Dubbing (filmmaking)


Dubbing (filmmaking)

Dubbing is the post-production process of recording and replacing voices on a motion picture or television soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting. The term most commonly refers to the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language. The procedure was sometimes practised in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice, and remains in use to enable the screening of audio-visual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the original performers. "Dubbing" also describes the process of an actor re-recording lines spoken during filming in order to improve audio quality or reflect dialog changes. This process is called Automated Dialogue Replacement, Additional Dialogue Recording or ADR for short. Music is also dubbed onto a film after editing is completed.

Films, videos and sometimes video games are sometimes dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. Dubbing is common in theatrically released film, television series, cartoons and anime given foreign distribution.

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Automated Dialogue Replacement / post-sync

Automated Dialogue Replacement or Additional Dialogue Recording (ADR) is the process of re-recording the original dialogue after filming for the purpose of obtaining a cleaner, more intelligible dialogue track (also known as looping or a looping session).[1][2] In the UK it is called post-synchronisation or post-sync.

In conventional film production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during filming. Accompanying noise from the set, equipment, traffic, wind, and the overall ambience of the surrounding environment often results in unusable production sound, and during the post-production process a supervising sound editor or ADR Supervisor reviews all of the dialogue in the film and decides which lines will have to be re-recorded. ADR is also used to change the original lines recorded on set in order to clarify context, or to improve the actor's diction and timing.

For animation such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons dialogue is recorded to a pre-edited version of the show. Although the characters' voices are recorded in a studio, ADR is necessary whenever members of the cast can not all be present at once.

ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which takes place in a specialized sound studio. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, is shown the scene in question along with the original sound, following which he or she will attempt to recreate the performance as closely as possible. Over the course of multiple re-takes (hence looping) the actor will repeatedly perform the lines while watching the scene, and the most suitable take will make it to the final version of the scene.

Sometimes, a different actor is used from the original actor on set. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader, portrayed by David Prowse and later Hayden Christensen. In post-production, James Earl Jones always dubbed that character's voice.

Sometimes actors are hired to dub actors who speak the same language but delivered their lines with a foreign accent or poor diction. For example, Frenchmen Philippe Noiret and Jacques Perrin were dubbed into Italian for Cinema Paradiso and Austrian bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger was dubbed for Hercules in New York. Argentine boxer Carlos Monzon, who didn't have a clear diction, had his voice dubbed by a professional actor when he played the lead in the drama La Mary.

ADR can also be used to redub singing. This technique was used by, among many others, Billy Boyd and Viggo Mortensen in The Lord of the Rings.[citation needed]

There are variations of the ADR process. It does not have to take place in a post-production studio, but can be recorded on location, with mobile equipment. ADR can also be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but only by having him listen to the performance.

Rythmo band

An alternative method, called rythmo band (or "lip-sync band") was historically used in Canada and France. It provides a more precise guide for the actors, directors and technicians and can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The band is actually a clear 35 mm film leader on which the dialogue is written by hand in India ink, along with numerous additional indications for the actor (laughs, cries, length of syllables, mouth sounds, breaths, mouth openings and closings, etc.). The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. Thanks to the efficiency of the rythmo band, the number of retakes can be reduced, resulting in substantial savings in recording time.[citation needed]The time saved in the studio comes at the price of a long preparatory process.

The preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in an old fashioned production line. Until recently this prevented the technique from being more widely adopted, but software emulations of rythmo band technology overcome the disadvantages of the traditional rythmo band process and significantly reduce the time needed to prepare a dubbing session. Studio time is also used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text, picture, and audio cues actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone (only picture and audio). With ADR, actors can average 10-12 lines per hour, while with rythmo band they can read from 35-50 lines per hour, and much more with experience.[citation needed]

At present, there exist several dubbing software solutions, among which are dubStudio (developed in Quebec, Canada) and Synchronos (developed in France).

Practice of dubbing foreign films throughout the world

Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movie. The new voice track will usually be spoken by a voice artist. In many countries, most actors who regularly perform this duty are generally little-known outside of popular circles such as anime fandom, for example, or when their voice has become synonymous with the role or the actor or actress whose voice they usually dub. In the United States, many of these actors also employ pseudonyms or go uncredited due to Screen Actors Guild regulations or a simple desire to dissociate themselves from the role. However, famous local actors can also be hired to perform the dubbing, particularly for comedies and animated movies, as their names are supposed to attract moviegoers, and the entire Hollywood cast may be dubbed by a local cast of similar notoriety.

Europe

  Dubbing only for children: Otherwise solely subtitles
  Mixed areas: Countries using occasionally full-cast dubbing otherwise solely subtitles
  Voice-over: Countries using usually one or just a couple of voice actors whereas the original soundtrack persists
  General dubbing: Countries using exclusively a full-cast dubbing, both for films and for TV series, althought it should be noted that in Polish, Slovak and Czech theaters only children movies are usually dubbed
Muster (rot-blaue Balken).png Countries which produce their own dubbings but often use dubbed versions from another country whose language is sufficiently similar that the local audience understands it easily. (French-speaking part of Belgium and Slovakia)

Dubbing only for children

In North-West Europe—meaning the UK, Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic countriesPortugal and Balkan countries generally only movies and TV shows intended for children are dubbed, while all TV shows and movies for older audiences are subtitled (animated productions have a tradition of often being dubbed, though). For movies in cinemas with clear target audiences both below and above around 10–11 years of age, usually both a dubbed and a subtitled version are available.

In the Netherlands, in the majority of cases Dutch versions are only made for children and youth related films. Animation movies are shown in theaters with Dutch dubbing, but usually those cinemas with more screening rooms also provide the original subtitled version; that was the case for movies like Babe, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Finding Nemo, Cars, Shrek the Third, Ratatouille, Kung Fu Panda or WALL-E.

Since Belgium is a multilingual country, films are shown in French and Dutch. The range of French dubbed versions is approximately as wide as the German range where practically all films and TV-series are dubbed. Sometimes separate versions are recorded in the Netherlands and in Flanders; for instance several Walt Disney films or Harry Potter films. These dubbed versions only differ from each other in using different voice actors and different pronunciation while the text is almost the same. In general, movies shown by Flemish broadcasters are always shown in original language with subtitles, with the exception of movies for a young audience.

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the vast majority of foreign films are subtitled although some, mostly animated films and TV programmes, are dubbed in English. These usually originate from North America as opposed to being dubbed locally, although there have been notable examples of films and TV programmes successfully dubbed in the UK, such as the Japanese Monkey and French Magic Roundabout series. When airing films on television, channels in the UK and Ireland will often choose subtitling over dubbing, even if a dubbing in English exists. It is also a fairly common practice for animation aimed at pre-school children to be re-dubbed with British voice actors replacing the original voices, although this is not done with shows aimed at older audiences.

Some animated films and TV programmes are also dubbed into Welsh and Scottish Gaelic. Similarly, in Ireland, animated series shown on TG4 are shown dubbed in Irish.

In Portugal, dubbing was banned under a 1948 law, as a way of protecting the domestic film industry. Till 1994 animated movies as well as other tv series for children in Portugal were dubbed in Brazilian Portuguese due to the lack of interest from Portuguese companies in the dubbing department. This lack of interest was justified since there were already quality dubbed copies of shows and movies in the Portuguese Language made by Brazilians (same language, different accent and some dialogue changes). The Lion King was the first feature film to be dubbed in European Portuguese rather than just Brazilian Portuguese alone. Nowadays all movies for children are dubbed in European Portuguese. Subtitles are preferred in Portugal, being used in every foreigner language documentaries, TV series and films, the exception being when children are the target public. While on TV children shows and movies are always dubbed, in cinema theaters films with a clear juvenile target can be found in two versions, one dubbed (identified by the letters V.P., meaning Versão Portuguesa - Portuguese Version) and other subtitled version (V.O., meaning Versão Original - Original Version). This duality applies only to juvenile films, others use subtitles only. While the quality of these dubs is recognized (some already got international recognition and prizes), original versions with subtitles are usually preferred by the grown public (Bee Movie as an example). It is not common practice to dub animation for adults (such as The Simpsons or South Park). When The Simpsons Movie debut in Portugal most cinemas showed both versions (V.O. and V.P.), but in some small cities, cinemas decided to offer only the Portuguese Version, decision that lead to the public protest. Nowadays, Live action series and movies are always shown in its original language format with Portuguese subtitles.

In Romania, virtually all programmes intended for children and young adults are dubbed in Romanian, including cartoons, live-action movies and TV series on Disney Channel, Cartoon Network, Minimax, Nickelodeon as well as those shown on generalist television networks, children-focused series like Power Rangers, The New Addams Family, The Planet's Funniest Animals or movies screened on children television. Animation movies are shown in theaters with Romanian dubbing, but usually those cinemas with more screening rooms also provide the original subtitled version; that was the case for movies like Babe, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Finding Nemo, Cars, Shrek the Third, Ratatouille, Kung Fu Panda or WALL-E. Other foreign TV shows and movies are shown in the original language with Romanian subtitles. Usually subtitles are preferred in the Romanian market, except for programme intended for children. According to "Special Eurobarometer 243" of the European Commission (research carried out in November and December 2005), 62% of Romanians prefer to watch foreign films and programmes with subtitles, rather than dubbed; nonetheless 22% have a preference for dubbing, while 16% declined to answer.[3] This is led by the assumption that watching movies in their original versions is very useful for learning foreign languages. However, according to the same Eurobarometer, virtually no Romanian found this method—watching movies in their original version—to be the most efficient way of learning foreign languages, compared to 53 percent who preferred language lessons at school.[3]

In the Nordic countries, dubbing is used only in animated features and other films for young audiences. Some theaters in the major cities may also screen the original version, usually as the last showing of the day, or in a smaller auditorium in a multiplex. According to a survey, almost 95% of the population in these countries prefer the original version.[3] In Finland, for children of the 5% Swedish-speaking minority, the dubbed version from Sweden may also be available at certain cinemas, but only in cities/towns with a significant percentage of Swedish speakers. DVD releases usually only have the original audio, except for children's films which have both Finnish and Swedish language tracks, in addition to the original audio and subtitles in both languages. In movie theaters, films for grown-up audiences have both Finnish and Swedish subtitles, the Finnish printed in basic font and the Swedish printed below the Finnish in a cursive font. In the early ages of television, foreign TV shows and movies were dubbed by one actor in Finland, as in Russian Gavrilov translation. Later, subtitles became a practice on Finnish television. Dubbing of other than children's films is unpopular in Finland, as in many other countries. A good example is The Simpsons Movie. While the original version was well-received, the Finnish dubbed version got poor reviews; some critics even calling it a disaster.[citation needed] On the other hand, many dubs of Disney animated features have been well received, both critically and by the public.

In Greece, all films are released theatrically in their original versions and contain subtitles. Only cartoon films (for example, Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Ratatouille and so on) are released in both original and Greek dubbed versions, for children who cannot yet read quickly or not at all. Foreign TV shows are also shown in their original versions except for most cartoons. For example The Flintstones and The Jetsons were always dubbed, while Family Guy and American Dad! are always subtitled and contains the original English dialogue, since it is mostly for adults rather than children. Only Mexican TV series like Rubí, La usurpadora, and teen series like Hannah Montana and The Suite Life of Zack & Cody are dubbed in Greek. Japanese Anime like Dragon Ball, Tokyo Mew Mew, Sonic X Pokémon and Sailor Moon are shown dubbed in Greek.

In Israel, only children's movies and TV programming are dubbed in Hebrew. In programs aimed at teenagers and adults, dubbing is rarely considered as a method of translation not only because of its high costs, but also because the audience is mainly multi-lingual. Most viewers in Israel speak at least one European language in addition to Hebrew, and there is also a large audience that speaks Arabic. Therefore, most viewers prefer to hear the original soundtrack, aided by Hebrew subtitles. Another problem is that dubbing does not allow for translation into two different languages ​​simultaneously, as is often the case in Israeli television channels that use subtitles in Hebrew and another language (like Russian) simultaneously.

In Serbia, Croatia, and most other Serbo-Croat speaking parts of former Yugoslavia, foreign films, TV series and TV news are always subtitled, while children's movies and cartoons are dubbed into Serbo-Croat. The dubbing of cartoon classics during the 1980s had a twist of its own: famous Belgrade actors provided the voices for Disney's, Warner Brothers', MGM's and other companies' characters, frequently using region specific phrases and sentences and thus adding a dose of local humor to the translation of the original lines. These phrases became immensely popular and are still being used for tongue-in-cheek comments in specific situations. Even though these dubbed classics are seldom aired nowadays, younger generations continue to use these phrases without knowing their true origin.

In Croatia foreign films and TV series are always subtitled, while some children programs and cartoons are dubbed into Croatian. Recently, more efforts have been made to introduce dubbing, but public reception was poor. Regardless of language, Croatian audience prefers subtitling to dubbing. Some previously quite popular shows (for example, Sailor Moon) lost their appeal completely after dubbing started and were eventually taken off the program. The situation is similar with theater movies with only those intended for children being dubbed (Finding Nemo, Shark Tale), but they are also regularly shown subtitled as well. Recently, there has been effort to try and impose dubbing by Nova TV with La Fea Más Bella translated as Ružna ljepotica (lit. "The Ugly Beauty"), a Mexican telenovela, but it failed poorly. In fact they had only dubbed a quarter of the show, ultimately replacing it with the subtitled version due to lack of interest for the dubbed version.

In Slovenia, all foreign films and television programmes are subtitled without exception. Traditionally, children's movies and animated cartoons used to be dubbed, but subtitling has gradually spread into that genre as well. Nowadays, only movies for pre-school children remain dubbed.

Generally dubbing countries

In the Italian, French, German, Spanish, Turkish, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Russian and Ukrainian language speaking markets of Europe, almost all foreign films and television shows are dubbed (the exception being only theatrical releases and high profile videos in Russia). There are few opportunities to watch foreign movies in their original versions, and even in the largest cities there are few cinemas that screen original versions with subtitles, or without any translation. However, digital pay-TV programming is often available in the original language, including the latest movies. Prior to the rise of DVDs, which in these countries are mostly issued with multi-language audio tracks, original language films other than in the country's official language were rare, whether in theaters, on TV, or on home video, and subtitled versions were considered a product for small niche markets such as intellectual or art films.

In France, movies and TV series are always released dubbed in French. Films are usually released theatrically in both dubbed and original versions in large cities' main street theaters, and a theater showing a subtitled movie typically has a sign on the poster advising moviegoers that the film is an original-language version (usually abbreviated VO [version originale] or VOST [version originale sous-titrée] as opposed to VF [version française]). Art house movies are often available in their original version only due to limited distribution. Some voice talents, such as Alexandre Gillet, Roger Carel, Richard Darbois, Edgar Givry, Jacques Frantz, Jacques Balutin Marc Alfos, Serge Faliu or Francis Lax, have achieved significant popularity.

The Germanophone dubbing market is the largest in Europe. Germany has the most foreign movie dubbing studios per capita and per given area in the world. In Germany, Austria and the German speaking part of Switzerland, practically all films, shows, television series and foreign soap operas are shown in dubbed versions created for the German market. (In Switzerland however in every bigger town (10,000 and more inhabitants), both versions are shown, either in the same theatre at different hours/days or in different cinemas.) Even computer games and video games feature German text menus and are dubbed into the German language if there are any speaking parts in the games. However, in recent years, Swiss-German television, SF1 and SF2 have been showing increasing numbers of movies in "dual sound", which means the viewer can choose between the original language (usually English) or German. In addition, Swiss-French television shows many broadcasts available in either the original language or in French, as does the Swiss-Italian television channel RSI. A common example is the American detective series Columbo and other popular series-based broadcasts, such as Starsky and Hutch.

Dubbing films has been and is still tradition and common practice in the German speaking area since subtitles are not accepted and used as much as in other European countries. According to a European study, Austria is the country with the highest rejection (more than 70 percent) with regard to using subtitles, followed by Italy, Spain and Germany.

Although voice actors play only a secondary role, they are still notable for providing familiar voices to well-known actors. Famous foreign actors are known and recognized for their German voice and the German audience is used to them, so dubbing is also a matter of authenticity. However, in larger cities there are theaters where movies can be seen in their original versions as English has become more popular, especially among younger viewers. On German TV, few movies are subtitled, although pay-per-view programming is often available in its original language.

German dubbed versions sometimes diverge greatly from the original, especially adding humorous elements to the original. In extreme cases, like The Persuaders!, the dubbed version was more successful than the English original. Often it also adds sexually explicit gags the U.S. versions might not be allowed to use, like in Bewitched, translating The Do-not-disturb sign will hang on the door tonight to The only hanging thing tonight will be the Do-not-disturb sign.

Some movies dubbed before reunification exist in different versions for the east and the west. They use different translations, and often they are different in the style of dubbing.

In Italy the use of dubbing is systematic, with a long tradition going back to the 1930s in Rome, Milan and Turin. In Mussolini's fascist Italy, foreign languages were banned. Rome is the principal base of the dubbing industry, where major productions such as movies, drama, documentaries and some cartoons are dubbed. However, in Milan it is mostly cartoons and some minor productions which are dubbed. Practically every American film, of every genre, whether for kids or adults, as well as TV shows, are dubbed into Italian. In big cities original version movies can also be seen. Subtitles are usually available on late night programmes on mainstream TV channels, and on pay-TV all movies are available in English with Italian subtitles, and many shows feature the original English soundtrack. But for fans of dubbing, there are some little-known sites on the Internet that offer the free streaming of movies with their Italian soundtrack. Early in his career, Nino Manfredi worked extensively as a dubbing actor. Furthermore, common practice at one point in Italian cinema was to shoot scenes MOS and dub the dialogue in post-production, a notable example being The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, in which even actors speaking English on screen had to dub in their own voices.

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, virtually all foreign films and television programmes shown on television are dubbed, often by very well-known actors. In Slovakia often the Czech dub is shown instead of producing a local one. Some audiences prefer the Czech dubs because they are considered to be of higher quality. In both countries dubbing actors often "overact", causing audiences to express views that American films are of low intellectual quality. In cinemas, films are usually shown subtitled, unless they are intended for children of 12 years of age and younger; Slovak law requires that those films be dubbed or rated as MP-12 (roughly equivalent to PG-13, without a cautionary meaning in this case.)[citation needed]. Cinemas sometimes offer both dubbed and subtitled screenings for either very major movie releases (for example, the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy) that would have otherwise not been dubbed, or conversely for children's films or family films that are expected to also attract mature viewers (for example, Shrek) to maximize the potential audience. In the Czech republic it's also common that some actors are dubbed always by one Czech actor, for instance Louis de Funes was almost always dubbed by František Filipovský. In Slovakia, state-owned public broadcaster Slovenská televízia dubs programs that it acquires from foreign companies for its channels into Slovak. Markiza and TV JOJ also dub. In the Czech Republic, MiniMax, Animax, TV Prima and other Czech language stations also impose dubbing. For example, Jan Maxián is the official Czech voice dubbing artist for high-profile actor, Elijah Wood. But in the Slovak Dubbing markets, Elijah Wood's Slovak dubbing voice was provided by Michal Hallon.

In Spain, practically all foreign television programmes are shown dubbed in European Spanish, as are most films. Some dubbing actors have achieved popularity for their voices, like Constantino Romero, who dubs Clint Eastwood, Darth Vader and Schwarzenegger's Terminator, among others, and Óscar Muñoz who is the official European Spanish dub-over voice artist for Elijah Wood and Hayden Christensen.

In Catalonia, the Valencian Community, the Balearic Islands, Galicia and the Basque Country, many or most foreign programmes are also dubbed into their own official languages, different from European Spanish. Currently, with the spread of the Digital terrestrial television most movies and series can be listened to both in the original and in the dubbed version.

Mixed areas

In Bulgaria, television series are dubbed. But most television channels in Bulgaria use subtitles for the action and drama movies. AXN uses subtitles for its series, but as of 2008 emphasizes dubbing. Only Diema channels dub all programmes. Movies in theaters, excepting films for children, use subtitles. Dubbing of television programs is usually done using voice-overs, but usually with at least four or five actors reading the lines and always trying to give each character a different voice and use appropriate intonations in each sentence. Dubbing with synchronized voices is rarely used, mostly for animated films (with Mrs. Doubtfire being a rare example of a feature film dubbed this way on BNT Channel 1, though a subtitled version is currently shown on other channels). Walt Disney Television's animated series (for example, DuckTales, Darkwing Duck, Timon and Pumbaa) were only aired with synchronized Bulgarian voices on BNT Channel 1 until 2005, but then the Disney show was canceled. When airing of Disney series resumed on Nova Television and Jetix in 2008, voice-over was used (but Disney animated movie translations still use synchronized voices). Voice-over dubbing is not used in theatrical releases. The Bulgarian Film Industry Law requires all children's films to be dubbed, not subtitled. Nova Television dubbed and aired Pokémon with synchronized voices now its airing on Disney Channel also in synchronized form.

In Hungary, practically all television programmes are dubbed, as are about 50 percent of movies in theaters. In the socialist era, every one of them was dubbed with professional and mostly popular actors. Great care was taken to make sure the same voice actor would lend his voice to the same actor. In the early 1990s, as cinemas tried to keep up with showing newly released films, subtitling became dominant in cinema. This, in turn, forced TV channels to make their own cheap versions of dubbed soundtracks for the movies they presented, resulting in a constant degrading of dubbing quality. Once this became customary, cinema distributors resumed the habit of dubbing for popular productions, presenting them in a quality varying from very poor to average. However, every single feature is presented with the original soundtrack in at least one cinema in large towns and cities.

However, in Hungary most of documentary films and series (for example, on Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel) are made with voice-over. Also some old movies and series, or ones that provide non-translatable jokes and conversations (for example, Mr. Bean television series), are shown only with subtitles.

There is a more recent problem arising from dubbing included on DVD releases. Many generations have grown up with an original, and by current technological standards outdated soundtrack, which is either technologically (mono or bad quality stereo sound) or legally (expired soundtrack licence) unsuitable for a DVD release. Many original features are released on DVD with a new soundtrack, which in some cases proves to be extremely unpopular, thus forcing DVD producers to include the original soundtrack. In some rare cases the Hungarian soundtrack is left out altogether. This happens notably with Warner Home Video Hungary, who ignored the existence of Hungarian soundtracks completely. This was because they did not want to pay the licensees for the soundtracks to be included on their new DVD releases, which appear with improved picture quality, but very poor subtitling.

Voice-over

In Georgia, in TV series, original soundtracks are kept and Georgian text is spoken by a lector. Films are always subtitled besides films broadcasted on Global Media Group channels.

In Poland cinema releases for general audiences are almost exclusively subtitled, with the exception of children's movies, and television screenings of movies, as well as made-for-TV shows, are usually shown with voice-over, where the original soundtrack is kept, and translation is read by a voice talent. This method is similar to the so-called Gavrilov translation in Russia, with one difference - all the dialogues are translated with only one acute, and usually male voice, preferrably deep and neutral which does not interfere with the pitch of voice of the original speakers in the background. To some extent it resembles live translation. Certain highly quallified lectors are traditionally assigned to a particular kind of production such as action or drama. Standard dubbing is not widely popular with most audiences, with the exception of cartoons and children's shows, which are dubbed also for TV releases.

Poland has long lasting dubbing traditions which reaches inter-war years. One of the first movies dubbed into Polish in 1931 were Dangerous Curves (1929), The Dance of Life (1929), Paramount on Parade (1930) and Darling of the Gods (1930). 1949 saw the opening of the first dubbing studio, located in Łódź. The first film dubbed the same year was Russkiy vopros (filmed 1948).

The Polish dubbing in the first post-war years did not have good opinion because of bad synchronization. The Polish dialogues were unclear, so people could not understand them. Cinemas had an old aperture which sometimes made a film more unclear than it was. In the 50's the Polish publicist discussed about the quality of Polish versions to foreign movies.

Both the number of dubbed movies and its quality had improved. In the 60's-80's the Polish dubbing had a golden age. In the cinemas were dubbed 1/3 of foreign movies. It was said about "Polish dubbing school" because of its high quality. In that time Poland had some of the best dubbing in the world. The most important person who initiated high quality dubbing versions was director Zofia Dybowska-Aleksandrowicz. Her works were as good as original and sometimes even better who admitted people connected with the original version (actors and directors). In that time dubbing in Poland was very popular. Polish television dubbed very popular films and TV series such as Rich Man, Poor Man, Fawlty Towers, Forsyte Saga, Elizabeth R, I, Claudius, I'll Take Manhattan, Peter the Great.

In the 1980s due to low budget, the television did not have money for tapes so they used the actual record. After first emission dubbing was cancelled (they recorded on that tape something else). In the whole period of communism were dubbed almost 1000 films. In the 90's after democratic transformation Polish television (TVP) was still dubbing films and TV series. Unfortunately like in the 1980s it was a dubbing only for one emission.

In the year 1995 to Poland entranced Canal+ who at the first years dubbed 30% of schedule. They dubbed very ambitious films and popular TV series. One of the well known and popular dubbing were Friends. Unfortunately they stopped dubbing Friends in 2001 and films in 1999 although many people supported the idea of dubbing and bought the access only for dubbing versions of foreign productions. According to survey of public opinion dubbing in Canal+ supported 43,4% subscribers (almost 500,000 people). The other 50,2% preferred lectors and 8,1% with subtitles. In the 1990s dubbing was made also by television Wizja Jeden. They dubbed mainly production of BBC such as very popular The League of Gentlemen, Absolutely Fabulous or Men Behaving Badly. Wizja Jeden was closed in 2001. In the same year TVP stopped dubbing TV series Frasier although that dubbing was very popular.

Nowadays according to the recent survey of public opinion made by TVP, dubbing and voice-over is equally supported by 45% of society each. At present dubbing to films and TV series for teenagers is made by Nickelodeon and Disney's Channels. One of the major breakthroughs in dubbing was the Polish release of Shrek, which contained many references to local culture and Polish humor. Since then, people seem to have grown to like dubbed versions more, and pay more attention to the dubbing actors.[citation needed] However, this seems to be the case only with animated films, as live-action dubbing is still considered a bad practice. In the case of DVD releases, most discs contain both the original soundtrack and subtitles, and either lector or dubbed Polish track. The dubbed version is in most cases the one from the theater release, while voice-over is provided for movies which were only subtitled in theaters.

Russian television is generally dubbed with only a couple of voice actors, with the original speech still audible underneath. In the Soviet Union most foreign movies to be officially released were dubbed. However, with the fall of the regime many popular foreign movies, previously forbidden or at least questionable under communist rule, started to flood in, in the form of low-quality home-copied videos. Being unofficial releases, they were dubbed in a very primitive way, for example, the translator spoke the text directly over the audio of a video being copied, using primitive equipment. The quality of the resulting dub was very low, the translated phrases were off-sync, interfered with the original voices, background sounds leaked into the track, translation was inaccurate and most importantly, all dub voices were made by a single person and usually lacked the intonation of the original, making comprehension of some scenes quite difficult. In modern Russia, the overdubbing technique is still used in many cases, although with vastly improved quality and now with multiple voice actors dubbing different original voices.

In Ukraine television and cinema is generally dubbed with the overdubbing technique, with multiple voice actors dubbing different original voices. But for Russian films are possible subtitles. Russian language TV programs are usually not dubbed.

In Latvia and Lithuania, voice-over dubbing is hugely popular on Television; almost all shows are voice-over dubbed. This dubbing method is similar to the Polish method which means that only one person reads the whole translated text while the original sound can be heard in the background in a lowered loudness, throughout the entire program. In cinemas, only children's animated (such as The Tale of Despereaux) and live action films (such as Charlotte's Web) is dubbed in Latvian and Lithuanian languages.

Americas

In the United States and most of Canada outside of Quebec, foreign films shown in theaters such as Metropolis and Doraemon: Nobita's Dinosaur 2006 are usually subtitled. The exceptions are Tokusatsu and daikaiju films, which are dubbed when imported into the U.S.; the poor quality of the dubbing of these films has become the subject of much mockery. A small number of British films have been dubbed when released in America owing to dialects used that Americans are not familiar with (for example, Kes, Trainspotting). In addition, British children shows (such as Bob the Builder) are re-dubbed with American voice actors, making the series more understandable for American children. Televised Japanese anime is almost always aired in its dubbed format regardless of its content or target age group, with the sole exceptions occurring either when an English dub has not been produced for the program (usually in the case of feature films) or when the program is being presented by a network that places importance on presenting it in its original format (as was the case when Turner Classic Movies aired several of Hayao Miyazaki's works, which were presented both dubbed and subtitled). Most anime DVDs contain options for original Japanese, Japanese with subtitles, and English dubbed, except for a handful of series which have been heavily edited and/or Americanized. Also, Disney has a policy that makes its directors undergo stages to perfect alignment of certain lip movements so the movie looks believable.

For Spanish-speaking countries, all foreign language programs, films, cartoons and documentaries shown in free aired TV channels are dubbed into Neutral Spanish, while in cable and satellite pan-regional channels, films are either dubbed or subtitled. In theaters, only films made for children are dubbed into Neutral Spanish (usually with Mexican pronunciation) and sometimes dubbed into local Spanish. In Argentina, all movies are shown in their original language, in addition to Spanish-dubbed versions of films for children.

In Mexico, by law, films shown in theaters must be shown in their original version; films in languages other than Spanish are usually subtitled. Only educational documentaries and movies classified for a children's audience may be dubbed, but this is not compulsory and some animated films are shown in theaters in both dubbed and subtitled versions. Dubbing must be made in Mexico by Mexican nationals or foreigners residing in Mexico.[4] Most of the movies released as DVD have the feature of Neutral Spanish. On broadcast TV foreign programs are dubbed. In pay TV most shows and movies are subtitled.

In Brazil, foreign programs are invariably dubbed into Brazilian Portuguese on broadcast TV, with only a few exceptions. Films shown at cinemas are generally offered with both subtitled and dubbed versions, although subtitling is preferential for adult movies and dubbing is preferential for children movies. Pay TV commonly offers both dubbed and subtitled movies, but subtitling is predominant. When released on DVD, all movies usually feature both dubbing and subtitling.

In Quebec, Canada, most films and TV programs in English are dubbed into Quebec French (with an International French accent for ease of comprehension and regional neutrality). Occasionally, the dubbing of a series or a movie, such as The Simpsons, is made using the more widely-spoken joual variety of Quebec French. This has the advantage of making children's films and TV series comprehensible to younger audiences, but many bilingual Québécois prefer subtitling since they would understand some or all of the original audio. In addition, all films are shown in English as well in certain theaters (especially in major cities and English-speaking areas such as the West Island), and in fact, some theatres, such as the Scotiabank Cinema Montreal, show only movies in English. Most American television series are only available in English on DVD, or on English language channels, but some of the more popular ones have French dubs shown on mainstream networks, and are released in French on DVD as well, sometimes separately from an English-only version.

Formerly, all French-language dubbed films in Quebec were imported from France, and to this day some still are. Such a practice was criticized by former politician Mario Dumont after he took his children to see the Parisian French dub of Shrek the Third, which Dumont found incomprehensible. After Dumont's complaints and a proposed bill, Bee Movie, the following film from DreamWorks Animation, was dubbed in Quebec, making it the studio's first animated film to have a Quebec French dub, as all DreamWorks Animation films had previously been dubbed in France.[5] In addition, because Canadian viewers usually find Quebec French more comprehensible than other dialects of the language, some older film series that had the French-language versions of previous installments dubbed in France have later ones dubbed in Quebec, often creating inconsistencies within the French version of the series' canon. Lucasfilm's Star Wars and Indiana Jones series are examples. Both series had films released in the 1970s and 80s with no Québécois French dubbed versions; instead, the Parisian French versions with altered character and object names, terms, and so on, were distributed in the province. However, later films in both series released 1999 and later were dubbed in Quebec, using different voice actors and "reversing" name changes made in France's dubbings due to the change in studio. The French dub of Naruto that airs in Quebec is from France but uses a local opening.

Asia

China has a long tradition of generally dubbing foreign films into Mandarin Chinese which started in the 1930s. Beginning in the late 1970s, not only films, but popular TV series from the United States, Japan, Brazil, and Mexico were also dubbed. The Shanghai Film Dubbing Studio has been the most celebrated one in the film dubbing industry in China. In order to generate high-quality products, they divide each film into short segments, each one lasting only a few minutes, and then work on the segments one by one. In addition to the correct meaning in translation, they make tremendous effort to match the lips of the actors. As a result, viewers can hardly detect that the films they are seeing are actually dubbed. The cast of dubbers is acknowledged at the end of a dubbed film. Quite a few dubbing actors and actresses of the Shanghai Film Dubbing Studio became well-known celebrities, among whom are Qiu Yuefeng, Bi Ke, Li Zi, and Liu Guangning. In recent years however, especially in the larger cities on east and south coast, it has become increasingly common that movie theaters show subtitled versions with the original soundtrack intact. Taiwan also dubs and shows foreign films and TV series in Mandarin Chinese.

In Hong Kong, foreign television programmes, except for English and Mandarin television programmes, are dubbed in Cantonese Chinese, and Japanese programs, including anime, are also dubbed in Cantonese Chinese. English and Mandarin programmes are generally shown in their original language with subtitles. Foreign films such as most live action films and animated films are also generally dubbed in Cantonese Chinese such as anime films and Disney animated films.

Almost all the time, Foreign films and TV programs, both Live action and animated, are generally dubbed in both Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese Chinese languages.

For example. In The Lord of the Rings film series, Elijah Wood's character: Frodo Baggins was given a Mandarin Chinese voice-over dubbed by Jiang Guangtao for China and Taiwan. But for the Cantonese Chinese voice-over localization, His voice was given by: Bosco Tang for the Hong Kong Market.

In Japan, foreign television programmes and films began to be shown dubbed in Japanese on TV since the 1950s. In the first stage, the lack of video software for domestic television, video software is imported from abroad, when it is televised, broadcast on commercial TV was mostly dubbed. This is the character limit for a small TV screen at a lower resolution and the initial response to their poor elderly and illiterate eye, as far as television was to be used for audio dubbing. Nowadays, TV shows and movies that are aimed either at all ages, or for adults-only are both shown Generally dubbed and shown with its original language with Japanese subtitles and contains the original language option when that film gets released on VHS, DVD and Blu-Ray. Adult cartoons such as Family Guy and South Park are shown dubbed in Japanese on the WOWOW TV channel. But for: South Park: Bigger, Longer and Uncut, It was dubbed in Japanese, by different actors instead of the same Japanese dubbing-actors from the cartoon, due to the fact that it was handled by a different Japanese dubbing studio, and also marketed for the Kansai market. Foreign films usually contains multiple different Japanese-dubbing versions, but with a bunch of different original Japanese-dubbing voice actors depending whenever on which TV station it airs on. NHK, Nippon TV, Fuji TV, TV Asahi and also TBS usually do this, and same for even on software releases such as being released on VHS, DVD and Blu-Ray. There also exists: "Japanese Dub-over artists" for famous celebrities which for example:

In Thailand, foreign television programmes are dubbed in Thai, but the original soundtrack is often simultaneously carried on a NICAM audio track on terrestrial broadcast, and alternate audio tracks on satellite broadcast; previously, terrestrial stations simulcasted the original soundtrack on the radio. On Pay-TV, many channels carry foreign language movies and television programmes with subtitles. Nearly all movie theaters throughout the country show both the subtitled version and the dubbed version of English-language movies. In Bangkok, the majority of theaters showing English-language movies are subtitled only. In big cities like Bangkok Thai-language movies have English subtitles. For English-language animated movies, Disney films like: The Lion King, Mulan and Tangled are dubbed entirely in Thai. Chonnai Sukawat has provided the Thai-dubbing voice for the heroine Rapunzel in the film, Tangled. In Harry Potter, Hermione Granger was dubbed in Thai by Thai singer and actress known as: Bismillah Nana. Many English-language movies are sold on VCDs in Thailand, with the original English language with Thai subtitles as well as also being available with the Thai language dubbed version, such as Eragon, Avatar, The Harry Potter film series and The Lord of the Rings film series. Thai lakorns are with English subtitles if broadcasted on international television channels, or sold as DVD abroad.

In Indonesia and Malaysia, South American telenovelas are dubbed in Indonesian and Malay, while English language programmes are usually shown in the original language with Indonesian and Malay subtitles, respectively. However, this has recently changed in Malaysia, and South American telenovelas now retain their original language, with Malay subtitles. Most but not all Korean and Japanese dramas are still dubbed in Mandarin with Malay subtitles on terrestrial television channels. Cantonese, Mandarin, Tamil and Hindi programmes are shown in original language all this while, usually with Malay subtitling (and in some cases, multilingual subtitling). Cartoons and anime are also dubbed as well, such as Kekkaishi, Megas XLR, Spheres (Korea), dubbed by young soundman Mohamad Nor Aliff Abd Majid a.k.a Aliff JJ, and others like Crayon Shin Chan, Doraemon, Bleach, and Naruto. Although English-language cartoons are normally not dubbed, and some anime do retain their original Japanese language. In Indonesia English-language daytime cartoons are mostly dubbed, however on some pay-tv channels like Nickelodeon cartoons are not dubbed and do not have subtitles. Feature animations are either dubbed or subtitled depending on which television-channel it is shown on.

In Malaysian news program, it is broadcasted in several languages for twenty minutes each language for minor languages and international languages, including dialects of Chinese, the languages of news to broadcast by law is Malay, English, Mandarin Chinese, Min Nan and Thai.

In the Philippines, Japanese anime are more often than not dubbed in Tagalog or another Philippine regional language. The channel HERO TV, which focuses on anime and Tokusatsu shows, has all its foreign programs dubbed in Tagalog. Animax, meanwhile, have their anime programs dubbed in English. Also popular in the Philippines are Chinese, Korean, and Mexican dramas which are termed Chinovelas, Koreanovelas, and Mexicanovelas, respectively, and all these are also dubbed in Tagalog or another Philippine regional language, with it's unique set of Filipino-speaking voice actors. The prevalence of media needing to be dubbed has resulted in a talent pool that is very capable of syncing voice to lip, especially for shows broadcast by the country's three largest networks. It is not uncommon in the Filipino dub industry to have most of the voices in a series dubbed by only a handful of voice talents. Normally, English language programs are usually not dubbed, because Filipinos can understand English. Notable exceptions are a number of Nickelodeon cartoons shown on TV5 which are dubbed in Tagalog or another Philippine regional language. TV5 is also the only television channel in the country that airs English-language movies dubbed in Tagalog.

In Mongolia, most television dubbing uses the Russian method, with only a few voice actors, and the original language audible underneath. In movie theaters, foreign films are shown in their original language with Mongolian subtitles underneath.

In India, where "foreign films" are synonymous with Hollywood films, dubbing is done mostly in Hindi, and languages like Tamil and Telugu. The finished works are released into the towns and lower tier settlements of the respective states (where English penetration is low), often with the English language originals being released in the metropolitan areas. In all other states, the English originals are released along with the dubbed versions where often the dubbed version collections are outstanding than original. The most recent dubbing of Spider-Man 3 was also done in Bhojpuri, a language popular in northern India. Ami Trivedi has done the Hindi voice for Harry Potter in the first Harry Potter film, but her older brother, Karan Trivedi took over as the second Permanent Hindi dubbing voice for Harry Potter in the rest of the trilogy, since the second film. Rajshree Nath originally did the Hindi dubbing voice for Hermione Granger in the first two Harry potter films, But since the third film, Hermione's second and permanent Hindi dubbing voice was done by: Parignya Pandya. Nachiket Dighe has done Ron Weasley's Hindi dubbing voice, throughout the entire series. Pinky Rajput and Rajshree Nath both voiced the all time favorite Barbie character in the Hindi dubs of the Barbie films.

In Pakistan, almost 60% of the population speaks Punjabi as their mother tongue. Therefore, Punjabi films have more business than Urdu films. The film companies produced Punjabi films and re-record all films in Urdu and released the result as a "Double Version" film.

Also in Pakistan, where "foreign films" are synonymous with Hollywood films, dubbing is done mostly in Urdu[citation needed], which is the national language, and the finished works are released in the major cities throughout country.

In Vietnam, foreign-language films and programs are subtitled on television in Vietnamese, and previously (until 1985) are not dubbed, but are brief translated with a speaker before commercial breaks. RiO was considered to be the very first American Hollywood film to be entirely dubbed in Vietnamese.

In multilingual Singapore, English language programmes on the free-to-air terrestrial channels are usually subtitled in Chinese or Malay, while Chinese, Malay and Tamil programmes are almost always subtitled in English. Dual sound programs like Korean and Japanese dramas offer sound in the original languages with subtitles, Mandarin dubbed and subtitled, or English dubbed. The deliberate policy to encourage Mandarin among citizens made it required by law for programmes in other Chinese dialects (Hokkien, Cantonese and Teochew) to be dubbed into Mandarin, exceptions being traditional operas. Cantonese and Hokkien shows from Hong Kong and Taiwan respectively are nevertheless available on VCD and DVD. In a recent development, news bulletins are subtitled.

In South Korea, several English-speaking (mostly American) live-action films were dubbed in Korean, but they were not shown in theaters. Instead they were only broadcasted on South Korean television networks (KBS, MBC, SBS), while DVD import releases of these films were shown with Korean subtitles. This may be due to the fact that the six American major film studios may not own any rights to the Korean dubs of their live-action films, currently to this point, that the Korean television networks have dubbed and aired. Even if they don't own the rights, Korean or Non-Korean viewers can record off Korean dubbed live action films from Television broadcasting onto DVDs with DVRs.

Middle East

In Iran, dubbing started in 1946 with the advent of movies and cinemas in the country. Since then, foreign movies have always been dubbed for the cinema and TV. Using various voice actors and adding local hints and witticisms to the original contents, dubbing played a major role in attracting people to the cinemas and interesting them in other cultures. The dubbing art in Iran reached its culminant point during the 1960s and 1970s with the inflow of American, European and Hindi movies. The most famous musicals of the time, such as My Fair Lady and The Sound of Music were translated, adjusted and performed in Persian by the voice talents. Since the 1979 revolution in Iran, the dubbing industry has declined, with movies dubbed only for the state TV channels. During recent years DVDs with Persian subtitles have found a market among the educated, but most people still prefer Persian-spoken versions.

Africa

The Maghreb

In Algeria and Morocco, most foreign movies (especially Hollywood productions) are shown with French dubbing. These movies are usually imported directly from French film distributors. The choice of movies dubbed into French can be explained by the colonization past of these countries by France and the widespread use of the French language (among the intellectual elite), in addition to the marginalization of one national language (that is, the Berber language). Another important factor is that local theaters and private media companies do not dub in local languages to avoid high costs, but also because of the lack of both expertise and demand. Starting from the 1980s, dubbed series and movies for children in Modern Standard Arabic became a popular choice among most TV channels, cinemas and VHS/DVD stores. But it should be noted that dubbed films are still imported and dubbing is performed in Arab countries with strong tradition of dubbing and subtitling (mainly Syria, Lebanon and Jordan). The evolution of movies targeting the adult audience was different. After the satellite boom in the Arab World and the emergence of Pan-Arab channels, the use of subtitles, which was already popular in the Middle-East, was highly popular among local viewers in Algeria and Morocco.

In Tunisia, theaters usually show French dubbed movies, but cinema attendance in the country for such movies is in continuous decline compared to Tunisian and Arab movies. This decline can be traced to the huge popularity of free-to-air Pan-Arab movie channels offering mainly subtitled content and the government's reduced efforts to limit piracy. Tunisia National Television (TNT), the public broadcaster of Tunisia, is not allowed to show any content in any language other than Arabic, which forced it to broadcast only dubbed content (this restriction was lately removed for commercials). During the 1970s and 1980s, TNT (known as ERTT at the time) started dubbing famous cartoons in Tunisian and Standard Arabic. This move was highly successful locally, but was not able to compete with mainstream dubbing companies (especially in the Middle East). In the private sector, television channels are not subject to the language rule and sometimes broadcast foreign content dubbed into French (excluding children content), although some of them, such as Hannibal TV started adopting subtitling in Arabic instead, which proved to be more popular than simply importing French dubbed content.

South Africa

In South Africa, many television programmes, including The Six Million Dollar Man, were dubbed in Afrikaans,[6] with the original soundtrack (usually in English, but sometimes Dutch or German) "simulcast" in FM stereo on Radio 2000. However, this practice has declined as a result of the reduction of airtime for the language on SABC TV, and the increase of locally produced material in Afrikaans on other channels like KykNet and MK. Similarly, many programmes, such as The Jeffersons, were dubbed into Zulu,[7] but this has declined as local drama production has increased.

Oceania

In common with other English-speaking countries, there has traditionally been little dubbing in Australia, with foreign language television programmes and films being shown (usually on SBS) with subtitles. This has also been the case in New Zealand, but the Maori Television Service, launched in 2004, has dubbed animated films, like Watership Down, into Maori. However, some TV commercials which originated from foreign countries are dubbed, even if the original commercial came from another English-speaking country.

Insistence on subtitling

Subtitles can be used instead of dubbing, as different countries have different traditions regarding the choice between dubbing and subtitling. In most English-speaking countries, dubbing is comparatively rare. In Israel, some programmes need to be comprehensible to speakers of both Hebrew and Russian. This cannot be accomplished with dubbing, so subtitling is much more commonplace—sometimes even with subtitles in multiple languages, with the soundtrack remaining in the original language, usually English. The same also applies to certain television shows in Finland, where Finnish and Swedish are both official languages.

In the Netherlands, Flanders, Nordic countries and Estonia, films and television programmes are shown in the original language (usually English) with subtitles, and only cartoons and children movies and programs are dubbed, such as the Harry Potter series, Finding Nemo, Shrek, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and so on. Cinemas usually show both a dubbed version and one with subtitles for this kind of movie, with the subtitled version shown later in the evening.

In Portugal this has traditionally also been the case (at least for live-action material), but one terrestrial channel, TVI, dubs U.S. series like Dawson's Creek into Portuguese. RTP also transmitted Friends in a dubbed version, but it was poorly received and later re-aired in a subtitled version. Cartoons, on the other hand, are usually dubbed, sometimes by well-known actors, even on TV. Animated movies are usually released to the cinemas in both subtitled and dubbed versions.

On DVDs with higher translation budgets, the option for both types will often be provided to account for individual preferences; purists often demand subtitles. For small markets (small language area or films for a select audience) subtitling is more suitable because it is cheaper. For films for small children who cannot yet read, or do not read fast enough, dubbing is necessary.

In Argentina and Venezuela, terrestrial channels air films and TV series in a dubbed version, as demanded by law. However, those same series can be seen on cable channels at more accessible timeslots in their subtitled version, and usually before they are shown on open TV. In contrast, the series The Simpsons is aired in its Mexican dubbed version both on terrestrial television and on the cable station Fox, which broadcasts the series for the area. Although the first season of the series appeared with subtitles, this was not continued for the following seasons.

Apart from airing dubbed TV series (for example, Lost, ER and House) the Argentinian open TV station Canal 13 (Argentina) has bought the rights to produce and air a "ported version" of Desperate Housewives in Argentina, with local actors and actresses.

Use in video games

With recent video games placing a heavy emphasis on dialogue, many video games, when translated into another language for the foreign markets of North America, Japan and/or PAL countries such as Europe and Australia, are also dubbed into the market's main languages. Because characters' mouth movements are often part of the game's code, lip sync is often achieved by re-coding the mouth movements to match the dialogue in the new language, when translated to a new one. The Source engine is known for automatically generating lip-synch data, making it easier for games to be localised.

For the European version of a game, the text of the game is available in various languages, and in many cases, the dialogue is dubbed into the respective languages as well.

The North American version of any game is always available in English with translated text and dubbed dialogue if necessary, as well as in other languages in some cases, especially if the North American version of the game contains the same data as the European version. Because the English voice casts of many Japanese games are perceived negatively, some Japanese games, such as those in the Sonic the Hedgehog, Dynasty Warriors and Soulcalibur series, include the original Japanese audio as well as an English translated version.

Other uses

Dubbing is occasionally used on network television broadcasts of films which have dialogue that the network executives or censors have decided to replace; this is usually done to remove profanity. In most cases, the original actor does not perform this duty; instead, an actor with a similar voice is called in. The results are sometimes seamless, but in many cases the voice of the replacement actor sounds nothing like the original performer, which becomes particularly noticeable when extensive dialogue needs to be replaced. Also, often easy to notice, is the sudden absence of background sounds in the movie during the dubbed dialogue. Among the films considered notorious for using substitute actors that sound very different from their theatrical counterparts are the Smokey and the Bandit and the Die Hard film series as shown on broadcasters such as TBS. In the case of Smokey and the Bandit, extensive dubbing was done for the first network airing on ABC Television in 1978, especially for Jackie Gleason's character, Buford T. Justice. The dubbing of his phrase "Sombitch" became the more palatable (and memorable) "Scum Bum", which became a catchphrase of the time.

Dubbing is commonly used in science fiction television as well. Sound generated by effects equipment such as animatronic puppets or by actors' movements on elaborate multi-level plywood sets (for example, starship bridges or other command centers) will quite often make the original character dialogue unusable. Stargate and Farscape are two prime examples where ADR is used heavily to produce usable audio.

Since some anime series contain some amount of profanity, the studios recording the English dubs often re-record certain lines if a series or movie is going to be broadcast on Cartoon Network, removing references to death and hell as well. Some companies will offer both an edited and an uncut version of the series on DVD, so that there is an edited script available in case the series is broadcast. Other companies also edit the full-length version of a series, meaning that even on the uncut DVD characters say things like "Blast!" and "Darn!" in place of the original dialogue's profanity. Bandai Entertainment's English dub of G Gundam is infamous for this, among many other things, with such lines as "Bartender, more milk".

Dubbing has also been used for comedic purposes, replacing lines of dialogue to create comedies from footage that was originally another genre. Examples include the Australian shows The Olden Days and Bargearse, redubbed from 1970s Australian drama and action series, respectively, and the Irish show Soupy Norman, redubbed from Pierwsza miłość, a Polish soap opera.

Dubbing into a foreign language does not always entail the deletion of the original language; in some countries, a performer may read the translated dialogue as a voiceover. This often occurs in Russia and Poland, where "lektories" or "lektors" read the translated dialogue into Russian and Polish. In Poland, a single person reads all parts of the performance, both male and female. However, this is done almost exclusively for the television and home video markets, while theatrical releases are usually subtitled. Recently, however, the number of high-quality, fully dubbed films has increased, especially for children's movies. If a quality dubbed version exists for some film, it is shown in theaters (however, some films, such as Harry Potter or Star Wars, are shown in both dubbed and subtitled versions varying with the time of the show) as well as on TV (although some channels drop it and do standard one narrator translation) and VHS/DVD. In other countries, like Vietnam, the voiceover technique is also used for theatrical releases.

In Russia, the reading of all lines by a single person is referred to as a Gavrilov translation, and is generally found only in illegal copies of films and on cable television. Professional copies always include at least two actors of opposite gender translating the dialogue. Some titles in Poland have been dubbed this way, too, but this method lacks public appeal so it is very rare now.

On special occasions, such as film festivals, live interpreting is often done by professionals. See also dubtitle.

Criticism and defense of dubbing

Contra dubbing

Dubbing has been criticized in several ways, particularly in countries where it is not common practice.

Those who dislike dubbing sometimes claim that it devalues films or TV programs, as original soundtracks are closer to what the director intended. The humorous effect of Inspector Clouseau's accent is, of course, entirely lost if dubbed in French. Some consider that the body language of Italian actors make their performances particularly ill-suited to dubbing, as foreign post-synchronization often destroys much of the original Italian language's feeling. Comedy performers such as Peter Sellers, Louis de Funès, Steve Martin or Roberto Benigni are considered to lose much of their impact when dubbed into foreign languages, as the humorous effect resulting from the interaction between their voices and bodies is partially lost. Some feel that dubbing can make the film or program less authentic. For example, German officers in WWII movies can be distracting to some if not speaking German, while in the German-dubbed versions of these films, the contrast between Germans and speakers of other languages is lost. The best example here is from the Indiana Jones movies, where the German characters had to be dubbed by native Germans for the German release. For the later re-release of the movies for television and DVD, the dubbed lines were retained in the soundtrack to make it sound more authentic. In films (usually English films) in which an actor is originally speaking German, the original German speaking actor is often dubbed into other German dialects; for example, Eastern German dialects, Austro-Bavarian German, or Swiss German, as was done with Üter Zörker from The Simpsons, who is a German in the English version, but a Swiss in the German version.

Likewise, some claim it is distracting in English dubbed anime when many characters speak in North American accents, which may not match their ethnicity and nationality or the time and setting of the story. Similarly, in dubbed versions the different accents of the protagonists may be important to the story (for example in Upstairs, Downstairs, portraying the lives of an upper-class London family and their servants in the early 20th century) but cannot always be adequately reproduced in certain languages. In addition, a significant part of an actor's performance consists of his vocal inflections. Very often, memorable lines from popular films are frequently quoted, not for their substance, but for the way they were spoken; a good example is a famous sentence uttered by Jack Nicholson in the film A Few Good Men: "You can't handle the truth!" For these reasons, some may feel they miss part of a film's artistic value when watching it dubbed into another language. Also, lip synchronization is normally lost when dubbing, even with quality dubbing between closely related languages. There are examples of films which have been reshot or reanimated to remedy this problem. The dubbing of many television series is often criticized: the French dubbing of Dynasty and many American soap operas was and still is considered especially poor and ill-synchronized, and in addition it sometimes appears as if the dubbing was filmed with the camera on a different setting.

Dubbing performers are occasionally known to take liberties with some works they do not hold in particular esteem, or consider to be exploitation films. The French dubbing of the anime Fist of the North Star is notorious, as the performers disliked the violence of the series so much that, after post-synchronizing a few episodes, they only agreed to continue their work if they could turn the show into a spoof.[8] This resulted in episodes full of idiotic puns, absurd dialogue and extreme overacting by everybody. This dubbing has gathered a cult following in France for that precise reason, although many anime fans consider it highly disrespectful to the original work.

Another example is the German dub of Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The people responsible for the dub deemed Monty Python's humour unsuitable for a German audience (which was disproven by the huge success of Monty Python in Germany up to the present day, the group having even produced a German-language TV show and actually speaking the language in it) and introduced a lot of awkward puns into the dialogue, whereby they often completely killed the original humour. However, this practice was a success with The Persuaders!, where Tony Curtis' and Roger Moore's suddenly very humorous dialogue generated a cult following in Germany, whereas the series was not as well received in its original country, the UK.

A growing lobby in Europe cites dubbing as hindrance to multilingualism. In countries where subtitling is the preferred option, English literacy and comprehension is statistically far higher than in countries where television and films are routinely dubbed. Of course, this could be a "chicken or egg came first" situation. It could be that the films are routinely dubbed because of the illiteracy.[citation needed]

Occasionally, dubbing teams can show some disregard for the meaning and setting of the movies, regardless of their perceived quality. The French version of Gunfight at the O.K. Corral renames Wyatt Earp "Edward Thorpe", as Earp's name is difficult to pronounce in French. Since Wyatt Earp is not familiar to French audiences as a historical figure, the adapters did not feel bound to retain his name.

Dubbing can also induce censorship issues, especially if a film's topic is uncomfortable for the country where it is going to be released. For instance, in the '50s and '60s in Germany it was usual to conceal any mentioning of Nazis in popular movies: in the 1952 version of Casablanca (film) shown in Germany, all the Nazi characters were cut out and dialogues were replaced in order to remove any mention of them (most notably, the freedom fighter Victor László has been renamed to a Norwegian scientist Victor Larsen who was hunted by a crime syndicate because of his invention). Latter examples include the first Die Hard film where the names of the originally German terrorists have been changed to English-sounding ones, and Starship Troopers (film), where dialogues were rewritten in the dub in order to soften down the fascist society depicted in the film.

Pro dubbing

Defenders of dubbing maintain that subtitling interferes with the visual experience, as it obscures part of the picture. Some people also find that the act of reading itself is distracting, especially in pictures that rely on subtle motion: one would be too busy reading the subtitles to pay attention to what everyone is doing. In other cases, viewers may not consider subtitling (and alternate forms of translation) to be distracting or inadequate; rather, they simply chose to listen to dubbed versions as a matter of personal preference. These people sometimes argue that as long as dubbing does not prevent others from viewing programs in the language format that they chose, it has its merit simply because there are people who enjoy dubbing. Another defense for dubbing is that it works better in action movies, in particular scenes involving special effects with occasional dialog, since subtitles distract from the action or effects.

In many European countries, Hollywood movies are regularly dubbed and some people maintain that a creative translation (not necessarily faithful to the original English words) can occasionally bring additional fun and depth to films. English-language series such as The Persuaders! and Starsky and Hutch are highly popular in France for their talented dubbing. The French version of The Persuaders! was in fact a translation of the German version instead of the English original—and was also successful. It also frequently included remarks about the series itself like "Junge, lass doch die Sprüche, die setzen ja die nächste Folge ab!" ("Stop those jokes, or they'll cancel the series!") or about the dubbing: "Du musst jetzt etwas schneller werden, sonst bist du nicht synchron" ("Talk faster, or you won't be in sync any more").

In Hungary, it is common for translators to create a Hungarian text which rhymes for comedies and cartoons, using well-known local actors to provide the reading voices. The most famous example is perhaps the The Flintstones, with its entire Hungarian text in rhymes.

In many cases, dubbing of films or series involves the addition of dialogue where there previously was none. This often happened during the dubbing of anime for television. Extended silent scenes with no dialogue are often used for dramatic effect in anime, as in live action. This is typically considered too slow-paced for North American children's cartoons where dialogue is considered the most important element. This was commonly seen in early anime dubs such as Robotech or Voltron, where narration or character voiceovers (an animated equivalent to "thought balloons" in comics) would fill in silence. American cartoons are known for rarely having scenes without background music due to the same concerns over slow pacing. Therefore, in anime dubs, background music would also be edited into scenes that previously contained no background music.

Dubbed films can also be regarded as a second edited version of a film since the film is narrated and acting once more and several dubbed versions could be considered as an additional film next to the original one as it offers more scope in spoken language and text content and has not to be translated uninspiredly word by word. On DVDs you even have the choice to choose the language you better like but which is not possible with subtitled films where you are forced to watch the only existing version.[clarification needed]

One more advantage of dubbing films is the opportunity to improve the original film by adding regional phrases, hints or some simple side noises like coughing, laughing, buzzing and so on, which would be considered as more natural in another language while such noises are missing in the original for example.

Dubbing films affords also the opportunity to change the original text or meaning which was originally made and intended for only one group or a few groups of audience but would be regarded kind of weird or would not be understood in the same way as it actually should when it would be translated literally into another language. In this case the text or the meaning would get confusing or it would reduce or even lose its fun factor. Dubbed versions do have the advantage to use a proper imaginative translated counterpart of a word or a phrase and enriches so the comprehension of the audience watching the dubbed version.

Subtitled versions, in contrast, could be confusing because there is the problem of how to translate the phrase analogously or literally, and it should please the audience as well.

Dubbing the same language several times

In the case of languages with large communities (like English, Chinese, German, Spanish or French), a single translation may sound foreign to some groups, or even all of them. This is why a film may be translated to a certain language more than once: for example, the animated movie The Incredibles was translated to European Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Venezuelan Spanish and Rioplatense Spanish. However, people from Chile and Uruguay clearly noticed a strong porteño accent from most of the characters of the Rioplatense Spanish translation. Another example is the French dubbing of The Simpsons, which is entirely different in Quebec and France, the humor being highly different for each audience (see Non-English versions of The Simpsons). Audiences in Quebec are generally critical of France's dubbing of The Simpsons, which they often do not find amusing. The French-language Télétoon network once aired the Quebec Simpsons dub, as well as Parisian French dubs of Futurama and Family Guy, which were both similar to the Parisian Simpsons dub. The two latter shows have since been taken off the network (probably due to a lack of popularity), while The Simpsons continues its run on Télétoon. The Quebec French dubbing of films, while generally made in accent-less Standard French, often sounds peculiar to audiences in France, because of the persistence of some regionally neutral expression which may not sound quite natural to all audiences, and because Quebec French performers pronounce Anglo-Saxon names with an American accent, while French performers do not. Occasionally, for reasons of cost, American direct-to-video films, such as the 1995 film When the Bullet Hits the Bone, are released in France with a Quebec French dubbing, sometimes resulting in what some members of French audiences perceive as unintentional humor.

Portugal and Brazil also use different versions of dubbed films and series. Because dubbing has never been very popular in Portugal, for decades children films and television series were distributed using the good-quality Brazilian dub. Only in the 1990s dubbing began to gain importance in Portugal, thanks to the popularity of dubbed series like Dragon Ball. The Lion King became the first Disney feature film to be completely dubbed into European Portuguese, and subsequently all major animation films and series gained European Portuguese versions. In recent DVD releases, most of these Brazilian-dubbed classics were released with new Portuguese dubs, eliminating the predominance of Brazilian Portuguese dubs in Portugal.

The German speaking area which includes Germany, Austria, the German speaking part of Switzerland and Liechtenstein share together one common German dubbing version. Although there are sometimes some differences concerning some local words or the pronunciation of some words, there's no need to dub into their own versions because all films, shows and series are still dubbed into one single German version made for the German speaking audience irrespective of any geographical borders. Most voice actors are primarily Germans and Austrians since here there has been a long tradition of dubbing films. Switzerland which has four official languages (German, French, Italian, Romansh) generally use the dubbed versions made in its respective countries (except for Romansh). Liechtenstein uses German-dubbed versions only.

Sometimes films are also dubbed into several German dialects[9][10][11][12][13][14] for example, (Berlinerisch, Kölsch, Saxonian, Austro-Bavarian or Swiss German) which concerns especially animated films or Disney films. It's rather made for amusement and as an additional "special feature" for making the audience buying it. Popular animated films which were dubbed into German dialects were Asterix films (in addition to its standard German version, every film has a particular dialect version), The Little Mermaid[15], Shrek 2,[16] Cars[17] (+ Austrian German) or Up[18] (+ Austrian German). But there are also live-action films or TV-series which have an additional German dubbing: Babe[19] and its sequel Babe: Pig in the City (Germany German, Austrian German, Swiss German); Rehearsal for Murder, Framed[20] (+ Austrian German). TV-series: The Munsters, Serpico, Rumpole (+ Austrian German); The Thorn Birds[21] (only Austrian German dubbing).

Before the German reunification, East Germany also made its own particular German version. For example: Olsen Gang or the Hungarian animated series The Mézga Family were dubbed twice. So you got the opportunity to see a quality comparison.

The many martial arts movies from Hong Kong that were imported under the unofficial banner Kung Fu Theater were notorious for their seemingly careless dubbing which included poor lip sync and awkward dialogue. Since the results were frequently unintentionally hilarious, this has become one of the hallmarks that endear these films to part of the 1980s culture.

While the voice actors involved usually bear the brunt of criticisms towards poor dubbing, other factors may include script translation and audio mixing. A literal translation of dialogue typically contains speech patterns and sentence structure that are native to the foreign language but would appear awkward if translated literally. English dubs of Japanese animation, for example, must rewrite the dialogue so that it flows smoothly and follows the natural pattern of English speech. Voice actors in a dubbing capacity typically do not have the luxury of viewing the original film with the original voice actor and thus have little idea on how to perform the role. Also, on some occasions, voice actors record their dialogue separately, which lacks the dynamics gained from performing as a group.

New technology

It is now becoming possible to overcome some of the problems associated with dubbing using new technology. An application developed at New York University, known as Video Rewrite, uses computer animation to match lip movements with the new voice track. In a video clip made using this technology, John F. Kennedy appears to be saying "Video Rewrite gives lip-synced movies".[22]

Media Movers, Inc., a dubbing company, has developed a piece of proprietary software which can automatically sync ADR/dubbed tracks with pre-defined algorithms.[citation needed]

TM Systems received Emmy awards in 2002 and 2007 for their dubbing and subtitling software.[23]

References

  1. ^ Creative COW Magazine
  2. ^ Masters, Kim (2008-01-31). "The Dark Knight Without Heath Ledger:How will Warner Bros. sell a summer blockbuster marked by tragedy?". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2183273/. 
  3. ^ a b c Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title "Europeans and their Languages", published on February 2006 with research carried out in November and December 2005. Barely 2% of Romanians consider watching original language versions most effective into learning a new language (Table QA7b).
  4. ^ "Ley Federal de Cinematografía". Cámara de Diputados. 2010-04-28. http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/103.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-22. 
  5. ^ Doublage Québec (French)
  6. ^ THEY USED TO HOG THE HEADLINES, Sunday Times, September 12, 2007
  7. ^ Lelyveld, Joseph (1985-09-22). "The New York Times > Magazine > South Africa: Dream and Reality". Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1985/09/22/magazine/22SAFR.html?&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  8. ^ "Ken le Survivant — Interview de Philippe Ogouz". Hokuto.free.fr. http://hokuto.free.fr/interview.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  9. ^ "Asterix der Gallier (Film) – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. 2010-11-10. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterix_der_Gallier%20(Film)#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  10. ^ "Asterix und Kleopatra (Film) – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. 2010-11-23. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterix_und_Kleopatra%20(Film)#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  11. ^ "Asterix erobert Rom – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterix_erobert_Rom#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ "Asterix – Operation Hinkelstein – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. 2010-11-26. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterix_%E2%80%93_Operation_Hinkelstein#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  14. ^ Česky (2010-11-25). "Asterix und die Wikinger – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterix_und_die_Wikinger#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  15. ^ "Arielle, die Meerjungfrau – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arielle,_die_Meerjungfrau#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  16. ^ Česky (2010-11-25). "Shrek 2 – Der tollkühne Held kehrt zurück – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrek_2#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  17. ^ Česky (2010-11-26). "Cars (Film) – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cars_(Film)#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  18. ^ "Österreich-Version von Disney/Pixars "Oben" mit Otto Schenk und Karlheinz Böhm - BILD" (in (German)). ots.at. 2009-08-10. http://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OBS_20090810_OBS0008. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  19. ^ "Ein Schweinchen namens Babe – Wikipedia" (in (German)). De.wikipedia.org. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ein_Schweinchen_namens_Babe#Synchronisation. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  20. ^ "Allgemeines » ORF-Synchronisationen - Wer weiß was?". 215072.homepagemodules.de. http://215072.homepagemodules.de/topic-threaded.php?forum=11776730&threaded=1&id=506508&message=6643629. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  21. ^ "Serien » 24". 215072.homepagemodules.de. http://215072.homepagemodules.de/topic-threaded.php?forum=11776728&threaded=1&id=506269&message=7100872. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  22. ^ "Video Rewrite". Mrl.nyu.edu. http://mrl.nyu.edu/~bregler/videorewrite/. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  23. ^ "Television Academy announces recipients of the 2007 primetime Emmy Engineering Awards". Emmys.org. 2006-04-28. http://www.emmys.org/media/releases/2007/rel_pte07-engr.php. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 

Further reading

  • Di Fortunato E. e Paolinelli M. (a cura di), "La Questione Doppiaggio - barriere linguistiche e circolazione delle opere audiovisive", Roma, AIDAC, 1996 - (available on website: www.aidac.it)
  • Castellano A. (a cura di), "Il Doppiaggio, profilo, storia e analisi di un'arte negata", Roma, AIDAC-ARLEM, 2001
  • Di Fortunato E. e Paolinelli M., "Tradurre per il doppiaggio - la trasposizione linguistica dell'audiovisivo: teoria e pratica di un'arte imperfetta", Milano, Hoepli, 2005
  • ASINC online magazine on criticism of the art of dubbing

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