- Jhelum River
:"Hydaspes" redirects here. For the historic battle, see
Battle of the Hydaspes."Jehlum River or Jhelum River ( _ks. Vyeth, _hi. झेलम, _pa. ਜੇਹਲਮ, _pa. دریاۓ جہلم) is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus Riverand has a total length of about 480 miles (774 kilometers).
The river Jhelum was called "Vitastā" by the
Rigvedic tribesin the Vedic periodand "Hydaspes" by the ancient Greeks. The Vitasta ( _sa. वितस्ता, fem., also, "Vetastā") is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the holy scriptures of the Indo-Aryans — the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitastā must have been one of the seven rivers ("sapta-sindhu") mentioned so many times in the Rigveda. The name survives in the Kashmiri name for this river as "Vyeth".
The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet
Nonnusin the " Dionysiaca" (section 26, line 350) makes the "Hydaspes" a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumasand the cloud-goddess Elektra. He was the brother of Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the Harpies, the "snatching" winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god "Hydaspes" was named after the river. Alexander the Greatand his army crossed the Jhelum in 326 BC at the Battle of the Hydaspes Riverwhere he defeated the Indian king, Porus. According to Arrian ("Anabasis", 29), he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named " Bukephala" (or " Bucephala") to honour his famous horse Bukephalusor Bucephaluswhich was buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. According to a historian of Gujrat district, Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephalus was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephalus, Alexander's dead horse. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistanunder the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
The river Jhelum rises from a spring at
Verinagsituated at the foot of the Pir Panjalin the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular lakebefore entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. The Kishenganga (Neelum) River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it near Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar Riverof the Kaghan valley. It also connects with Pakistan and Pakistan-held Kashmir on Kohala Bridgeeast of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla Damreservoir in the district of Mirpur. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chajand Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmuin District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlejto form the Panjnad Riverwhich joins the Indus Riverat Mithankot.
Dams and Barrages
Water control structures are being built as a result of the
Indus Basin Project, including the following:
Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5.9 million acre-feet (7.3 km³)
Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft³/s (24,000 m³/s).
Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft³/s (18,000 m³/s).
* The Upper Jhelum Canal runs from Mangla to the Chenab.
* The Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal runs from the Rasul barrage to the Chenab.
* The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal runs from the
Chashma Barrageon the Indus Riverto the Jhelum river downstream of Rasul Barrage.
* [http://www.livius.org/a/pakistan/jhelum/hydaspes.html Livius.org pictures of the Hydaspes]
* [http://www.apnajhelum.com Official website of Jhelum - Urdu Version]
* [http://www.apnajhelum.net Official website of Jhelum - English Version]
From Mangla to Jhelum villages on the edge of river Jhelum:-Lehri,Afzalpur,Fazialpur,Barsali,Nayiabdi,Chak Ghaian,Dalyala,Langerpur Baily,
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Jhelum River — River, India and Pakistan. The westernmost of the Five Rivers of the Punjab region, it rises in the Himalayas in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It meanders northwest in the Pakistani administered sector of the Kashmir region. Bending… … Universalium
Jhelum — For other uses, see Jhelum (disambiguation). Coordinates: 32°55′43″N 73°43′53″E / 32.92861°N 73.73139°E / 32.92861; 73.73139 … Wikipedia
Jhelum District — For other uses, see Jhelum (disambiguation). Jhelum District Nickname(s) … Wikipedia
Jhelum (City) — Pakistani Cities official name= Jhelum جہلم emblem= province=Punjab city n1=32|n2= 56|n3= 00 e1= 73 e2= 44 e3= 00 elevation m= area total km2= census year= 1998 census pop= 293000 population density km2= code=0544 nazim= Khawaja Asif naib nazim=… … Wikipedia
Jhelum Tehsil — Infobox Tehsil Pakistan tehsil caption = official name= Jhelum جہل province= Punjab district= Jhelum area total km2= census year= 1998 estimate year= census pop= estimate pop= population density km2= towns= 1 uc= 27 nazim= naib nazim = footnotes … Wikipedia
Jhelum — /jay leuhm/, n. a river in S Asia, flowing from S Kashmir into the Chenab River in Pakistan. 450 mi. (725 km) long. * * * ▪ Pakistan town, Punjab province, northeastern Pakistan. The town lies just west of the Jhelum River (there bridged by … Universalium
Jhelum (rivière) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jhelum et Hydaspe. Jhelum Caractéristiques … Wikipédia en Français
river — river1 riverless, adj. riverlike, adj. /riv euhr/, n. 1. a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels. 2. a similar stream of something other than water: a… … Universalium
Jhelum — [jā′ləm] river in India, flowing from the Himalayas in Kashmir through Pakistan into the Chenab: c. 480 mi (772 km) … English World dictionary
Jhelum — Jhe•lum [[t]ˈdʒeɪ ləm[/t]] n. geg a river in S Asia, flowing from S Kashmir into the Chenab River in Pakistan. 450 mi. (725 km) long … From formal English to slang