Garrett Eckbo

Garrett Eckbo (November 28, 1910May 14, 2000) was an American landscape architect notable for his seminal 1950 book "Landscape for Living".

Youth

He was born in Cooperstown, New York to Axel Eckbo, a businessman, and Theodora Munn Eckbo. In 1912, the family moved to Chicago, Illinois. After Eckbo’s parents divorced, he and his mother relocated to Alameda, California where they struggled financially while he grew up. After Eckbo graduated from high school in 1929, he felt a lack of ambition and direction and went to stay with a wealthy paternal uncle, Eivind Eckbo, in Norway. It was during his stay in Norway that he began to focus on his future. Once he returned to the U.S., he worked for several years at various jobs saving money so that he could attend college.

Education

After attending Marin Junior College for a year, he enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley where he majored in landscape architecture.

While Eckbo was at Berkeley he was influenced by two of the programs faculty members, H. Leland Vaughan and Thomas Church, who inspired him to move beyond the formalized beaux-arts style that was popular at the time. The Beaux Arts-movement is defined as being carefully planned, richly decorated and being influenced by classical art and architecture. Eckbo graduated with a B.S. in landscape architecture in 1935 and subsequently worked at Armstrong Nurseries in Ontario near Los Angeles where he designed about a hundred gardens in less than a year. After working at the Nurseries, he was restless to expand his creative horizons and entered Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design by way of a scholarship competition, which he won.

Beginning his studies at Harvard, Eckbo found that the curriculum followed the Beaux-Arts method and was similar to the one at Berkeley but more rigidly entrenched. Eckbo, along with fellow students Dan Kiley and James Rose resisted and began to "explore science, architecture, and art as sources for a modern landscape design." Eckbo began to take architecture classes with the former Bauhaus director Walter Gropius, who was then head of the architecture department while continuing to take classes in the landscape architecture department. Gropius and Marcel Breuer introduced Eckbo to the idea of the social role in architecture, the link between society and spatial design.

Eckbo was also influenced by the works of several abstract painters, including Wassily Kandinsky, László Moholy-Nagy and Kasimir Malevich. Eckbo would convey a sense of movement in his designs by the layering and massing of plants as inspired by the artists’ paintings.

Professional Work and Philosophy

After receiving his MLA degree from Harvard in 1938, Eckbo returned to California where he worked for the Farm Security Administration. He designed camps for the migrant agricultural workers in California’s Central Valley. He applied his modernist ideas to these camps attempting to improve the workers living environments.

In 1940 Eckbo joined with his brother–in-law, Edward Williams to form the firm Eckbo and Williams. Five years later Robert Royston joined the firm. The very successful firm of Eckbo, Royston and Williams designed hundreds of projects including residential gardens, planned community developments, urban plazas, churches and college campuses. He would eventually form the highly successful firm Eckbo, Dean, Austin and Williams, (EDAW) in 1964. Leaving the firm in 1979, he first formed the firm Garrett Eckbo and Associates and finally Eckbo Kay Associates with Kenneth Kay.cite book
last = Treib
first = Marc
coauthors = Dorothee Imbert
title = "Garrett Eckbo: Modern Landscapes for Living"
publisher = University of California Press
date = 1996
isbn = 0-520-20779-3
]

Throughout Eckbo's career he maintained his vision of the interaction of art and science to create environments that were functional and livable, while maintaining the social, ecological and cultural approach to design.

elected Projects

*1938-44: Housing for migrant workers in California, Arizona and Texas
*1946: Park Planned Homes (architect: Gregory Ain), Altadena, CA
*1947-48: Community Homes [cite journal
last = Denzer
first = Anthony
title = Community Homes: Race, Politics and Architecture in Postwar Los Angeles
journal = Southern California Quarterly
volume = 87
issue = no. 3
pages = 269–285
date = Fall 2005
] (architect: Gregory Ain), Reseda, CA (unbuilt)
*1947: Ladera Cooperative (architects: John Funk and Joseph Allen Stein), Palo Alto, CA
*1948: Avenel Homes (architect: Gregory Ain), Los Angeles, CA
*1948: Mar Vista Housing (architect: Gregory Ain), Los Angeles, CA
*1952: Alcoa Forecast Garden (Eckbo residence), Los Angeles, CA
*1962: Long-range development plan for the University of New Mexico ( [http://frem.unm.edu/OUA/Getty/Pages%2041%20-81%20from%20Volume_I.pdf| UNM Heritage Preservation Plan] )
*1964-68: Union Bank Plaza, Los Angeles, CA
*1966: Fulton (pedestrian) mall, Fresno, California

Teaching

Eckbo taught at the School of Architecture at the University of Southern California from 1948-56. He was the chairman of the Department of Landscape Architecture at UC Berkeley from 1963-69.

Publications

*1950: "Landscape for Living" (Duell, Sloan & Pearce)
**"a seminal book in landscape architecture"cite web
last = Goedeken
first = E. A.
title = Garrett Eckbo
publisher = American National Biography Online
date = October 2002 Update
url = http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-01669.html
accessdate = 2004-09-24
]
**republished in 2002 (Hennessey & Ingalls)
*1956: "Art of Home Landscaping" (McGraw-Hill)
*1964: "Urban Landscape Design" (McGraw-Hill)
*1969: "The Landscape We See" (McGraw-Hill)

Notes

Additional Sources

*Francis, M. & Hester, R. T. Jr. (eds): "The Meaning of Gardens". Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 1990. ISBN 0-262-06127-9
*Rogers, E. B.: "Landscape Design: a Cultural and Architectural History". New York, NY: Harry Abrams, Inc.; 2001. ISBN 0-8109-4253-4

External links

* [http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2000/06/08_eckbo.html Maclay, K. (2000, June 8). Garrett Eckbo, UC Berkeley professor known for inspiring the modern landscape movement,dies at 89.] Retrieved Sep 7, 2004.
* [http://www.unm.edu/~quantum/quantum_2001/eckbo.html Schwenk, K. (2001). "Garrett Eckbo: Pioneer of Modern Landscape". "UNM-Quantum 2001."] Retrieved August 30, 2004.
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/publications/bulletins/suburbs/Treib.pdf Treib, M. (2000). Thomas Church, Garrett Eckbo, and the Postwar California Garden] (PDF file, 49 KB).
* [http://www.ced.berkeley.edu/cedarchives/profiles/eckbo.htm Finding aid to the Garrett Eckbo Collection, Environmental Design Archives, University of California, Berkeley]


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