Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos (286 BC–246 BC), was a king of the
Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdomwho reigned 261 BC–246 BC). He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soterin the winter of 262-61 BC. He was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
He inherited a state of war with
Egypt, the "Second Syrian War", which was fought along the coasts of Asia Minor, and the constant intrigues of petty despots and restless city-states in Asia Minor. Antiochus also made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace. During the war he was given the title "Theos" ("God" in Greek), being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. [ Appianus, "Syriaca", 65.]
During the time Antiochus was occupied with the war against Egypt, Andragoras, his satrap in
Parthia, proclaimed independence. According to Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus, in Bactria, his satrap Diodotus also revolted in 255 BC, and founded the Greco-Bactriankingdom, which further expanded in India in 180 BC to form the Greco-Indiankingdom (180 BC–1 BC). Then about 238 BC, Arsaces led a revolt of the Parthians against Andragoras, leading to the foundation of the Parthian Empire. These events would have cut off communications with India.
About this time, Antiochus made peace with
Ptolemy II of Egypt, ending the Second Syrian War. Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice and exiled her to Ephesus. To seal the treaty, he married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice and received an enormous dowry.
During her stay in Ephesus, Laodice continued numerous intrigues to become queen again. By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and her infant son in
Antiochto live again with Laodice in Asia Minor. Laodice took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and her infant son.
She then proclaimed her own son
Seleucus II Callinicusking. Phylarchus[In "Athenaeum" x.438c, also in Aelian, "Various Histories, ii.41.] relays current scandals regarding his drunken banquets and liaisons with unsuitable young men.
Relations with India
Antiochus is mentionned [Jarl Charpentier, "Antiochus, King of the Yavanas" "Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London" 6.2 (1931:303-321) argues that the Antiochus mentioned was unlikely to be Antiochus II, during whose time relations with India were broken by the Parthian intrusion and the independence of Diodotus in Bactria, and suggests instead the half-Iranian
Antiochus I, with stronger connections in the East.] in the Edicts of Ashoka, as one of the recipients of the Indian Emperor Ashoka's Buddhist proselytizing, although no Western historical record of this event remains::"And even this conquest [preaching Buddhism] has been won by the Beloved of the Gods here and in all the borderlands, as far as six hundred yojanas (5,400-9,600 km) away, where Antiochos, king of the Yavanas [Westerners] rules, and beyond this Antiochus four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule," [Translation of Jarl Charpentier 1931:303-321.] .
Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of
herbal medicine, for men and animals, in the territories of the Hellenistic kings::"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparniand where the Greek king Antiochos rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals." [ Edicts of Ashoka, 2nd Rock Edict.]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Antiochus II Theos — ▪ Seleucid king born c. 287 BC died 246 king of the Seleucid dominions in the Middle East, who succeeded his father, Antiochus I, in 261 BC and spent much of his reign at war with Egypt, recovering much territory in Anatolia. Finding… … Universalium
Antiochus I Theos of Commagene — Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Greek: о Αντίοχος Θεός Δίκαιος Επιφανής Φιλορωμαίος Φιλέλλην, c. 86 BC 38 BC, ruled 70 BC 38 BC) also known as Antiochus I Theos of Commagene or Antiochus I, was a king of Commagene… … Wikipedia
Antiochus Theos — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Antiochos et Theos. Antiochus Theos, serrant la main d Héraclès, British Mus … Wikipédia en Français
Antiochus — is the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid Empire:*Antiochus I Soter *Antiochus II Theos *Antiochus III the Great *Antiochus IV Epiphanes *Antiochus V Eupator *Antiochus VI Dionysus *Antiochus VII Sidetes *Antiochus VIII Grypus *Antiochus IX… … Wikipedia
Antiochus Theos — may refer to:* Antiochus II Theos, the third king of the Seleucid Empire * Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, an important king of Commagene … Wikipedia
ANTIOCHUS° — ANTIOCHUS°, name of 13 Seleucid monarchs who ruled Syria for the greater part of two and a half centuries. They include: (1) ANTIOCHUS I SOTER (b. 324 B.C.E.), son of Seleucus I Nicator, ruled from 281 to 261. Although unsuccessful in his attempt … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Antiochus VIII Grypus — Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus (hook nose), ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was son of Demetrius II Nicator. Either he or his half brother Antiochus IX Cyzicenus is probably identical with the ephemeral… … Wikipedia
Antiochus I Soter — (unknown 261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 BC 261 BC. LifeAntiochus I was half Persian, his mother Apama being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in… … Wikipedia
Antiochus IV of Commagene — Gaius Julius Antiochus IV Epiphanes, also known as Antiochus IV Epiphanes or Antiochus IV of Commagene, (Greek:ο Γαίος Ιούλιος Αντίοχος Επιφανής, before 17 sometime after 72) was the last king of Commagene who reigned between 38 72. Antiochus was … Wikipedia
Antiochus — The name of several rulers of the Greek Seleucid Empire, which controlled Mesopotamia for about a century following the wars of the Successors of Alexander the Great. Antiochus I Soter (reigned 281 260 b.c.) was the son of the kingdom s… … Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary