD10|G|24|9|g|20
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MeshID = D020820

Dyskinesia refers to involuntary movements, similar to a tic or chorea. Dyskinesia is a symptom of several medical disorders and is distinguished by the underlying cause. When a dyskinesia presents after treatment with an antipsychotic drug such as haloperidol, it is a tardive dyskinesia and is commonly found in face as tongue "rolling". A dyskinesia found in a patient with Parkinson's disease is more commonly a jerky, dance-like movement of the arms or head and usually presents after several years of treatment with medication containing L-dopa.

Two other conditions, primary ciliary dyskinesia and biliary dyskinesia, refer to involuntary movements of internal organs.

Parkinson's disease

In the context of Parkinson's disease, dyskinesias are often the result of chronic levodopa (L-dopa) therapy. These motor fluctuations occur in more than half of PD patients after 5 to 10 years of levodopa therapy, with the percentage of affected patients increasing over time. [Obeso JA, et al. The evolution and origin of motor complications in Parkinson's disease. "Neurology". 2000;55 (suppl 4):S13-S20.] Dyskinesias most commonly occur at the time of peak L-dopa plasma concentrations and are thus referred to as peak-dose dyskinesias. As patients advance, they may evidence diphasic dyskinesias, which occur when the drug concentration rises or falls. Attempts to moderate dyskinesias by the use of other treatments such as bromocriptine appear to have been unsuccessful. [van Hilten J, Ramaker C, Stowe R, Ives Nj., 2007. Bromocriptine/levodopa combined versus levodopa alone for early Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD003634.] In order to avoid dyskinesia, patients with the young-onset form of the disease (YOPD) are often hesitant to commence L-dopa therapy until absolutely necessary for fear of suffering severe dyskinesia.

Patients with severe dyskinesia resulting from high doses of parkinsonian medication may benefit from deep brain stimulation (DBS), which benefits the patient in two ways. Firstly, DBS allows a reduction in L-dopa dosage of 50-60% (thus tackling the underlying cause). Secondly, DBS treatment itself (in the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus) can reduce dyskinesias. [Hiroki Toda, M.D., Ph.D.; Clement Hamani, M.D., Ph.D.; Andres Lozano, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.S.(C) 2004. Deep Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Dyskinesia and Dystonia. Neurosurg Focus 17(1):9-13, 2004.]

The use of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to enhance the effects of L-Dopa while reducing the associated dyskinesia in primates with simulated Parkinson's disease.Iravani, M., Jackson, M., Kuoppamäki, M., Smith, L. & Jenner, P. (2003). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) Inhibits Dyskinesia Expression and Normalizes Motor Activity in 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Treated Primates, "Journal of Neuroscience", 23, 9107–9115]

ee also

* Hemiballismus
* akinesia

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • dyskinesia — n. an abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • dyskinesia — [dis΄kə nē′zhə] n. [< DYS + Gr kinēsis, motion + IA] impairment of body movements: cf. TARDIVE DYSKINESIA …   English World dictionary

  • Dyskinesia — 1. Difficulty in performing voluntary movements. The term dyskinesia is commonly used in relation to Parkinson s disease and other so called extrapyramidal disorders. The word dyskinesia (dis ki ne´ze a) is logically derived from two Greek roots …   Medical dictionary

  • dyskinesia — noun Etymology: New Latin, from Greek dyskinēsia difficulty in moving, from dys + kinesia, from kinēsis motion, from kinein to move more at hight Date: circa 1706 impairment of voluntary movements resulting in fragmented or jerky motions (as in… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • dyskinesia — dyskinetic /dis ki net ik, kuy /, adj. /dis ki nee zheuh, zhee euh, zee euh, kuy /, n. Pathol. difficulty or abnormality in performing voluntary muscular movements. Cf. tardive dyskinesia [1700 10; < NL < Gk dyskinesía; see DYS , KINESIA] * * * …   Universalium

  • dyskinesia — dys•ki•ne•sia [[t]ˌdɪs kɪˈni ʒə, ʒi ə, zi ə, kaɪ [/t]] n. pat difficulty or abnormality in performing voluntary muscular movements Compare tardive dyskinesia • Etymology: 1700–10; < NL < Gk dyskīnēsía; see dys , kinesia dys ki•net′ic ˈnɛt… …   From formal English to slang

  • dyskinesia — n. a group of involuntary movements that appear to be a fragmentation of the normal smoothly controlled limb and facial movements. They include chorea, dystonia, athetosis, and those involuntary movements occurring as side effects to the use of… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • dyskinesia — /dɪskaɪˈniʒə/ (say diskuy neezhuh) noun Medicine any of various disorders characterised by involuntary repetitive movements. {New Latin, from Greek dyskinesia, from dys + kinēsis movement} …   Australian English dictionary

  • dyskinesia — noun abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements • Hypernyms: ↑nervous disorder, ↑neurological disorder, ↑neurological disease • Hyponyms: ↑tardive dyskinesia …   Useful english dictionary

  • dyskinesia — noun impairment of voluntary movements resulting in fragmented or jerky motions …   Wiktionary


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