Rudy Giuliani presidential campaign, 2008

Infobox U.S. federal election campaign, 2008
committee = Rudy Giuliani for President 2008

campaign = U.S. presidential election, 2008
candidate = Rudy Giuliani
Mayor of New York City 1994–2001
cand_id = P00003251
fec_date = 2007-12-31
status = Withdrawn
affiliation = Republican Party
headquarters = New York, New York
key_people = Mike DuHaime (Manager)
Pat Oxford (Chairman)
Tony Carbonetti (Chief Political Advisor)
Mark Campbell (Political Director)
Katie Levinson (Communications Director)
Chris Henick (Senior Advisor)
receipts = 60.9
slogan = Tested · Ready · Now
homepage = []

Rudy Giuliani’s 2008 presidential campaign began in October 2005 when the “Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc” organization was formed. The committee filed papers with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) on November 22, 2006. On February 5, 2007, Giuliani officially entered the 2008 U.S. presidential election by filing a "statement of candidacy" with the FEC. [ [] BBC article]

As the 2008 Republican presidential nomination field first formed, Senator John McCain was viewed as the front-runner. However, Giuliani held a lead in the nationwide polls by January 2007. [ [ Post-ABC Poll: Clinton, Giuliani Lead Primary Fields - The Fix ] ] McCain's candidacy faltered, and throughout 2007 Giuliani maintained his lead in both national poll numbers and in fundraising. Political observers predicted that Giuliani's position would fall, either due to Republican base voters discovering his liberal positions on some social issues, his personality or management style leading to campaign blunders, or former Senator Fred Thompson entering the race. Giuliani did not campaign actively in the early voting states, focusing instead on surviving those smaller early states. He campaigned in Florida throughout the primary season, hoping that a win in the primary there on January 29, 2008, would give him enough momentum to win the large primaries on Super Duper Tuesday(February 5),such as Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Illinois, and California,cite news | url= | author=Brian C. Mooney | title=Giuliani loses ground in some polls | publisher=Boston Globe | date=2007-12-09 | accessdate=2007-12-09] , where he had already campaigned heavily.

After finishing third in Florida's primary, Giuliani's campaign indicated he would withdraw from the race following this poor showing. [ [ Giuliani in trouble as Florida votes | Top News | Reuters ] ] [ [ Giuliani Hints Loss In Fla. May End Run, GOP Candidate Says He Expects To Win Tuesday; Polls Show Him Well Behind - CBS News ] ] On January 29, 2008, news agencies announced that Giuliani was withdrawing from the race and endorsing John McCain. [Decision 08: Florida Primary. MSNBC. Broadcast: January 29, 2008.] [ [ Report: Giuliani To Drop Out, Endorse McCain] Associated Press, Jan. 29, 2008]

Pre-announcement events

A draft movement began in late 2005 to get Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. No Italian American had ever been elected president. Throughout 2006, rumors circulated regarding a possible Giuliani campaign, abetted by hints from the former Mayor himself. Over the Independence Day holiday weekend in July 2006, Giuliani declared that he would run for president in 2008 if he could raise sufficient funds. In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program "Larry King Live" that he was indeed running. [ Giuliani 'not confident' war will turn around - ] ] Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc. registered with the FEC in October 2005, becoming the first federal committee formed with the sole purpose of encouraging former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. [By law, Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc. cannot coordinate its activities with the former mayor.Fact|date=January 2008 ] Throughout 2006, various rumors circulated concerning a Giuliani campaign for President [See Robert Novak's July 8, 2006 [ column] ] and Giuliani himself hinted at his intentions. [Giuliani told a Baltimore crowd that he was "seriously considering" a run. [] Also Novak, August 8, 2006. [] ]

On November 13, 2006, Giuliani announced during a leadership conference in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania that he had taken the first step toward a potential 2008 White House bid by forming the Rudy Giuliani Presidential Exploratory Committee, Inc., allowing him to raise money for national travel and for a Presidential campaign. By forming the committee Giuliani was able to travel and gauge support without formally declaring his candidacy, which would subject him to federal fundraising laws.Fact|date=June 2007 The committee filed papers with the FEC on November 22, 2006.

Announcement of candidacy

On February 5, 2007, Giuliani officially entered the race for the 2008 US presidential election by filing a "statement of candidacy" with the Federal Election Commission. [ [ BBC NEWS | Americas | Giuliani joins race for president ] ]

On February 14, 2007, Rudy Giuliani firmly stated on "Larry King Live": "Yes, I'm running."

Campaign developments 2007

ummer 2007: The campaign heats up

On June 11, 2007, Giuliani released "Twelve Commitments to the American People" that he wants to accomplish if he is elected President; [cite web | url= | title=Rudy Giuliani Unveils Twelve Commitments to the American People | | date=2007-06-11 | accessdate=2007-11-10] these were intended to become the centerpieces of his campaign. Two days later, he released an expanded version of the twelve commitments, with more detailed goals for each one. [cite web | url= | title=Presidential Commitments: What you’ll get from a President Giuliani | author=Rudy Giuliani | publisher=National Review Online | date=2007-06-13 | accessdate=2007-11-10]

Jake Tapper of ABC News described them as a "a laundry list of generally conservative positions on fiscal discipline, tax-cutting and anti-terrorism plans." [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani's Commitments to America | author=Jake Tapper, Jan Simmonds | publisher=ABC News | date=2007-06-12 | accessdate=2007-11-06]

In June 2007, Giuliani drew some criticism for dropping out of the August Iowa Straw Poll." [ McCain, Giuliani skip Iowa straw poll] ". "The Des Moines Register", June 7, 2007.] Some Republican officials felt the move could be seen as "dissing Iowa." In response, a man in a chicken suit, known as the Iowa Chicken, began demonstrating at Giuliani's appearances in Iowa." [ Chickens, bunnies, felons and other candidate stalkers] ". "Scripps News", June 2007] .] cite web|url=|title=ALL-POINTS BULLETIN|accessdate=2007-06-21] Despite this, Giuliani maintained that he was still planning on competing in the Iowa Caucus." [ Giuliani dismisses idea skipping Straw Poll hurts his Caucus chances] ". "Radio Iowa News", June 20, 2007.] Some political observers have opined that the Straw Poll results are bought by campaigns.

Polls taken in June showed that Giuliani's Iowa support had dropped slightly from the mid-20s to 15% - though this may have been due to the exposure of Fred Thompson rather than his dropping out of the Iowa Straw Poll." [ McCain not worried about latest poll numbers] ". "CNN", June 21, 2007.] Failed verification|date=August 2008 The same month, a poll of New York voters revealed that a majority of New York City voters disapproved of him, while Giuliani's favorable rating among New York Republicans was 76%. [ [ - Giuliani lagging with home crowd ] ]

In July, the Associated Press reported that Giuliani was focusing his time on more populated states with more delegates, such as California and Florida, rather than primary battleground states like Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina. Indeed Sam Brownback, a lower-tier candidate had more staff in Iowa than Giuliani did. Some political analysts called it a risky strategy that had never been attempted before by a Republican presidential candidate." [;_ylt=AqRkob2EgOFAWGY3fOYgI3oGw_IE Analysis: Giuliani's unorthodox campaign] ". "Associated Press", July 9, 2007.] On August 11, 2007 the Ames Straw Poll was held. Mitt Romney led with 31.6 percent; Thompson received 1.4 percent; Giuliani received 1.3 percent.cite web| title=Mitt Romney Wins Straw Poll | url= | publisher="KCCI" | date=2007-08-12 | accessdate=2007-08-12]

Giuliani unveiled his health care plan on July 31, 2007 which proposed a tax deduction ("not" a tax credit) [cite news |date=2007-10-28 |title=Flawed health-care plans |publisher="The Washington Times"|url=] of up to $15,000 for families and up to $7,500 for individuals who purchase private individual health insurance policies. [cite web |date=2007-07-31 |title=Number 7. I will give Americans more control over and access to health care with affordable and portable free-market solutions |work=Rudy's 12 Commitments | |url=
cite web |date=2007-07-31 |title=Exerpts from Mayor Giuliani's Town Hall Meeting in Rochester, NH, July 31, 2007 | |url=
cite news |author=Harwood, John |date=2007-07-31 |title=Giuliani to Pitch Health-Insurance Tax Break |publisher="The Wall Street Journal" |page=A12
cite news |author=Steinhauser, Paul |date=2007-07-31 |title=Giuliani attacks Democratic health plans as 'socialist' |publisher="CNN" |url=
cite news |author=Ramer, Holly |date=2007-07-31 |title=Giuliani Offers Health Care Plan |publisher="The Washington Post" |url=
cite news |author=Santora, Marc |date=2007-08-01 |title=Giuliani Seeks to Transform U.S. Health Care Coverage |publisher="The New York Times" |url=
cite news |author=Gordon, Craig |date=2007-08-01 |title=Giuliani unveils health plan, but uninsured left out |publisher="Newsday" |url=,0,3215021.story
] Giuliani wrote about his plan on August 3, 2007 in an article to the "Boston Globe". In it he stated that taxes should not be raised to provide more health care but instead lowered for "individual empowerment". He talked about the creation of a tax-free Health Savings Account that would allow individuals and small businesses to stock up on health insurance and in effect lower rates. [ [ A free-market cure for US healthcare system - The Boston Globe ] ]

eptember 2007: Frontrunner status

In early September 2007 Giuliani addressed a convention of troopers in Portland, Maine stating that he would create programs in the mold of COMPSTAT which he developed as mayor, to fight terrorism and promote border security, calling the programs TerrorSTAT and BorderSTAT. Giuliani also stated that he supported a ID card system for the government to keep track of information on immigrants to help eliminate illegal immigration and crime. He touted his experience in law enforcement stating, "I don't think there's been a president since Teddy Roosevelt that's had as much experience with policing as I've had." [ [ Giuliani delivers law-and-order message to troopers convention - ] ]

Giuliani wrote an [ essay] speaking about the need for changes in the State Department and a "revolution in diplomatic affairs". The essay entitled "Toward a Realistic Peace" recognizes the need for a return to the policies of the Eisenhower Administration, praising it as the last coherent policy-making and policy-executing system in Washington. The essay criticizes the Clinton Administration stating,"We have responded forcefully to the Terrorists' War on Us, abandoning a decade long — and counterproductive — strategy of defensive reaction in favor of a vigorous offense." Giuliani stresses that diplomacy should be an important facet of foreign policy but cannot be overused. [ ]

On September 21, 2007, numerous news agencies reported on Giuliani's interruption by, presumably, his wife during a publicized National Rifle Association speech. [ cite web
work=CNN Political Ticker
title=When Judith calls, Rudy answers
author=Mooney, Alexander
coauthors=Brusk, Steve
] [cite web
title=Rudy's Speech to the NRA
work=MSNBC First Read
] [cite video
location=NRA Convention in Washington DC
people=Rudy Giuliani (orator)
title=Giuliani Takes Phone Call From Wife During NRA Speech"

Shortly thereafter a vast array of Internet blogs criticized the call as being a phony political gimmick. A source from within Giuliani's camp said, "what you saw today was a candidate in a spontaneous moment on the campaign trail." [cite web
publisher=Associated Press
title=Rudy Giuliani Interrupts Speech to Take Wife's Phone Call
quote=What you saw today was a candidate in a spontaneous moment on the campaign trail
] While Jeff Barker, a campaign spokesman confirmed, "the call was not planned." [cite web
publisher=The Associated Press
work=The Boston Globe
title=During big speech, Giuliani answers the call of the wife
quote=The call was not planned

The official stance from Giuliani is not yet concrete, as during the same day Mitt Romney's political camp revealed a prior video wherein June, he had again left his cell phone on and received another call from his wife. [cite video
title=Rudy's June phone interruption

According to the Wall Street Journal editorial page, Giuliani has taken approximately 40 calls during speeches. [cite web
url =
title = Rude Giuliani
work=WSJ Opinion Journal

November 2007: Giuliani under attack

On November 9, 2007, Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to several top positions during his mayoralty, brought in as a partner at Giuliani Partners, and recommended for Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges.cite news | url= | title=A Defiant Kerik Vows to Battle U.S. Indictment | author=RUSS BUETTNER and WILLIAM K. RASHBAUM | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-11-10 | accessdate=2007-11-10] Due to questions about Giuliani's judgement in promoting Kerik's career, "The New York Times" said that the forthcoming legal proceedings could "cast a shadow" on Giuliani's presidential campaign, while "The Washington Post" said the indictment "was expected to provide an opening for political rivals" of Giuliani.cite news | url= | title=McCain Takes Aim at Kerik - and Giuliani | author=Alec MacGillis | publisher=The Washington Post | date=2007-11-09 | accessdate=2007-11-10] Giuliani said that "I made a mistake of not clearing him effectively enough. I take the responsibility for that," and defended Kerik's performance in the city positions he had held. Giuliani also declined to say whether he might one day issue a presidential pardon for Kerik. [cite news | url= | title= Rudy Giuliani won't say if he'd pardon Kerik as President | publisher=New York Daily News | author=Mary Rae Bragg, David Saltonstall | date=2007-11-09 | accessdate=2007-11-09]

By late November 2007, there were consistent attacks, sometimes personal, between Giuliani and fellow Republican contender Mitt Romney.cite news | url= | title= Attacks get personal between Romney, Giuliani | | date=2007-11-26 | accessdate=2007-11-27] The tension between them was increased by Romney's lead in polling in the early caucus and primary states of Iowa and New Hampshire, while Giuliani continued to lead in national polls. [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani vs. Romney: The Cronyism Narrative vs. The Authenticity Narrative | author=Byron York | publisher=National Review Online | date=2007-11-26 | accessdate=2007-11-27] The two traded charges on past appointments, with Giuliani questioning Romney's appointment of a Massachusetts judge who allowed the release without bail of a convicted killer who was subsequently charged in another murder. Romney responded that Giuliani was "throwing stones from a glass house" in light of the Kerik indictment. The two also sparred over the immigration issue during a November 28 debate.

In late November 2007, "The Politico" reported that while Mayor of New York in 1999 and 2000, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair, in The Hamptons.cite news | url= | title=Giuliani billed obscure agencies for trips | author=Ben Smith | publisher=The Politico | date=2007-11-30 | accessdate=2007-12-06] Giuliani denied that he or his administration had done anything improper, and called the charges a "political hit job". [cite news | title=Rudy calls report on Hamptons security 'a hit job' | url=,0,3083945.story | author=Tom Brune, Craig Gordon | publisher=Newsday | date=2007-11-29 | accessdate=2007-12-06] Questions continued in the press not over his need for the security, but over the appearance of trying to hide the expenses in the city budget, which Giuliani aides eventually said was due to vendor payment efficiencies.cite news | url= | title=Queasy Giuliani Faithful Ask For Truth On Trips | author=Jason Horowitz | publisher=The New York Observer | date=2007-12-04 | accessdate=2007-12-06] Shortly thereafter, the "New York Daily News" reported another angle on the story, stating that Giuliani had ordered police department protection and chauffering services for Nathan in early 2000, before her relationship with him had even become public.cite news | author=Michael Saul, Heidi Evans, and David Saltonstall | title=Mayor's Gal Got Security Earlier than We Knew | url= | publisher=New York Daily News | date=December 7, 2007 | accessdate=2007-12-07]

During late November and early December 2007, several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani's consultancy firm, Giuliani Partners, and his law firm, Bracewell & Giuliani.cite news | url=,0,6737667.story | title=Rudy no CEO,POLITICS,CANDIDATE,CAIMPAIGN,PRESIDENTlonger firm CEO | author=Tom Brune | publisher=Newsday | date=2007-12-05 | accessdate=2007-12-06] The "Village Voice" and others reported that Giuliani Partners had been given contracts from the Qatar Ministry of the Interior for security advice and consulting since 2005, and these contracts had been overseen by then-Minister of Religious Affairs Abdullah Bin Khalid Al-Thani,cite web |url=,barrett,78478,6.html/1 |title=Rudy's Ties to a Terror Sheikh | author=Wayne Barrett |publisher=Village Voice |date=2007-11-27 |accessdate=2007-11-28] cite news | url= | title=Giuliani's Ties to Qatar Raise Questions for Mr. 9/ll | author=Marcus Baram | publisher=ABC News | date=2007-11-29 | accessdate=2007-12-09] a member of Qatar's royal family who is considered sympathetic to Al Qaeda and who had sheltered future September 11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed from the FBI in 1996. [Russ Buettner, "New York Times," March 15, 2007] [Anthony Cordesman, "Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the Uae: Challenges of Security"] The "New York Times" reported that Bracewell & Giuliani had lobbied for an Ethiopian political faction opposing its government and in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani’s Firm Lobbied for Bill Considered Threat | author=ERIC LIPTON and RUSS BUETTNER | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-04 | accessdate=2007-12-09] In fact, Giuliani had already stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners in June 2007, although this action was not disclosed publicly. On December 4, 2007, in the wake of the latest attention to the firm's client base, Giuliani Partners announced the stepping down,cite news |author=Associated Press |authorlink=Associated Press |title=Giuliani resigns as head of firm, calls his work there 'totally legal' |url= |work=The Boston Globe |publisher=The New York Times Company |date=2007-12-05 |accessdate=2007-12-06 ] with Giuliani defending his work there, saying, "Everything I did at Giuliani Partners was totally legal, totally ethical. There's nothing for me to explain about. We acted honorably, decently." Giuliani maintained his equity interest in the firm..

The Nathan security billing and Giuliani client base stories dominated Giuliani's press coverage for much of a week and coincided with a significant drop in his national poll figures and a worsening of his fortunes in the first caucus and primary states. The "The Wall Street Journal" stated that "These are perilous times for Rudy Giuliani."cite news | | title=How Giuliani's Slide in Polls Could Undermine His Plan | publisher=The Wall Street Journal | date=2007-12-06 | accessdate=2007-12-09] In a lengthy interview on the nationally-televised "Meet the Press", Giuliani defended the security detail decisions, saying they were warranted by threat assessments at the time, and defended his refusal to release a full Giuliani Partners client list, saying every client of significance had already been pointed out in the press. [cite news | url= | title= Giuliani defends questionable expenses | author=Hope Yen | publisher=Associated Press for Yahoo! News | date=2007-12-09 | accessdate=2007-12-09] Within a month after the original Nathan report, an investigation of city records by "The New York Times" revealed that the billing of mayoral travel-related expenses to obscure city agencies had started two years before the Nathan visits began, and totaled a hundred times more than what was spent for the Nathan visits, thus strongly suggesting that the Nathan visits "had nothing to do with any accounting legerdemain." [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani's shifted money around? Yes. To hide Hamptons trips? Unlikely. | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-20 | accessdate=2007-12-26] Nevertheless the political damage had been done.

December 2007: A strategy in peril

By mid-December 2007, Giuliani was keeping to his strategy of campaigning in big states such as New York, New Jersey, Florida, California, Illinois, Missouri, and other Super Duper Tuesday states, while the other contenders focused on the earlier states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina.cite news | url= | title=Giuliani Has Decided to Zag While the Other Candidates Zig | author=Michael Cooper, Marjorie Connelly | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-20 | accessdate=2007-12-21] However, the strategy was now seen as at risk.cite news | url= | title=Hospital health scare latest of Giuliani's woes | publisher=Agence France-Press | date=2007-12-20 | accessdate=2007-12-21] Not only were his poll numbers in the early states falling — despite an attempt for a while to boost his standing in New Hampshire with $3 million of radio and television advertising, which ended up not having any effectcite news | url= | title=Giuliani Hits a Rocky Stretch as Voting Approaches | author=Adam Nagourney | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-24 | accessdate=2007-12-24] — but he had lost his national lead and had fallen into statistical ties with Mike Huckabee. Most dangerously, his lead in Florida, the first state that he planned to heavily contest, was dwindling as well. [cite news | url= | title=New Poll Shows Clinton Solid in Florida; Rudy Shrinking | author=John Kennedy | publisher=Orlando Sentinel | date=2007-12-20 | accessdate=2007-12-21] Furthermore, changes in Giuliani's campaign messaging went largely unnoticed by the press, given that they were focused on Iowa and New Hampshire developments. Giuliani's woes were further symbolized when he got sick with flu-like symptoms during a campaign flight and was admitted overnight to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri as a precaution. [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani Treated for Flu Symptoms | author=Michael Cooper, Graham Bowley | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-21 | accessdate=2007-12-21] Giuliani resumed limited campaigning in subsequent days; the campaign would not give precise details of tests done; [cite news | url= | title= Giuliani: 'I'm in very good health' after hospital stay | author=Rebecca Sinderbrand | | date=2007-12-22 | accessdate=2007-12-23] Giuliani then stated it had been a "terrible headache", not flu, and a full medical report would be given after Christmas; [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani's Doctor t... | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-12-23 | accessdate=2007-12-23] but the health question had become an ongoing campaign story. Giuliani did indeed get a clean bill of health from his doctor on the day after Christmas, [cite news | title=Giuliani's doctor says his health is good | url= | publisher=Reuters | date=2007-12-26 | accessdate=2007-12-27] but again a minor amount of political damage had been done.

Giuliani's voter appeal continued to be hurt by the previous month's stories about his personal and business life, as well as the reduced level of civil strife in Iraq undercutting his security-based campaign messages. When the close proximity of the first contests to the holidays led to many candidates putting out Christmas videos — allowing them to keep presenting their message but in a more appropriate settingcite news | url= | title=Politics, Now Wrapped In Holiday Cheer | author=Brian Montopoli | publisher=CBS News | date=2007-12-21 | accessdate=2007-12-26] — Giuliani chose two videos which combined his policy goals with humorous asides with Santa Claus regarding fruit cakes as gifts or the vain hope that "all the presidential candidates can just get along."

Caucuses and primaries 2008

Iowa and New Hampshire

In the January 3 Iowa Republican caucus, in which Giuliani essentially did not compete, [cite news | url= | title=Giuliani vows to fight on after bad Iowa showing | publisher=Agence France-Press | date=2008-01-04 | accessdate=2008-01-04] he finished a distant sixth out of seven candidates with 4 percent of the vote.cite news | url= | title=Election Center 2008: Primary Results for Iowa | | date=2008-01-04 | accessdate=2008-01-04] He had been second in polls in the state as late as early October.cite news | url= | title=Has Rudy Blown It? | author=Byron York | publisher=National Review Online | date=2008-01-25 | accessdate=2008-01-25]

Giuliani did compete, off and on, in the January 8 New Hampshire primary,cite news | url= | author=Jake Tapper, Karen Travers | title=Rudy Focused on N.H., Despite Claims | publisher=ABC News | date=2008-01-08 | accessdate=2008-01-09] making the second most appearances there of any Republican after Mitt Romney and spending the third most money there after Romney and John McCain. He had been second in the polls in the state as late as the start of December, but finished fourth in the primary with 9 percent of the vote, far behind McCain and Romney and trailing as well third-place finisher Mike Huckabee. [cite news | url= | title=Election Center 2008: Primary Results for New Hampshire | publisher=CNN | date=2008-01-09 | accessdate=2008-01-09]

Giuliani continued to maintain that his strategy of focusing on later, larger primaries would result in his winning the nomination. Before the New Hampshire votes had been counted, Giuliani's campaign moved to Florida in preparation for the state's January 29 primary. "I want you to come join us there and help us," he said. "And help us in Connecticut. Help us in New York. Help us in New Jersey."Holly Ramer, [ Giuliani Focuses on Florida After Loss] Associated Press, Jan. 8, 2008]

Michigan, Nevada, South Carolina

Meanwhile, Giuliani's results in the early primaries and caucuses were very low: sixth place with 3% of the vote in the Michigan primary [ [ Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from ] ] (where he had leading in polls as recently as mid-December), sixth place with 4% of the vote in the Nevada caucuses, [ [ Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from ] ] and sixth place with 2% of the vote in the South Carolina primary [ [ Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from ] ] (where he had been tied for the lead in polls as late as mid-December).


Giuliani said on January 8 that Florida was "real important" to the campaign, and that they would put "almost everything" into Florida. Several senior staffers in the campaign went without their January paychecks in order to assure that more funds could be spent in the state. [ [ Giuliani Staffers Forgo Paychecks] Associated Press, Jan. 11, 2008] A January 14, 2008 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that Giuliani, Mike Huckabee, John McCain and Mitt Romney were all tied within the margin of error [ [ Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election ] ] On January 23, 2008 the Miami-Herald reported that Giuliani's Florida support was in "freefall" as polls showed him fighting Huckabee (who was only campaigning part-time in the state) for third place, well behind front-runners McCain and Romney. [ [ Poll: Giuliani slips to third in Florida] , Miami Herald, Jan. 23, 2008] By a January 24, 2008 poll, Giuliani was in third place in Florida with 20% of the vote, compared to 23% for John McCain and 27% for Mitt Romney.

Another blow to Giuliani was the late endorsements for McCain of Florida Senator and former Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mel Martinez on January 25cite news | url= | title=Florida Gov. Crist Endorses McCain | author=Chris Cillizza | work=The Washington Post | date=2008-01-26 | accessdate=2008-01-27] and the highly popular Governor of Florida, Charlie Crist, on January 26. Crist had planned to endorse Giuliani in the early autumn,cite news | url= | title=Rudy Camp Shaken by Crist News | author=Matthew E. Berger | | date=2008-01-26 | accessdate=2008-01-27] and had still been expected to do so in early January.cite news | url=,0,1842002.story | title=Giuliani vague about post-Fla. campaign plans | author=Tom Brune | work=Newsday | date=2008-01-26 | accessdate=2008-01-27] The Giuliani camp was "visibly upset" by Crist's endorsement of McCain. Whereas previously Giuliani had declared that he would campaign on regardless of the Florida results, he now was more vague. By the day before the Florida vote, a new Quinnipiac University final poll showed Giuliani's slide continuing down to 14 percent, 18 points behind McCain. [cite news | url= | title=Election-eve: McCain-Romney tied, Giuliani fades | author=Mark Silva | work=Baltimore Sun | date=2008-01-28 | accessdate=2008-01-28] Giuliani chartered a Boeing 727 to conduct a barnstorming tour of airports: Orlando Sanford International Airport, St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, Southwest Florida International Airport (near Fort Myers), and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport,cite news | url= | title=Less of a Draw, a Subdued Giuliani Stays Upbeat | author=Michael Cooper | work=The New York Times | date=2008-01-29 | accessdate=2008-01-29] cite news | url= | title=Jon Voight, Yes. Deliverance, No. | author=Dana Milbank | publisher="The Washington Post" | date=2008-01-29 | accessdate=2008-02-02] with actor-surrogate Jon Voight along with him, but the crowds for the tarmac rallies usually struggled to reach one hundred. Giuliani's staff handed out gifts to members of the press on the plane, which one reporter said seemed like a "going-away present".cite news | url= | title=A Going-away Gift From Rudy? | author=Matthew E. Berger | | date=2008-01-28 | accessdate=2008-01-28] By that night, it was being reported that Giuliani might quit the race if he failed to pull off a surprise win there. [ [ Campaign chair: Poor Florida showing may doom Giuliani] Dallas News, Jan. 28, 2008] [ [ Breaking News: Rudy Giuliani Hints at Dropping Out] LA Times, Jan. 28, 2008]


Although he hoped to win most of the necessary delegates for the nomination on Super Tuesday, February 5, late January polls by Rasmussen Reports showed that he was in 5th place in California with 11% support [ [ Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election ] ] , and a Rasmussen Reports poll out of New Jersey showed him in 2nd place with 27% support. [ [ Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election ] ] One New Jersey poll had him losing a 32-point lead since October and trailing McCain there. [Michael Powell, [,0,7597756.story McCain, Obama gain in NJ] Newsday, Jan. 15, 2008] Perhaps the biggest concern for Giuliani was the fact that two polls released on January 20 showed McCain with a double-digit lead in Giuliani's home state of New York. [Elisabeth Bumiller, [ G.O.P. Rivals Open Final Assault in Florida] NY Times, Jan. 20, 2008] A Zogby poll showed a close race in New York, but also put McCain ahead. [ [ Zogby New York Poll: McCain Leads Rudy in Giuliani's Home State], Jan. 20, 2008]

Thus, following his Florida defeat, there was no reason to continue on. Giuliani flew cross-country to give his withdrawal announcement on January 30 at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, endorsing McCain at the same time. [ [ Giuliani Abandons Bid, Endorses McCain, At Ronald Reagan Library, Former Mayor Calls McCain "An American Hero" - CBS News ] ]

Giuliani's defeat continued a long tradition of Mayors of New York not succeeding at attempts for higher office. [ [ Political Radar: Koch on Giuliani's Florida Loss: 'The Beast Is Dead' ] ]

Delegate counts

Campaign staff and policy advisors

Giuliani's campaign staff and advisory team has included:
*Chief political advisor: Tony Carbonetti, former Giuliani mayoral chief-of-staff
*Campaign manager: Mike DuHaime, Northeast regional political director for President Bush's 2004 re-election campaign
*Chairman: Pat Oxford, Managing partner for Bracewell & Giuliani
*Communications director: Katie Levinson, Communications director for California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
*Political director: Dr. Mark Campbell, Principal in Campbell & Campbell Campaigns Inc were he worked for George W. Bush, George H. W. Bush, Republican National Committee, National Republican Congressional Committee, and other GOP candidates
*Senior adviser: Chris Henick, former senior political advisor of the Republican National Committee and the White House
*Justice advisory committee chair: Theodore Olson, former United States Solicitor General and attorney for George W. Bush in the case of "Bush v. Gore" [ Election Center 2008: Candidates - Election & Politics News from ] ]
*Senior Foreign Policy Advisory Board: Chairman Charles Hill, Norman Podhoretz, Senator Bob Kasten. [ [ Rudy Giuliani Announces Foreign Policy Team Members] ]
*Health care advisors: [cite web |author=Rudy Giuliani |month=July 29, |year=2007 |title=Rudy Giuliani Campaign Announces Health Care Advisors | |url= |accessdate=2007-11-04] Daniel P. Kessler, Ph.D., J.D., Professor of Management at the Stanford Graduate School of Business and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution; Scott W. Atlas, M.D., Professor of Radiology and Chief of Neuroradiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution; David G. Gratzer, M.D., board-certified Canadian psychiatrist, senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, and according to the late Milton Friedman "a natural-born economist."; Sally C. Pipes, Canadian president and CEO of the Pacific Research Institute, former assistant director of the Fraser Institute, and one of the [ Top 10 Women in the Conservative Movement] ; Donald W. Moran, former Executive Associate Director for Budget and Legislation (1981–1985) at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under David Stockman during the Reagan administration.
*New Hampshire operations: veteran Republican activist Wayne Semprini, former state Republican Party (GOP) Chairman." [ Giuliani Hires Former N.H. GOP Chairman] ". Associated Press, January 29, 2007.]

Giuliani's campaign has faced challenges due to repeated scandals involving political associates and campaign staff. In June 2007 the Giuliani campaign was forced to change its choice for Pennsylvania campaign chair after the media noted the selectee, Pennsylvania GOP National Committeeman Bob Asher, had been convicted of bribery-related charges in 1986. [ [ Pennsylvania Republican, Convicted in ’80s Bribery, Backs Giuliani] NY Times, June 7, 2007] Giuliani's state chairman in South Carolina, state treasurer Thomas Ravenel, was indicted on June 19, 2007 on cocaine distribution charges. Giuliani released a statement saying that Ravenel had stepped down from his position in the Giuliani campaign." [ South Carolina treasurer indicted on cocaine charges] ". "The Associated Press", June 19, 2007.] Ravenel's father, former congressman Arthur Ravenel Jr., replaced his son as state co-chair. The elder Ravenel had previously seen his own share of controversy due to racially inflammatory remarks." [ Rudy's New SC Co-Chair Has History Of "Racially Charged" Remarks] ". "TPM", June 25, 2007.] Ravenel has called the NAACP the "National Association of Retarded People" and once said that his fellow white congressional members operated on "black time" which he characterized as meaning "fashionably late."" [ Rudy's New South Carolina Co-Chair] ". "Observer", June 25, 2007.] In July 2007 it was revealed that U.S. Senator and Giuliani Southern Region campaign chair David Vitter (R - Louisiana) had been associated with an alleged Washington prostitution service. [ [ Senator Apologizes for His Link to 'D.C. Madam'] ABC News, June 10, 2007] ] . Subsequently, a former brothel operator from New Orleans also asserted Senator Vitter had been one her clients. [ [,2933,288868,00.html New Orleans' Madam Says Sen. David Vitter Used Her Brothel], July 11, 2007] Giuliani stated that the allegations were "a personal matter" for Vitter. [ [ Giuliani chooses another winner], July 13, 2007]

In the foreign policy realm, Podhoretz and others drew media attention, because of their Neoconservative roots and calls for the assertive use of American power abroad to spread American values. [ [ Would You Buy a Used Hawk From This Man?] Newsweek Oct. 15, 2007]


May 15 GOP South Carolina debate

At the May 15, 2007, GOP debate Giuliani challenged a statement made by Congressman Ron Paul that the United States' invasive presence in the Middle East over the past decade incited hatred towards the United States among many Middle Easterners and provided terrorists with extra incentive to commit the 9/11 attacks:

PAUL: No, non-intervention was a major contributing factor. Have you ever read about the reasons they attacked us? They attack us because we've been over there. We've been bombing Iraq for ten years. We've been in the Middle East [for years] . I think [Ronald] Reagan was right. We don't understand the irrationality of Middle Eastern politics. Right now, we're building an embassy in Iraq that is bigger than the Vatican. We're building 14 permanent bases. What would we say here if China was doing this in our country or in the Gulf of Mexico? We would be objecting. We need to look at what we do, from the point of view of what it would be like if someone did it to us.

MODERATOR: Are you suggesting we invited the 9/11 Attacks, sir?

PAUL: I'm suggesting that we listen to the people who attacked us and the reason they did it, and they are delighted that we're over there because Osama bin Laden has said, "I'm glad you're over on our sand because we can target you so much easier." They've already now since that time have killed 3,400 of our men, and I don't think it was necessary.

GIULIANI: That's really an extraordinary statement. That's an extraordinary statement, as someone who lived through the attack of September 11, that we invited the attack because we were attacking Iraq. I don't think I've heard that before, and I've heard some pretty absurd explanations for September 11th. And I would ask the congressman to withdraw that comment and tell us that he didn't really mean that.

MODERATOR: Congressman?

PAUL: I believe very sincerely that the CIA is correct when they teach and talk about blowback. When we went into Iran in 1953 and installed the Shah, yes there was blowback. The reaction to that was the taking of our hostages, and that persists. And if we ignore that, we ignore that at our own risk. If we think we can do what we want around the world and not incite hatred, then we have a problem. They don't come here to attack us because we're rich and we're free, they come and attack us because we're over there. I mean what would we think if other foreign countries were doing that to us? [ [ YouTube - Ron Paul Courageously Speaks the Truth ] ]

June 5 GOP New Hampshire debate

At the June 5, 2007 debate in Manchester, New Hampshire, Giuliani began to answer a question related to a comment that a Catholic bishop had made, comparing him to Pontius Pilate for his abortion views, when lightning struck and took out his microphone feed multiple times." [ Giuliani Aide Has Reporter Arrested] ". "WebProNews", June, 2007.] Giuliani joked about the situation stating:

Look, for someone who went to parochial schools all his life, this is a very frightening thing that’s happening right now. (Laughter.)

But the reality is, I respect, you know, the opinion of Catholic — (off mike) — religious leaders of all kinds. Religion is very important to me, it’s a very important part of my life. But ultimately, as a — (off mike) — I’ve been in public life most of my life and taken oaths of office to enforce the law, I’ve got to make the decisions that I think are the right ones in a country like ours.

And my view on abortion is that it’s wrong, but that ultimately government should not be enforcing that decision on a woman. That’s — that is my view that I — I consult my religion, I consult my reading of the Constitution, I consult my views of what I think are important in a pluralistic society, and the reality that we have to respect the fact that there are people that are equally as religious, equally as moral that make a different decision about this. And should government put them in jail? [ [] ]

After the debate, Giuliani's press secretary notified the police about a freelance reporter, Matt Lepacek, a reporter for (a conspiracy theory website that promotes that the government had prior knowledge about 9/11) after he asked the press secretary a question about conspiracy theories of 9/11. The police arrested the reporter on charges of criminal trespassing, though the reporter claims he held a CNN press pass. Lepacek, released on bail, said he was pursuing criminal indictments against Giuliani for the incident." [ Giuliani Aide Has Reporter Arrested] ". "Radar Magazine", June 2007.] Video of the arrest was captured and put on YouTube." [ Infowars' Matt Lepacek arrested after GOP debate] ". "YouTube", June 2007.] [ [ The Raw Story | Reporter arrested after Republican debate ] ]

Media coverage

The May 15 South Carolina debate was sponsored by Fox News. News Corporation, the parent company of Fox News, is a client of the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm. [cite news | url=,4670,GiulianiapossBusinessABRIDGED,00.html | title=Giuliani's Firm Lobbied Government | author=SHARON THEIMER and DEVLIN BARRETT | publisher=Associated Press for | date=2007-05-15 | accessdate=2007-11-10] Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid charged after the debate that this represented a conflict of interest, and that Fox News moderators Chris Wallace and Wendell Goler and post-debate interviewer Sean Hannity failed to ask Giuliani pertinent follow-up questions regarding the Ron Paul exchange about the causes of the September 11 attacks. [cite news | url= | title=Fox News' Pro-Giuliani Conflict of Interest | author=Cliff Kincaid | publisher=Accuracy in Media | date=2007-05-16 | accessdate=2007-11-10]

The charge reflected other observations that Fox News has pro-Giuliani tendencies: Giuliani and Fox News head Roger Ailes have professional and personal connections that go back to the late 1980s,cite news | url= | title=In Fox News, Giuliani Finds a Friendly Stage | author=Russ Buettner | publisher=The New York Times | date=2007-08-02 | accessdate=2007-11-10] a study by "The Hotline" found that Giuliani had spent more time on Fox News interview programs than any other Republican candidate, and Hannity is known in particular to be a Giuliani admirer. However, Fox News anchor Brit Hume stated he had been no directives about coverage of the Giuliani campaign. On November 13, 2007, former publisher Judith Regan, with whom Giuliani appointee and partner Bernard Kerik had had an extramarital affair, filed a $100 million defamation lawsuit against News Corporation, claiming among other things that News Corporation executives told her in 2004 to lie to federal investigators about her relationship with Kerik, in order to protect Giuliani's future presidential campaign. [cite news | url=,0,4904579.story | title=Regan says she was told to lie to protect Giuliani | author=Josh Getlin | publisher=Los Angeles Times | date=2007-11-14 | accessdate=2007-11-14]

An October 29, 2007 study by the Project for Excellence in Journalism and the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy found that Giuliani had received the most media coverage of any of the Republican 2008 presidential candidates, being the subject of 9 percent of all stories (compared to 7 percent for John McCain and 5 percent for Mitt Romney). Giuliani's coverage amount trailed that of Democratic contenders Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama, however. The study found that 28 percent of pertinent stories had a favorable tone towards him, 37 percent had an unfavorable tone, with the balance neutral.cite web | url= | title=A First Look at Coverage of the 2008 Presidential Campaign | publisher=Project for Excellence in Journalism | date=2007-10-29 | accessdate=2007-11-03] This ratio was very close to Clinton's, better than McCain's, and worse than Obama's.

By January 2008, things had changed. Measurements by the University of Navarra indicated that throughout that month, Giuliani's amount of global media attention was a distant fourth among Republican candidates, trailing Huckabee, Romney, and McCain.cite web | url= | title=Republican Candidates Media Attention | author=Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales | publisher=University of Navarra | date=2008-01-29 | accessdate=2008-01-29]


Advertising campaign consultant

Giuliani's campaign has hired Scott Howell & Company, headed by Heath Thompson who as George W. Bush's campaign director in South Carolina in the 2000 election helped the president win the state by eleven points. The company is led by Scott Howell, the same consultant that produced the controversial "Harold, call me" advertisement against Rep. Harold Ford, Jr. that critics deemed racially insensitive but helped Bob Corker win the senate race. The firm has also represented the winning campaigns of John Thune of South Dakota, Norm Coleman of Minnesota, Jim DeMint of South Carolina, Saxby Chambliss of Georgia and Kay Bailey Hutchison of Texas. Also representing the Giuliani camp as consultants are, Chris Mottola and Associates, BrabenderCox and Crossroads Media. ["Giuliani hires new team of media consultants," "CNN Political Ticker" August 23, 2007] [Grant Perry, "Rudy - Call Me," Yahoo News - opinion column, August 25, 2007]

Advertisement issues

He has broadcast campaign advertisements in Iowa and other states, asserting that he “turned a $2.3 billion deficit into a multibillion dollar surplus." As mayor, Giuliani inherited a $2.3 billion deficit from his predecessor, David Dinkins. However, left a $4.8 billion deficit for his successor, Michael Bloomberg. Campaign officials explain that the ads only state that he created a multibillion surplus but not that he left it for his successor. Giuliani's former budget director and deputy mayor Joseph Lhota defended his fiscal policies explaining that Giuliani kept the rate of spending growth below the level of state and federal governments during his eight years in office and focused on cutting taxes, “Prior to Mayor Giuliani, there never was a discussion of lowering taxes in New York.” [Michael Cooper, "Giuliani Boasts of Surplus; Reality Is More Complex," "New York Times," August 25, 2007]

"New York Times" advertisement

The Giuliani campaign paid for an ad in the "New York Times" published September 14, 2007. Its aim was to counter an ad published by the left-wing website the previous day calling General David Petraeus "General Betray Us". Giuliani's ad also attacked Hillary Clinton for not denouncing's ad and questioned her statements about General Petraeus' report to Congress on Iraq. [ [ 'Gen. Betray Us' ad war, day five: Giuliani gets NYT ad; MoveOn accuses Bush of 'betrayal' - On Politics - ] ] Highlighted was the statement made by Clinton about "the willing suspension of disbelief". The ad was completed with a statement by Giuliani saying, "These times call for statesmanship, not politicians spewing political venom." [ [ ] ]

First television advertisement

In late November 2007, Giuliani began airing his first television advertisement, [ In First Ads for Giuliani, a Wild City Is Made Over - New York Times ] ] in key caucus-primary states. Surprinsingly to some observers, it did not mention 9/11 once, but instead concentrated solely on the transformation of New York City under the Giuliani mayoralty. Observers likened the ad to Republican icon Ronald Reagan's famous "Morning in America" ad.


First quarter 2007

According to the Federal Elections Commission Giuliani raised $18,029,974 in the first quarter of 2007, second to Mitt Romney among Republicans and fourth overall. Out of that money he spent only $6,080,239. Among that money he raised the second-most from Wall Street of all presidential candidates, with $1.8 million raised.cite news | url = | title = Giuliani, Once Wall Street Crime Fighter, Seeks Funds (Update1) | first = Catherine | last = Dodge | work = Bloomberg | date= 2007-06-22 | accessdate = 2007-06-26]

econd quarter 2007

In the second quarter, Giuliani revealed that he raised $17 million, first among Republicans and third overall behind Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. [ [] ]

Third quarter 2007

In the third quarter, Giuliani raised $11 million, first among Republicans. Overall he has raised $44 million and has $16 million cash on hand as of October 4, 2007. [ [] Dead link|date=March 2008]

2008 Presidential campaign finance summary

Since the start of his Presidential campaign, Giuliani has raised a total of $45,846,956 for his political campaign. $43,457,397 has come from private donors, $1,850,000 from authorized committee transfers, $259,691 from PACs, and $2,250 from Party Committees. Giuliani's total disbursements amounted to $30,211,662, and a total of $464,004 was reimbursed to individuals. Giuliani also refunded $2,600 to PACs. [cite web | url = | title = Rudy Giuliani Presidential Finance Report | accessdate = 2007-10-18 ]


Rudy Giuliani's presidential campaign has been endorsed by some notable individuals including businessmen, politicians, athletes, and actors.

Notable endorsements

teve Forbes

President and Chief Executive Officer of Forbes, Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine and former perennial Presidential candidate Steve Forbes announced his endorsement of Giuliani on March 27, 2007. He cited the economic platform and leadership of the candidate in his reasoning for support. "I am honored to support Rudy Giuliani for President, As Mayor of New York City, Rudy Giuliani showed how exercising fiscal discipline, including tax cuts, lowers deficits, spurs economic growth, and increases revenue. It is time the rest of the country benefit from a true fiscal conservative leader who gets real results." Forbes was named National Campaign Co-Chair and Senior Advisor for the campaign following his endorsement. [ [ JoinRudy2008 :: Steve Forbes Joins Team Rudy as National Co-Chair and Senior Policy Advisor ] ]

Tommy Thompson

In October 2007, Former Wisconsin Governor, Secretary of Health and Human Services and 2008 presidential candidate Tommy Thompson endorsed Giuliani. Thompson told the Associated Press in a statement that "Rudy Giuliani has shown that he is a true leader. He can and will win the nomination and the presidency. He is America's mayor, and during a period of time of great stress for this country he showed tremendous leadership." Thompson was the first withdrawn Republican presidential candidate and the first member (past or present) of the Bush Administration to make an endorsement in the race. [ ]

Rick Perry

Texas Governor Rick Perry endorsed Giuliani for President of the United States stating that "Rudy Giuliani is the most prepared individual of either party to be the next President...I'm not talkin' about any mayor, I'm talkin' about America's Mayor". [ [ Texas governor Rick Perry endorses Rudy Giuliani ] ] The endorsement fueled speculation that Giuliani would select Perry to be his running mate for Vice President if he won the nomination.Fact|date=August 2008

Pat Robertson

On November 7th, 2007, evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson endorsed Rudy Giuliani for President of the United States at a news conference in Washington D.C. [ [ Pat Robertson Endorses Giuliani, Televangelist Says Former Mayor Is A "Proven Leader" Who Will Cast A "Hopeful Vision" - CBS News ] ] This was viewed by observers as a key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of Giuliani's positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.cite news | url= | title=Pat Robertson endorses Giuliani | publisher=NBC news | date=2007-11-07 | accessdate=2007-11-07] It also showed that support from evangelicals was split among multiple candidates, as withdrawn candidates Sam Brownback had recently endorsed John McCain and prominent figures Bob Jones III and Paul Weyrich had recently endorsed Mitt Romney; as the "Baltimore Sun" noted, "It suggests that Christian conservatives aren't ready to coalesce behind any single candidate and are unable to stop Giuliani from winning the nomination." [cite news | url=,0,2852689.story | title=Evangelist Robertson endorses Giuliani | publisher=Baltimore Sun | date=2007-11-08 | accessdate=2007-11-08] The action was protested by the U.S. Islamic advocacy group CAIR, which said that Robertson had "a clear record of anti-Muslim bigotry" and called on Giuliani to renounce the endorsement. [cite news | url= | title=CAIR Furious over Robertson Giuliani Endorsement | publisher=NewsMax | date=2007-11-07 | accessdate=2007-11-09]

Public perceptions

Poll numbers suggested that Giuliani was the front-runner among other Republican presidential candidates for the party's nomination throughout 2007. His campaign's perception by the public was both negative and positive on issues of the past and present. He focused on trying to woo conservative Republicans and Southerners while keeping favor with moderates. His campaign's major strategy was making the case that he was the best candidate pointing to his leadership of New York City during the September 11, 2001 attacks and his coordination of the emergency response in the immediate aftermath, as well as his track record of success in reducing crime and improving the economy of New York City. The prospect of a Republican candidate with the potential to win New York State's electoral votes would have been a strategic victory for the Republican Party, although the prospect was perhaps less likely with New York Senator Hillary Clinton running on the Democratic ticket.


Early polls showed him with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support and the front-runner in the race for the Republican nomination. [] However in June 2007 a poll of New York voters revealed that Giuliani had less support in his home state than elsewhere, and particularly that a majority of New York City voters disapproved of him. [] However the Associated Press reported that Giuliani did appear to be the favorite candidate of the largest Gay Republican organization, the Log Cabin Republicans, although some within the organization expressed concerns that Giuliani has spoken against civil unions. [ [ - Gay Republicans Gather In Denver For Convention ] ]

Giuliani and the nine other Republican presidential contenders participated in the first MSNBC 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates Debate on May 3, 2007, held at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. In the non-scientific six part MSNBC online vote following the debate, [ [ "Vote on the California Republican Debate" MSNBC] ] Giuliani finished in 3rd place (15%).

Giuliani had emerged as the frontrunner after overtaking John McCain in the polls but with the exposure of Fred Thompson to the field his poll numbers dropped. But even with all this he still maintaied the majority throughout 2007. According to the CBS News Poll taken June 26-28, Giuliani held the lead over Thompson 34% to 21%. [ [ CBS News Poll] ]

As of September 2007, most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only Senator Thompson and Governor Romney showing greater support in some state polls. [ [ WH2008: Republicans ] ] Specifically, state-by-state polls for the 2008 Republican nomination showed that Giuliani polls ahead of all other candidates in a majority of states including the delegate-rich states of California, [Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#California] New York, [Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#New York] and Florida. [Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#Florida]

A CNN/Opinion Research Corp. Poll conducted November 28 found that in the crucial state of Florida 53% of voters found Giuliani to be the best candidate to fight the War on Terrorism. 33% of the Florida voters found Giuliani to be the best to deal with the Iraq conflict and 34% viewed him as the best candidate concerning economic issues. Giuliani leads among primary voters in Florida receiving 38%, leading his closest rival, Mitt Romney by 21%. [ [ Poll: Giuliani a standout on terrorism in Florida voters' minds - ] ]

Perceptions of conservatives

Conservatives have both been highly critical and supportive of Giuliani's campaign. Many like the fact that Giuliani has a record of reducing abortions and pornography while others cannot forgive the fact that Giuliani holds pro-choice positions and have voiced their criticism.

upreme Court philosophy

Giuliani is a Roman Catholic who is pro-choice, supports same-sex civil unions, and embryonic stem cell research. Pro-life groups, such as the Republican National Coalition for Life, have already announced their intention to oppose Giuliani or any other pro-choice candidate, [cite web | title= | url= | accessdate=November 15 | accessyear=2005 ] though evidence suggests that even among these voters, he enjoys some support. [cite web | title=CBS News : Early Signs Point To Giuliani '08 | url= | date=December 10, 2004 | accessdate=2005-11-15 ] This may be due to the fact that Giuliani has pledged to nominate Supreme Court Justices in the mold of John Roberts, Sam Alito, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony Kennedy (all Ronald Reagan appointees, former colleagues of his in the Reagan Justice Department or both). [ [,2933,250497,00.html - He's Ready! Rudy Giuliani Talks with Sean Hannity - Sean Hannity | Alan Colmes | Hannity & Colmes ] ]

Pro-choice stand on abortion

Giuliani has not strayed away from his pro-choice stances, instead remarking that it is better for leaders to make abortion rare and increase the number of adoptions than to criminalize the practice. As mayor, the abortion rate in New York City dropped by 16% in comparison to the 12% drop nationally. Adoptions raised by 133% while Giuliani was mayor. Some social conservatives have accepted this as a reason for their support, contending that Giuliani's position on abortion is the most pragmatic pro-life view ever taken by a candidate on the issue. [ [ Giuliani Proposes New Policies To Ease Adoptions, Reduce Abortions « So-Cons For Rudy Blog ] ]

Giuliani expressed pro-choice positions during election years when he was running for mayor of New York City, (1989 and 1993), and when he was running for a New York State seat in the United States Senate (2000).

*1989: Giuliani said, “There must be public funding for abortion for poor women. We cannot deny any woman the right to make her own decision about abortion because she lacks resources...I have also stated that I disagree with President [George H.W.] Bush's veto last week of public funding for abortions."unsigned sidebar, ”New York Times,” May 10, 2007, A29.] [ [ - Transcripts ] ]
*1993: He addressed a letter to a pro-choice group, National Abortion Rights Action League, saying, New York City “has an obligation to protect the constitutional right of women to choose abortion.” [Alison Mitchell, "City Hall Rivals Stress Abortion In Battle for the Votes of Women," "New York Times," October 10, 1993]
*2000: During his competition with Hillary Clinton for a New York State seat in the United States Senate, he said that he supported then president Bill Clinton’s veto of a law that banned partial birth abortion: “I would vote to preserve the option for women.”
*Giuliani and his second wife, Donna Hanover, gave money to Planned Parenthood at least six times during the 1990s. [ [ Rudy Giuliani flip-flopping on abortion ] ]
*2007: He says that he ran against Hillary Clinton in 2000 for the United States Senate as a pro-choice candidate [ [ Rudy Giuliani on the Issues ]]

Some Catholic archbishops have come forward criticizing Giuliani's views on abortion as not consistent with the teachings of the Catholic church. Catholic bishops had said that 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry should be denied communion, and many believe the same will happen with Giuliani's campaign. “It’s becoming ever more clear that Rudy Giuliani suffers from John Kerry syndrome. It’s just a matter of time before more bishops step up, because he shares the identical position on abortion as John Kerry and Hillary Clinton," said Joseph Cella, president of a Catholic advocacy group in Michigan. [cite news | url = | title = Giuliani’s Views on Abortion Upset Catholic Leaders | work = "The New York Times" | date= 2007-06-25 | accessdate = 2007-06-25]

James Dobson, an influential Christian conservative leader, wrote that he could not fathom Giuliani's stance on the abortion issue and he would not vote for him if he were the Republican presidential nominee. He also cited Giuliani's three marriages and the former mayor's support for civil unions for gays as reasons why he could not support the candidate. Dobson wrote, "I cannot, and will not, vote for Rudy Giuliani in 2008. It is an irrevocable decision."" [ Christian right leader writes off Giuliani] ". CNN, May 18, 2007.]

Concerns about liberalism

George Marlin and other socially conservative Republican activists have expressed concern about whether it is appropriate to nominate Giuliani as the Republican party's standard bearer. They cite Giuliani's history of taking liberal positions and making statements that are consistent with liberals in areas of social policy, particularly as relating to abortion, gay and lesbian rights, gun control, and illegal immigration. [John Hawkins, "Conservative Case Against Rudy Giuliani," "Human Events," August 30, 2006] ["Giuliani Quotes Disturb N.Y. Conservative"] [ [ liberal kansas college travel media at ] ] [George Marlin, compiler of "The Quotable Rudolph Giuliani, as reprinted in "The New York Observer," March 29, 2005] Some national leaders of the Christian right, at a meeting of the Council for National Policy in September 2007, at the Grand America Hotel in Salt Lake City, decided that they would consider supporting a third-party candidate for president if Giuliani were to win the Republican nomination. [cite web| last =Scherer| first =Michael | title =Religious right may blackball Giuliani| publisher| date= September 30, 2007| url=| accessdate = 2007-10-01 ] [Citation| last =Dobson| first =James| author-link =James Dobson | title =The Values Test| newspaper =The New York Times | year =2007| date= October 4, 2007| url =] [ [ Giuliani Inspires Threat of a Third-Party Run - New York Times ] ] Michael Scherer, "Religious Right May Blackball Giuliani,"] The CNP's statement read, "If the Republican Party nominates a pro-abortion candidate, we will consider running a third-party candidate." Attending the meeting were notable social conservatives, including James Dobson, Richard Viguerie, Tony Perkins and Morton Blackwell. "Christian Conservatives Vow To Back Third Party Candidate If Giuliani Wins GOP Nomination," Bismarck, SD CBS affiliate,]

The Council for National Policy is scheduled to have a conference in late October 2007. Most Republican presidential candidates have pledged to appear, with the exception of Giuliani.

However, Giuliani has pointed out that Conservative political pundit George Will wrote near the end of his time as mayor that Giuliani had run the most conservative government in America in the last 50 or 60 years. [ [ Republican Debate Transcript - Election 2008 - Politics - New York Times ] ]

Marriages and relations with family

Giuliani's three marriages, and especially the public circumstances around the dissolution of his marriage with Donna Hanover, bring him criticism from social conservatives. For instance, in March 2007, Richard Land, head of public policy for the highly influential Southern Baptist Convention was quoted as saying that Giuliani's handling of the Hanover divorce only added to his problems with conservative voters:

His first marriage to his second cousin may also be an issue. Similarly, in March 2007, John Lott writing in the "National Review" criticized Giuliani's initiation of New York City's lawsuit against gun makers. [ [ John R. Lott Jr. on Second Amendment & Rudy Giuliani on National Review Online ] ]

At a public appearance in Derry, New Hampshire on August 16, 2007 an audience member, Katherine Prudhomme-O'Brien asked him, " [H] ow you could expect the loyal following of Americans when you are not getting it from your own family?"

Giuliani replied, "I love my family very, very much and will do anything for them.... The best thing I can say is kind of, 'Leave my family alone, just like I'll leave your family alone.' " [Trent Spiner, "Rough day for Rudy" "New Hampshire Union Leader" August 16, 2007]

Questions about religion

Giuliani declined to discuss his religion when asked if he considered himself a "traditional, practicing Roman Catholic" at a town hall meeting in Iowa on August 7, 2007. He believes this is a personal matter and that there shouldn't be a religious test for public office. He would explain further stating: [ [ Giuliani declines to discuss his religion - ] ]

Perceptions of moderates

Moderates expressed a desire to have a candidate who holds fiscally conservative views and expresses social libertarianism. Supporters pointed to his electability. The Giuliani campaign held moderates as their main supporters but as Giuliani tried to woo Conservatives many moderates felt alienated by the campaign.

Giuliani has continued to support President Bush despite his low approval ratings, drawing criticism from moderates. He has said that Bush's legacy will be that of a "great President." []

Perception as a moderate

An August 2006 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that the American public perceives Giuliani overall to be a moderate. Specifically, of those polled, 36% classified him as a moderate, 29% as a conservative, and 15% as a liberal, with the remaining 20% being unsure. []

Electoral college

Giuliani cast himself as the candidate who could beat Hillary Clinton in the general election by being competitive in traditional blue states such as New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. [ [ Both Right: Why Giuliani's the Right Choice ] ] A May 10, 2007 Quinnipiac poll put Giuliani ahead of Hillary Clinton, 48% to 42% in Connecticut. [ [ Connecticut (CT) Poll * May 10, 2007 * Obama Runs Closest To Giuliani - Quinnipiac University ] ] A September 26, 2007 Quinnipiac poll taken in New Jersey gave the mayor a slight lead over Hillary Clinton in the state, 45% to 44%. [ [ New Jersey (NJ) Poll * September 26, 2007 * Clinton, Giuliani Neck And Nec - Quinnipiac University ] ] In more traditionally Republican states, Giuliani did not fare as well. A November 9–11th poll had Clinton and Giuliani tied at 45% in Virginia. [ [ SurveyUSA ] ]

Impact of Giuliani's record

Supporters claim that while Giuliani was mayor of New York he showed that he had an abundance of leadership skills pointing to his actions in the aftermath of the World Trade Center Attacks. In 2002 Giuliani released a book called "Leadership" in which he gave techniques that he used while he was mayor. According to a Gallup Poll taken February 9–11 2007, responders who supported Giuliani were asked why they supported him. The results showed that 13% of supporters did so because of Giuliani's strong leadership and 53% did so because of leadership related topics such as time as mayor and handling of 9/11. [ [] ] Another poll taken by Marist showed that 42% of Giuliani supporters believed that leadership is the most important quality for a candidate, this is compared to 34% of McCain supporters who believed the same. [ [] ] [ [] ]

However Giuliani also has also been criticized by vocal opponents from his mayoral days, homing in on Giuliani's support for the NYPD during the racially-charged cases of Abner Louima and Amadou Diallo and his crackdown on porn shops in Times Square. In November 2006, civil-rights lawyer and frequent Giuliani critic Norman Siegel pledged to "swift boat" the former Mayor by bringing attention to these and other controversies. [ [ Critics to kick Rudy Patootie] on the New York Post accessed at May 18 2007]

Crime record

At the time Giuliani became Mayor, 2,000 murders occurred every year and 11,000 crimes occurred every week in New York City. With Giuliani as the mayor the crime rate dropped by 56% and is now considered one of the safest big cities in the country. Supporters of Giuliani contend that this is evidence of his leadership skills and efficiency. [ [] ] [] ]

Statistics show that between 1993 and 1997 the decrease New York City crime accounted for 25% of the nation's overall crime decrease. [ [ Rudy Giuliani on Crime ]] Giuliani spokeswoman Maria Comella said, "Mayor Giuliani successfully worked to get guns out of the hands of criminals in order to transform a city out of control. By being tough on crime and enforcing the laws on the books, New York City’s murder rate was cut by 66 percent." [ [ JoinRudy2008 :: RUDY GIULIANI: CRIME FIGHTER ] ]

However, the FBI warned against drawing broad conclusions from the decrease in crime. "These rough rankings provide no insight into the numerous variables that mold crime in a particular city. Consequently they lead to simplistic and/or incomplete analyses that often create misleading perceptions."

=Relations with fire fighters' association and families= In an article published by "New York Daily News" in September 2006, Sally Regenhard, mother of a 9/11 Fire Department of New York victim and later activist, was quoted saying, "There's a large and growing number of both FDNY families, FDNY members, former and current, and civilian families who want to expose the true failures of the Giuliani administration when it comes to 9/11," and that she intends to "Swift Boat" Giuliani and his campaign. [Ben Smith, "Rudy's Black Cloud: WTC Health Risks may hurt Prez Bid", "New York Daily News", September 18, 2006, p. 14] In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter accusing Giuliani of "egregious acts" against the 343 firemen who had died in the September 11th attacks. The letter asserted that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill." [] The Giuliani camp stated that the union was politically motivated from tough contract negotiations from Giuliani's second term as mayor and quoted a retired firefighter, Lee Ielphi (a father of 9-11 victim who was called to duty as a firefighter that day), saying "Firefighters have no greater friend and supporter than Rudy Giuliani." The union denied political motivation for the criticism. [cite news | url=|title=Giuliani Faces Questions About Sept. 11|date=2007-03-30|accessdate=2007-07-25|publisher=The Washington Post and The Associated Press]

The IAFF and other unions have argued that work at Ground Zero of the World Trade Center have led first responders at the site to develop Ground Zero illnesses, cancer and sarcoidosis. [ [ Times Online] ] [ [ Trades Union Congress - Risks 274 - 16 September 2006 ] ]

Giuliani declined to appear at the IAFF-sponsored March 14, 2007 forum. [ [ "Rudy a No-Show at Firefighters Conference"] ] The bipartisan presidential forum in Washington, D.C., included ten other major Democratic and Republican candidates for president. [ [ Raw Story] ] []

Firefighters and their families confronted Giuliani with protests at two of four May 28, 2007 fund-raisers on the occasion of his birthday. [ [ Giuliani Confronted At New York Fundraiser - Politics News Story - WNBC | New York ] ] [ [ Giuliani Questioned Over 9/11 At New York Fundraiser ] ] Jim Riches, an official at a firefighters' union and the father of a fallen Ground Zero firefighter, said, "We have all the UFA, the UFOA, and the fire members are all behind us -- the International Association of Fire Fighters.... And we’re going to be out there today to let everybody know that he’s not the hero that he says he is." The unions' complaints focus on the malfunctioning radios used by the fire department on September 11, 2001 and what they claim was a lack of coordination at the Ground Zero site. [ [ 9/11 firefighters protest Giuliani fundraiser | ] ]

He claimed on August 9, 2007 that "I was at Ground Zero as often, if not more, than most workers." This angered some NY Fire and Police personnel. [ [ 9/11 workers outraged by new Rudy claim ] ] [ [,21985,22227731-663,00.html Giuliani in firing line | Herald Sun ] ] A New York Times study a week later found that --while his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks-- he spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days. However Giuliani scaled back in his claims recognizing that he didn't mean to say it exactly as it came out, [Russ Buettner, "For Giuliani, Ground Zero as Linchpin and Thorn," "New York Times," August 17, 2007]

Emphasis on 9/11

Giuliani is best-known for his leadership role during the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks, [ [ 9/11 Image Drives Giuliani's Campaign] ] and his campaign used this image of leadership during crisis to drive his presidential campaign. Because of this, however, he was sometimes criticized and often parodied for over-emphasizing the importance of 9/11 and terrorism-related issues while campaigning. Democratic vice presidential nominee Joe Biden famously remarked of Giuliani, "There's only three things he mentions in a sentence -- a noun, a verb, and 9/11." [cite web|url=|title='A noun, a verb and 9/11'|author=Joelle Farrell|publisher=Concord Monitor and New Hampshire Patriot|accessdate=2008-09-06] , and Comedy Central's The Daily Show had a recurring animation with an anthropomorphized "9" and "11" that played when lampooning the former mayor's 9/11 use. A BBC associate said, "Mr Giuliani's appeal as the man who led New York through the terrorist attacks is occasionally over-emphasised in his campaign."

The coordinated grassroots campaign "$9.11 for Rudy" attempted to solicit $9.11 in the form of donations. One of their supporters, Abraham Sofaer, attempted to hold a fundraiser for Giuliani during the "National House Party Night", which drew criticism.cite web |url=
title=Is Giuliani Exploiting 9/11 With $9.11 Fundraiser?
] Democratic presidential candidate Chris Dodd called the theme "unconscionable, shameless and sickening."cite web |url=
title=Anger at Giuliani 9/11 fundraiser
] However Giuliani's campaign spokeswoman Maria Comella stated, "These are two volunteers who acted independently of and without the knowledge of the campaign, their decision to ask individuals for that amount was an unfortunate choice." [ [ ABC News: Giuliani Party Seeks $9.11 Per Person ] ]

While Giuliani may have begun de-emphasizing his 9/11 role, [ [ MSNBC, "Giuliani moves beyond 9/11"] ] his campaign was still largely built around 9/11, [ [ McCain, Giuliani Vie for 9/11 Brand] ] and he continued to draw criticism for it. [ [ 9/11 group tries to punch holes in Giuliani's image] ] When asked at the November 28, 2007 YouTube Debate to respond to allegations of a perceived 9-11 centric candidacy, Giuliani responded that he "...would like people to look at my whole record. Long before September 11, 2001...the reason that I believe I'm qualified to be president of the United States is not because of September 11th, 2001. It's because I've been tested...and I got very, very remarkable results. And that is the evaluation of other people, not me." [ [ Part II: CNN/YouTube Republican presidential debate transcript - ] ]

ee also

*Rudy Giuliani
*Political positions of Rudy Giuliani
*United States presidential election, 2008


External links

* Official website: [ Join Rudy 2008]
*Vote 2008: [ Rudy Giuliani] - Online NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
* [ Spartan Internet Political Performance Index Weekly Ranking for Rudy Giuliani]

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