Biota of the Isle of Man

This is a list of the known wild biota of the Isle of Man.

Non-native species are marked *, extinct species are marked †. If this status is uncertain the species is also marked ?.

Each listing follows the following format: English Name (where one exists), binominal/trinomial scientific name with authorities for uncommon species, Manx name (where one exists), status.

= Animalia (Animals) =

Amphibia (Amphibians)

Salamandridae (Salamanders and Newts)

*Great Crested Newt "Triturus cristatus" (Jolgan-leaghyr-beg) *
*Smooth Newt "Triturus vulgaris" (Jolgan-leaghyr-beg) *
*Palmate Newt "Triturus helveticus" (Jolgan-leaghyr-beg) *

Anura (Frogs and Toads)

*Common Toad "Bufo bufo" (Beayf) *
*Common Frog "Rana temporaria" (Rannag)


= Aves (Birds) =

Gaviidae (Divers)

*Red-throated Diver "Gavia stellata"
*Great Northern Diver "Gavia immer"

Podicipedidae (Grebes)

*Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)

Hydrobatidae (Petrels)

*Storm Petrel "Hydrobates pelagicus"

Procellariidae (Shearwaters)

*Manx Shearwater "Puffinus puffinus" (Scraayl)

Sulidae (Gannets and Boobies)

*Gannet "Morus bassanus" (Gant)

Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)

*Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Shag "Phalacrocorax aristotelis"

Ardeidae (Egrets and Herons)

*Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"†
*Grey Heron "Ardea cinerea"

Anatidae (Swans, Geese and Ducks)

*Mute Swan "Cygnus olor"
*Shelduck "Tadorna tadorna"
*Mallard "Anus platyrhynchos"

Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles, Kites and Harriers)

*Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Hen Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*White-tailed Eagle "Haliaeetus albicilla"†

Falconidae (Falcons)

*Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Peregrine "Falco peregrinus"

Phasianidae (Partridges and Quail)

Tetraonidae (Grouse)

*Black Grouse "Tetrao tetrix"†
*Red Grouse "Lagopus lagopus scoticus"† but reintroduced

Phasianidae (Pheasants)

*Pheasant "Phasianus colchicus"*

Rallidae (Rails and Crakes)

*Water Rail "Rallus aquaticus"
*Corncrake "Crex crex" (Eean raip)
*Coot "Fulica atra"

Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)

*Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Scolopacidae (Waders)

*Curlew "Numenius arguata"

Scolopacidae (Woodcock and Snipe)

*Woodcock "Scolopax rusticola"
*Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"

Laridae "Gulls"

*Herring Gull "Larsus argentatus" (Foillan)
*Great Black-backed Gull "Larsus marinus" (Juan mooar)

Alcidae (Auks)

*Great Auk "Pinguinus impennis"†
*Puffin "Fratercula arctica"
*Razorbill "Alca torda"

Columbidae (Pigeons)

*Woodpigeon "Columba palumbus"
*Collared Dove "Streptopelia decaocto"

Tytonidae (Barn Owls)

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Strigidae (Other Owls)

Hirundinidae (Swallows)

*Swallow "Hirundo rustica"

Motacillidae (Wagtails)

*Grey Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Pied Wagtail "Motacilla alba yarrellii"

Troglodytidae (Wrens)

*Wren "Troglodytes troglodytes" (Drean)

Prunellidae (Dunnock)

*Dunnock "Prunella modularis"

Turdidae (Thrushes)

*Robin "Erithacus rubecula"
*Blackbird "Turdus merula" (Lhondoo)
*Song Thrush "Turdus philomelos"

Sylviidae (Warblers)

*Willow Warbler "Phylloscopus trochilus"
*Goldcrest "Regulus regulus"

Paridae (Tits)

*Blue Tit "Parus caeruleus" (Drean gorrym)
*Great Tit "Parus major" (Drean mooar)
*Coal Tit "Parus ater" (Drean kione doo)
*Long-tailed Tit "Aegithalos caudatus"

Sturnidae (Starlings)

*Starling "Sturnus vulgaris"

Corvidae (Corvids)

*Magpie "Pica pica"
*Jackdaw "Corvus monedula"
*Raven "Corvus corax"
*Carrion Crow "Corvus corax"
*Hooded Crow "Corvus cornix"
*Chough "Phyrocorrax phyrocorrax" (Caaig)
*Rook "Corvus frugilegus"

Passeridae (Sparrows)

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus"

Fringillidae (Finches)

*Chaffinch "Fringilla coelebs"
*Goldfinch "Carduelis chloris"
*Greenfinch "Carduelis chloris"

Emberizidae (Buntings)

*Corn Bunting "Miliaria calandra"†

Insecta (Insects)

Odonata (Dragonflies)

*Common Hawker "Aeshna juncea"
*Brown Hawker "Aeshna grandis"
*Migrant Hawker "Aeshna mixta"
*Common Darter "Sympetrum striolatum"
*Black Darter "Sympetrum danae"
*Red-veined Darter "Sympetrum fonscolombi"
*Ruddy Darter "Sympetrum sanguineum"
*Four-spotted Chaser "Libellula quadrimaculata"
*Downy Emerald "Cordulia aenea"
*Keeled Skimmer "Orthetrum coerulescens"
*Emperor Dragonfly "Anax imperator"

*Common Blue Damselfly "Enallagma cyathigerum"
*Blue-tailed Damselfly "Ischnura elegans"
*Golden-ringed Dragonfly "Cordulegaster boltonii"
*Large Red Damselfly "Pyrrhosoma nymphula"
*Emerald Damselfly "Lestes sponsa"

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers & Crickets)

Ensifera (Crickets)

Tettigoniidae (Bush Crickets)

*Dark Bush Cricket "Pholidoptera griseoaptera"
*Dotted Bush Cricket "Leptophyes punctatissima"

Caelifera (Grasshoppers & Allies)

Acrididae (Grasshoppers)

*Lesser Mottled Grasshopper "Stenobothrus stigmaticus"

Dermaptera (Earwigs)

*Common Earwig "Forficula auricularia"

Dictyoptera (Cochroaches)

Phasmida (Stick-Insects)

Diptera (True Flies)

*Manx Robber Fly "Machimus cowini"
*Lesser Beefly "Bombylius minor"

Coleoptera (Beetles)

Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, Ants)

Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)

Pieridae (Whites)

*Large White "Pieris brassicae"
*Small White "Pieris rapae"
*Green-veined White "Pieris napi"
*Orange Tip "Anthocharis cardamines"

Lycaenidae (Blues & Coppers)

*Small Copper "Lycaena phlaeas"
*Common Blue "Polyommatus icarus"
*Holly Blue "Celastrina argiolus"

Satyridae (Browns)

*Grayling "Hipparchia semele"
*Speckled Wood "Pararge aegeria" [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/isle_of_man/6288585.stm BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Isle of Man | Climate conference spots insects ] ]
*Meadow Brown "Maniola jurtina"
*Wall "Lasiommata megera"
*Small Heath "Coenonympha pamphilus"

Nymphalidae (Fritillaries & Aristocrats)

*Dark Green Fritillary "Argynnis aglaja"
*Red Admiral "Vanessa atalanta"
*Small Tortoiseshell "Aglais urticae"
*Peacock "Inachis io"
*Comma "Polygonia c-album" [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/isle_of_man/6288585.stm BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Isle of Man | Climate conference spots insects ] ]
*Painted Lady "Cynthia cardui"

Arctiidae (Wolly Worm Moths)

*Cinnabar moth "Tyria jacobaeae"

Geometridae (Geometers)

*Peppered moth "Biston betularia"

Hemiptera (True Bugs)

Mammalia (Mammals)

Chiroptera (Bats)

*Common Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus pipistrellus" (Craitnag)
*Whiskered Bat "Myotis mystacinus"
*Natterer's Bat "Myotis nattereri"
*Daubenton's Bat "Myotis daubentonii"
*Leisler's Bat "Nyctalus leisleri"
*Soprano Pipistrelle "Pipistrellus pygmaeus"
*Brown Long-eared Bat "Plecotus auritus" (Chleayshagh)

Lagomorpha (Rabbits and Hares)

*Mountain Hare "Lepus timidus" †* (extinct but reintroduced) (Mwaagh Slieu)
*European Hare "Lepus europaeus" * (uncertain if introduced) (Mwaagh Dhone)
*European Rabbit "Oryctolagus cuniculus" * (Conning)

Insectivora (Insect-Eaters)

*European Hedgehog "Erinaceus europaeus" *(accidental introduction) * (Arkan Sonney)
*Pygmy Shrew "Sorex minutus" (Thollag Airhey) (the Common Shrew is not found on the Isle of Man as commonly thought)

Rodentia (Rodents)

*Wood Mouse "Apodemus sylvaticus" (Lugh Faiyr)
*House Mouse "Mus domesticus" (Lugh Thie) *
*Brown Rat "Rattus norvegicus" * (Roddan Dhone)

Carnivora (Carnivores)

*Stoat "Mustela erminea hibernica" (Assag)
*Polecat-Ferret "Mustela furo" x "putorius" (Kayt ny Giark) (a hybrid between the Polecat and a Ferret)

Cervidae (Deer)

*Irish Elk "Megaloceros giganteus" (Feeaih Mooar) †

Pinnipedia (Seals and Walruses)

*Grey Seal "Halichoerus grypus" (Raun Glass)
*Common Seal "Phoca vitulina" (Raun) (occasional, not known to breed)

Primates (Primates)

*Human "Homo sapiens" (Deiney)

Artiodactyla (Even-toed Ungulates or Hoofed Mammals)

*Domestic Goat "Capra hircus" (Goayr) *

Marsupialia (Marsupials)

*Red-necked Wallaby "Macropus rufogriseus" (Myn-changaroo) *

Cetacea (Whales and Dolphins)

Note that Manx nomenclature does not differentiate between species. Most cetaceans are known as 'Muc Varrey' or 'Perkin Mooar', small dolphins as 'Doraid'.

Regularly seen species

*Harbour porpoise "Phocoena phocoena" (Perkin)
*Bottle-nosed dolphin "Tursiops truncatus"
*Common dolphin "Delphinus delphis" (Doraid)
*Risso's dolphin "Grampus griseus"
*Killer whale "Orcinus orca"
*Fin whale "Balaenoptera physalus"
*Minke whale "Balaenoptera acutorostrata"
*Long-finned Pilot Whale "Globicephala melas" (absent for several years)

Rarely seen species

*Humpback Whale "Megaptera novaeangliae"
*Cuvier's Beaked Whale "Ziphius cavirostris"
*White-beaked Dolphin "Lagenorhynchus albirostris"
*Atlantic White-sided Dolphin "Lagenorhynchus acutus"
*Northern Bottlenose Whale "Hyperoodon ampullatus"

Vagrant species

*Sei Whale "Balaenoptera borealis"
*North Atlantic Right Whale "Eubalaena glacialis"
*Blainville's Beaked Whale "Mesoplodon densirostris"
*Striped Dolphin "Stenella coeruleoalba"
*False Killer Whale "Pseudorca crassidens"
*Pygmy Sperm Whale "Kogia breviceps"

Extinct species

*Grey Whale "Eschrichtius robustus"† († in Irish Sea c.1700)

Reptilia (Reptiles)

*Common Lizard "Zootoca vivipara" (Jolgan-leaghyr)

Chondrichthyes (Cartilagenous Fish)

*Basking Shark "Cetorhinus maximus" (Sharkagh Souree)

Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)

*Brown Trout "Salmo trutta"
*Rainbow Trout "Oncorhynchus mykiss" *
*Atlantic Salmon "Salmo salar"
*Ocean Sunfish "Mola mola" (recent vagrant)

----

Arthropoda (Arthropods)

Anostraca

Chirocephalidae

*Fairy Shrimp "Chirocephalus diaphanus"

Arachnida (Spiders)

218 species of Arachnids have been identified on the Isle of Man as of 1 January 2002. [ [http://www.isle-of-man.com/interests/natural-history/spiders/list.htm Welcome to Isleofman.com - The online Manx Portal ] ]

Pholcidae

*Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin)

Segestriidae

*Segestria senoculata (Linnaeus)

Dysderidae

*Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer)
*Dysdera crocata C.L. Koch
*Harpactea hombergi (Scopoli)

Oonopidae

*Oonops pulcher Templeton

Mimetidae

*Ero cambridgei Kulczynski
*Ero furcata (Villers)

Nesticidae

* Nesticus cellulanus (Clerck)

Theridiidae

*Episinus angulatus (Blackwall)
*Dipoena inornata (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Steatoda phalerata (Panzer)
*Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus)
*Theridion sisyphium (Clerck)
*Theridion melanurum Hahn
*Theridion mystaceum L. Koch
*Paidiscura pallens (Blackwall)
*Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck)
*Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn)
*Robertus lividus (Blackwall)
*Robertus arundineti (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Pholcomma gibbum (Westring)

Linyphiidae

*Ceratinella brevipes (Westring)
*Ceratinella brevis (Wider)
*Ceratinella scabrosa (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Walckenaeria acuminata Blackwall
*Walckenaeria antica (Wider)
*Walckenaeria nodosa O.P.-Cambridge
*Walckenaeria nudipalpis (Westring)
*Walckenaeria monoceros (Wider)
*Walckenaeria unicornis O.P.-Cambridge
*Walckenaeria kochi (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Walckenaeria cuspidata Blackwall
*Walckenaeria vigilax (Blackwall)
*Dicymbium nigrum (Blackwall)
*Dicymbium brevisetosum Locket
*Dicymbium tibiale (Blackwall)
*Entelecara erythropus (Westring)
*Gnathonarium dentatum (Wider)
*Gongylidium rufipes (Sundevall)
*Dismodicus bifrons (Blackwall)
*Hypomma bituberculatum (Wider)
*Hypomma cornutum (Blackwall)
*Metopobactrus prominulus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Baryphyma trifrons (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Gonatium rubens (Blackwall)
*Gonatium rubellum (Blackwall)
*Maso sundevalli (Westring)
*Peponocranium ludicrum (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Pocadicnemis pumila (Blackwall)
*Pocadicnemis juncea Locket & Millidge
*Oedothorax gibbosus (Blackwall)
*Oedothorax fuscus (Blackwall)
*Oedothorax agrestis (Blackwall)
*Oedothorax retusus (Westring)
*Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall)
*Trichopterna thorelli (Westring)
*Pelecopsis mengei (Simon)
*Pelecopsis parallela (Wider)
*Silometopus ambiguus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Silometopus elegans (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Cnephalocotes obscurus (Blackwall)
*Tiso vagans (Blackwall)
*Tapinocyba praecox (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Tapinocyba pallens (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Monocephalus fuscipes (Blackwall)
*Monocephalus castenipes (Simon)
*Lophomma punctatum (Blackwall)
*Gongylidiellum vivum (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Micrargus subaequalis (Westring)
*Micrargus herbigradus (Blackwall)
*Erigonella hiemalis (Blackwall)
*Savignia frontata (Blackwall)
*Diplocephalus cristatus (Blackwall)
*Diplocephalus permixtus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Diplocephalus latifrons (Blackwall)
*Diplocephalus picinus (Blackwall)
*Araeoncus humilis (Blackwall)
*Araeoncus crassiceps (Westring)
*Erigone dentipalpis (Wider)
*Erigone atra (Blackwall)
*Erigone promiscua (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Erigone arctica (White)
*Erigone longipalpis (Sundevall)
*Drepanotylus uncatus (O.P.-Cambridge
*Leptothrix hardyi (Blackwall)
*Hilaira excisa (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Halorates reprobus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Ostearius melanopygius (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall)
*Porrhomma convexum (Westring)
*Agyneta subtilis (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Agyneta conigera (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Agyneta decora (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Agyneta cauta (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Agyneta olivacea (Emerton)
*Agyneta ramosa Jackson
*Meioneta rurestris (C.L. Koch)
*Meioneta saxatilis (Blackwall)
*Microneta viaria (Blackwall)
*Centromerus sylvaticus (Blackwall)
*Centromerus prudens (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Tallusia experta (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Centromerita bicolor (Blackwall)
*Centromerita concinna (Thorell)
*Saaristoa abnormis (Blackwall)
*Bathyphantes approximatus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Bathyphantes gracilis (Blackwall)
*Bathyphantes parvulus (Westring)
*Bathyphantes nigrinus (Westring)
*Kaestneria pullata (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Diplostyla concolor (Wider)
*Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall)
*Drapetisca socialis (Sundevall)
*Tapinopa longidens (Wider)
*Floronia bucculenta (Clerck)
*Taranucnus setosus (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Labulla thoracica (Wider)
*Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus)
*Bolyphantes luteolus (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes leprosus (Ohlert)
*Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes alacris (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes obscurus (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes tenuis (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes zimmermanni Bertkau
*Lepthyphantes mengei Kulczynski
*Lepthyphantes flavipes (Blackwall)
*Lepthyphantes tenebricola (Wider)
*Lepthyphantes ericaeus (Blackwall)
*Linyphia triangularis (Clerck)
*Neriene montana (Clerck)
*Neriene clathrata (Sundevall)
*Neriene peltata (Wider)
*Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall)
*Allomengea scopigera (Grube)

Tetragnathidae

*Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus)
*Tetragnatha montana Simon
*Pachygnatha clercki Sundevall
*Pachygnatha degeeri Sundevall
*Metellina segmentata (Clerck)
*Metellina mengei (Blackwall)
*Metellina merianae (Scopoli)
*European Cave Spider Meta menardi (Latreille)

Araneidae

*European Garden Spider Araneus diadematus Clerck
*Araneus quadratus Clerck
*Larinioides cornutus (Clerck)
*Nuctenea umbratica (Clerck)
*Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck)
*Araniella opisthographa (Kulczynski)
*Zygiella x-notata (Clerck)
*Zygiella atrica (C.L. Koch)

Lycosidae

*Pardosa monticola (Clerck)
*Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus)
*Pardosa pullata (Clerck)
*Pardosa prativaga (L. Koch)
*Pardosa amentata (Clerck)
*Pardosa nigriceps (Thorell)
*Alopecosa pulverulenta (Clerck)
*Trochosa ruricola (Degeer)
*Trochosa terricola Thorell
*Arctosa perita (Latreille)
*Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall)
*Pirata piraticus (Clerck)
*Pirata latitans (Blackwall)
*Pirata piscatorius (Clerck)

Pisauridae

*Nursery Web Spider Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck)

Agelenidae

*Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck)
*Textrix denticulata (Olivier)
*Giant House Spider Tegenaria gigantea Chamberlin & Ivie
*Tegenaria saeva Blackwall
*Domestic House Spider Tegenaria domestica (Clerck) (Mx. Doo-oallee)

Cybaeidae

*Water Spider Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck)

Hahniidae

*Antistea elegans (Blackwall)
*Hahnia montana (Blackwall)
*Hahnia nava (Blackwall)

Dictynidae

*Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus)
*Dictyna latens (Fabricius)

Amaurobiidae

*Amaurobius fenestralis (Stroem)
*Amaurobius similis (Blackwall)
*Amaurobius ferox (Blackwall)
*Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer)

Liocranidae

*Agroeca proxima (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Scotina gracilipes (Blackwall)
*Phrurolithus festivus (C.L. Koch)

Clubionidae

*Clubiona reclusa (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Clubiona stagnatilis Kulczynski
*Clubiona pallidula (Clerck)
*Clubiona phragmitis C.L. Koch
*Clubiona terrestris Westring
*Clubiona neglecta O.P.-Cambridge
*Clubiona lutescens Westring
*Clubiona comta C.L. Koch
*Clubiona trivialis C.L. Koch
*Clubiona diversa O.P.-Cambridge

Gnaphosidae

*Drassodes lapidosus (Walckenaer)
*Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall)
*Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch)
*Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell)
*Zelotes latreillei (Simon)
*Zelotes apricorum (L. Koch)
*Drassyllus lutetianus (L. Koch)
*Drassyllus pusillus (C.L. Koch)
*Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall)

Philodromidae

*Philodromus aureolus (Clerck)
*Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer)
*Tibellus maritimus (Menge)

Thomisidae

*Xysticus cristatus (Clerck)
*Xysticus kochi (Thorell)
*Xysticus erraticus (Blackwall)
*Ozyptila sanctuaria (O.P.-Cambridge)
*Ozyptila trux (Blackwall)
*Ozyptila atomaria (Panzer)

Salticidae

*Zebra spider Salticus scenicus (Clerck)
*Heliophanus cupreus (Walckenaer)
*Pseudoeuophrys frontalis (Walckenaer)
*Euophrys lanigera (Simon)
*Sitticus saltator (Simon)

----

= Plantae (Plants) =

Pinophyta (Conifers)

Cupressaceae (Cypresses)

*Common Juniper "Juniperus communis" (possibly † in the wild)

Magnoliopsida

Brassicales

*Isle of Man Cabbage "Coincya Monensis"

Nymphaeaceae (Waterlilies)

*Yellow Water Lily "Nuphar lutea" ----

= Fungi (Fungi) =

Strophariaceae (Dung Fungi)

*Coniochaete hansenii

----

= References =


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