Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius was sent to Rome as a hostage during the reign of his father Seleucus IV Philopator and his mother Laodice IV. When his father was murdered by his finance minister Heliodorus in 175 BC., his uncle Antiochus IV Epiphanes killed the usurper, but usurped the throne himself. When Antiochus IV died in 163 BC., his 9-year-old boy son Antiochus V Eupator was made king by Lysias. Demetrius was then 22 years old (thus he was born in 185 BC). He requested the Roman Senate to restore the Syrian throne to him, but was rejected, since the Romans believed that Syria should be ruled by a boy rather than a man. Two years later, Antiochus V was greatly weakened because Rome sent an emissary to sink his ships and hamstring his elephants for his violation of the Peace of Apamea, storing up too much weaponry. Demetrius escaped from confinement and was welcomed back on the Syrian throne in 161 BC. He immediately killed Antiochus V and Lysias.
Demetrius I is famous in Jewish history for his victory over the Maccabees, killing Judas Maccabaeus in Nisan, 160 BC. Demetrius acquired his surname of Soter, or Savior, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus. Timarchus, who had distinguished himself by defending Media against the emergent Parthians, seems to have treated Demetrius' accession as an excuse to declare himself an independent king and extend his realm into Babylonia. His forces were however not enough for the legal Seleucid king: Demetrius defeated and killed Timarchus in 160 BC, and dethroned Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. The Seleucid empire was temporarily united again. Demetrius may had married his sister Laodice V, by whom he had three sons Demetrius II Nicator, Antiochus VII Sidetes and Antigonus.
Demetrius' downfall may be attributed to Heracleides, a surviving brother of the defeated rebel Timarchus, who championed the cause of Alexander Balas, a boy who claimed to be a natural son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Heracleides convinced the Roman Senate to support the young pretender against Demetrius I.
The Jews also had a role in the down fall of Demetrius I. Alexander Balas came with a mercenary army, landed and occupied Ptolemais, and reigned as a rival king of the Seleucids in 152 BC. He appointed Jonathan Maccabaeus, the brother and successor of Judas Maccabaeus, as the high priest of Judea, in order to made the Jews an ally of his. Jonathan, who was born of a priestly family. but not from Zadok, the high priestly stock, took the title in Tishri, 152 BC. When Demetrius heard of it, he wrote a letter granting more privileges to Jonathan (1 Macc. 10:25-45). The Jews did not believe in him, because of his past persecutions of the Jews. They join with Balas, who defeated and killed Demetrius I in 150 BC.
In 1919 Constantine Cavafy published a poem about Demetrius's time as a hostage in Rome.
This entry incorporates material from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Demetrius I SoterBorn: 185 BC Died: 150 BC
- ^ Appian, Roman History: Syrian Wars 8.46
- ^ 1 Macc 1:10 (312 - [A.S.] 137 = 175 [B.C.])
- ^ 1 Macc 6:16 (312 - [A.S.] 149 = 163 [B.C.])
- ^ Appian, Roman History: Syrian Wars 8.46
- ^ 1 Macc 7:1 (312 - [A.S.] 151 = 161 [B.C.])
- ^ 1 Macc 9:3 (312 - [A.S.] 152 = 160 [B.C.])
- ^ 1 Macc 10:1 (312 - [A.S.] 160 = 152 [B.C.])
- ^ 1 Macc 10:21 (312 - [A.S.] 160 = 152 [B.C.])
- ^ 1 Macc 10:57 (312 - [A.S.] 162 = 150 [B.C.])
- ^ Δημήτριου Σωτήρος http://www.snhell.gr/anthology/content.asp?id=30&author_id=60
Antiochus V Eupator
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
DEMETRIUS I SOTER° — (162–150 B.C.E.), ruler of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria; son of seleucus iv . In his youth Demetrius was a hostage in Rome. When he became aware of the weakness of antiochus v and the governor lysias , he escaped, with the aim of wresting the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Demetrius I Soter — ▪ king of Syria Greek“Saviour” born c. 187 BC died 150 king of Syria from 162 to 150 BC. He was one of the line of rulers of the Seleucid dynasty, founded in 312 by a Macedonian successor of Alexander the Great. The son of King Seleucus IV … Universalium
Demetrius I of Macedon — Demetrius I Poliorcetes Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος, 337 BC – 283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Greek: Πολιορκητής The Besieger ), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294–288 BC). He belonged to the Antigonid… … Wikipedia
Demetrius II of India — Demetrius II Indo Greek king Coin of Demetrius II. Obv: Profile of Demetrius II. Rev: Standing Athena with legend King Demetrius . Reign 175–170 BCE or 140 BCE … Wikipedia
Demetrius (disambiguation) — Demetrius may be a given name. Demetrius may also refer to: Contents 1 Saints 2 Kings 2.1 Macedon … Wikipedia
Soter — (Greek gr. σωτήρ; initial capitalised, gr. Σωτήρ; fully capitalised, gr. ΣΩΤΗΡ = saviour) has been used as: * as a title of God: Poseidon Soter * any heroized leaders of Hellenistic dynasties, see hero cult * as a title of liberators (see also… … Wikipedia
DEMETRIUS II° — (Nicator) (141–125 B.C.E.), ruler of the Seleucid dynasty in Syria; son of demetrius i Soter. In 146/5, with the support of Ptolemy V of Egypt, he defeated Alexander Balas. Ptolemy succumbed to wounds received in this battle and Demetrius, having … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Demetrius I — may refer to: Demetrius I Soter (born 185 BC, reign 161 150 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire Demetrius I of Macedon (337 283 BC), king of Macedon Demetrius I of Bactria, Greco Bactrian king (reigned c. 200 180 BC) Demetrius I of… … Wikipedia
Demetrius II Nicator — For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair. Coin of Demetrius II. The reverse shows Zeus bearing Nike. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ i.e … Wikipedia
Demetrius I of Bactria — For other rulers with the same name, see Demetrius I (disambiguation). Demetrius I Greco Bactrian/ Indo Greek king Coin of Demetrius I. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Reign … Wikipedia