- Jewish emancipation
Jewish emancipation was the abolition of discriminatory laws as applied especially to
Jewsin Europein the nineteenth century, the recognition of Jews as equal to other citizens, and the formal granting of citizenship to European Jews. Emancipation was a major goal of European Jews of the 19th century, and led to active participation of Jews in the civil society. As a result, many Jews who earlier were practically locked out of the rest of the society, turned to Jewish political movements(such as Zionism), or revolutionary movements (especially facing oppressive regimes such as in Russian Empire) or were able to emigrate to countries offering better opportunities.
Jews were subject to a wide range of restrictions throughout most of European history. Since the
Fourth Council of the Lateranin 1215, Jews had been required to wear special clothing, such as the Judenhutand the yellow badgeto distinguish them from Christians. The practice of their religion was often restricted, and they had to swear special oaths (see Oath More Judaico). Jews were not allowed to vote, and were also formally forbidden from even entering some countries, such as Spain.
During this time, the
rabbiwas the most influential member of the Jewish community. In addition to being a religious scholar and clergy, a rabbi also acted as a civil judgein cases in which both parties were Jews. Together with the community elders, rabbis also had other important administrative powers. The rabbinate was the highest aim of many Jewish boys, and the study of the Torah(first five books of the Bible) and the Talmudwas the means of obtaining that coveted position.Jewish involvement in gentile society began during the Age of Enlightenment. Haskalah, the Jewish movement supporting the adoption of enlightenment values, advocated an expansion of Jewish rights within European society. Haskalah followers advocated "coming out of the ghetto," not just physically but also mentally and spiritually. In 1791, France became the first European country to emancipate its Jewish population. By 1796, France, Britain, and the Netherlands had granted the Jews equal rights with gentiles. Napoleon also freed the Jews in areas he conquered (see Napoleon and the Jews). However, it was not until the revolutionary atmosphere of the mid-19th century that Jewish political movements would begin to persuade governments in Central and Eastern Europe to grant equal rights to Jews.
Early stages of Jewish emancipation movements were simply part of the general popular uprising to achieve freedom and rights for minorities. The question of equal rights for Jews was tied with demands for constitutions and civil rights. Jewish statesmen and intellectuals like
Heinrich Heine, Johann Jacoby, Gabriel Riesser, Berr Isaac Berr, and Lionel Nathan Rothschildbusied themselves with the general movement towards liberty and political freedom, rather than Jews specifically.
However, in the face of persistent
antisemiticincidents and blood libels such as the Damascus affairof 1840, and the failure of many states to emancipate the Jews, Jewish organizations formed in order to push for the emancipation and protection of Jews. The Board of Deputies of British Jewsunder Moses Montefiore, the Central consistory of Paris, and the Alliance Israelite Universelleall began working to assure the freedom of Jews.
Revolutions of 1848, Jewish emancipation was granted throughout Germany. Basic Rights of the Frankfurt Parliament (Paragraph 13) stated that civil rights were not to be conditional on religious faith. This was a great improvement over the Act of 1815 which allowed special legislation dealing with Jews. Jews experienced a period of legal equality from 1848 until the rise of Nazi Germany.
Dates of emancipation
In some countries, emancipation came with a single act. In others, limited rights were granted first in the hope of "changing" the Jews "for the better." [ [http://www.friends-partners.org/partners/beyond-the-pale/eng_captions/21-5.html Beyond the Pale exhibition] (friends-partners.org)]
David Feuerwerker. L'Emancipation des Juifs en France. De l'Ancien Régime à la fin du Second Empire. Albin Michel: Paris, 1976 ISBN 2-226-00316-9
*"History of Frankfurt (German Wikipedia)"
* [http://www.cats.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ip/jewemanc.htm Jewish Emancipation]
* A special issue of the journal [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org "Labyrinthe. Atelier interdisciplinaire"] (in French) has been devoted to the issue: [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org/sommaire2512.html "Des Juifs contre l'émancipation. De Babylone à Benny Lévy"] [Jews Against Emancipation: From Babylon to Benny Lévy] (2007). [http://www.revuelabyrinthe.org/document2803.html Editorial] available online.
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