Pamphylia


Pamphylia

In ancient geography, Pamphylia was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern day Antalya province, Side, Turkey). It was bounded on the north by Pisidia and was therefore a country of small extent, having a coast-line of only about 75 miles with a breadth of about 30 miles. Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.

Origins of the Pamphylians

There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians were the same people, though the former had received colonies from Greece and other lands, and from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, had become more civilized than their neighbours in the interior. But the distinction between the two seems to have been established at an early period. Herodotus, who does not mention the Pisidians, enumerates the Pamphylians among the nations of Asia Minor, while Ephorus mentions them both, correctly including the one among the nations on the coast, the other among those of the interior. The early Pamphylians, like the Lycians, had an alphabet of their own, partly Greek, partly "Asianic," which a few inscriptions on marble and coins preserve. The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by Amphilochus and Calchas after the Trojan War, is merely a characteristic myth. Probably the Pamphylians were of Asiatic origin and mixed ethnicity.

History

The region of Pamphylia first enters history in Hittite documents. In a treaty between the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya IV and his vassal, the king of Tarhuntassa, we read of the city "Parha" (Perge), and the "Kastaraya River" (Classical Kestros River, Turkish Aksu Çayı).

The first historical mention of "Pamphylians" is among the group of nations subdued by the Mermnad kings of Lydia; they afterwards passed in succession under the dominion of the Persian and Hellenistic monarchs. After the defeat of Antiochus III in 190 BC they were included among the provinces annexed by the Romans to the dominions of Eumenes of Pergamum; but somewhat later they joined with the Pisidians and Cilicians in piratical ravages, and Side became the chief centre and slave mart of these freebooters. Pamphylia was for a short time included in the dominions of Amyntas, king of Galatia, but after his death lapsed into a district of a Roman province. The Pamphilians became largely hellenized in Roman times, and have left magnificent memorials of their civilization at Perga, Aspendos and Side.

As of 1911 the district was largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans, a situation which changed considerably as a result of the disruptions attendant on the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the war between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s.

List of Pamphylians

*Diodorus of Aspendos Pythagorean philosopher (4th c.BC) [ [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1021.html] [http://books.google.com/books?id=9awAYifECXcC&pg=PA287&dq=Diodoros+of+Aspendos&sig=mqIS2fWsWk1cD1yndZN1_Y5ZHl4] ]
*Apollonius of Perga astronomer, mathematician (ca. 262 BC–ca. 190 BC)
*Artemidorus of Perga proxenos in Oropos (ca. 240-180 BC) [Epigr. tou Oropou 148 ]
*Aetos (son of Apollonius) from Aspendos ,Ptolemaic commander,founder of Arsinoe (Cilicia)(~238 BC) [SEG 39:1426 - The Hellenistic Monarchies: Selected Papers [http://books.google.com/books?id=DC0QP77vIP4C&pg=PA264&dq=Aetos++Aspendos&sig=_TkPUKL8SuVEwkkZLgILPDUXcFs Page 264] By Christian Habicht ISBN 0472111094]
*Mnaseas (son of Artemon) from Side (sculptor) end 3rd BC [IK Side I 1]
*Orestas (son of Erymneus) from Aspendos proxenos in Dreros (Crete) (end 3rd-beg. 2nd BC) [BCH 1936:280,1 ]
*Thymilus of Aspendos, stadion race Olympics 176 BC
*Apollonios (son of Koiranos) proxenos in Lappa (Crete)(1st half 2nd BC) [SEG 23:573]
*Asclepiades (son of Myron) from Perga physician honoured by the demos of Seleucia (Pamphylia) [Epigr.Anat. 11:104,5]
*Menodora (daughter of Megacles) from Sillyon magistrate and benefactor (ca.2th c. AD) [Images of Women in Antiquity [http://books.google.com/books?id=96g-d90oDpwC&pg=PA223&dq=of+Sillyon&sig=RXGEJQLOfYhiW3RaKYLHi8BO5X4 Page 223] By Averil Cameron, Amélie Kuhrt ISBN 0415090954]
*Apollonius of Aspendos poet (2nd/early 3rd c. AD) [IG VII 1773 - The Context of Ancient Drama [http://books.google.com/books?id=3DGXKt0IpIMC&pg=PA192&dq=Apollonios++of+Aspendos&sig=AQry3iFBWyFfDfq10HL3fvAUOuU#PPA192,M1 Page 192] By Eric Csapo, William J. Slater ISBN 0472082752]
*Saint Matrona of Perge (late 5th, early 6th c.AD)

See also

* Perga
* Myth of Er
* Pamphylian Greek
* Antalya
* Side

Notes

External links

* [http://www.livius.org/paa-pam/pamphylia/pamphylia.html Livius.org: Pamphylia]


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