Filmjölk


Filmjölk

Filmjölk (also known as fil or the older word "surmjölk" [ cite book
title = Nordstedts svenska ordbok
origyear = 1990
year = 1999
publisher = Språkdata, Sture Allén och Nordstedts Ordbok AB
location = Norway
language = Swedish
isbn = 91-7227-134-5
pages = 242
] ) is a Swedish mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species "Lactococcus lactis" and "Leuconostoc mesenteroides".cite web
url = http://www.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17372
title = Filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-29
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] cite web
url = http://storkok.arla.se/Sites/Storkok/Templates/Product____997.aspx
title = Ekologisk filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] The bacteria metabolize lactose, the sugar naturally found in milk, into lactic acid. The acid gives filmjölk a sour taste and causes proteins in the milk, mainly casein, to coagulate, thus thickening the final product. The bacteria also produce a limited amount of diacetyl, which gives filmjölk its characteristic taste.cite web
url = http://www.mjolkframjandet.se/faktabank/fakta_om_mjolkprodukter/grundfakta/kulturmjolk_-_grundfakta
title = Kulturmjölk - grundfakta
date = 2005
accessdate = 2007-07-19
publisher = Mjölkfrämjandet
language = Swedish
] Filmjölk is similar to cultured buttermilk, kefir, or yoghurt in consistency, but fermented by different bacteria and thus has a slightly different taste. Compared with yoghurt, filmjölk tastes less sour. In Sweden, it is normally sold in 1-liter packages with live bacteria. The bacteria help maintain the balance between beneficial and harmful bacteria in the intestines. [cite web
url = http://www.orebroll.se/upload/Lakemedelskom/Dokument/Rad_Egenvard/Rad_egenvard_2007/Mage-Tarm.pdf#page=5
title = MAGE-TARM
date = 2007-03
accessdate = 2007-10-25
publisher = Örebro läns landsting
language = Swedish
]

Overview

In Nordic countries, filmjölk is commonly eaten during breakfast or as a snack between meals ("mellanmål") in the same manner as yoghurt, usually from a bowl with a spoon. It can be drunk but is not normally done so since the liquid is fairly thick. Filmjölk is often eaten with breakfast cereal, muesli or crushed crisp bread on top. Since plain filmjölk tastes somewhat sour, many people add sugar, jam, applesauce, cinnamon, fruits, and/or berries.

Manufactured filmjölk is made from pasteurised, homogenised, and standardised cow's milk. Although home made filmjölk has been around for a long time (written records from the 18th century speak of filmjölk-like products, but it has probably been around since the Viking Age or longer) [ [http://www.naringslivshistoria.se/templates/Arla/Article.aspx?id=1996&ArticleID=2182&CategoryID=&epslanguage=SV Även Linné åt filmjölk, www.naringslivshistoria.se] ] , it was first introduced to the Swedish market as a consumer product in 1931 by the Swedish dairy cooperative Arla.cite web
url = http://www.mjolkframjandet.se/faktabank/fakta_om_mjolkprodukter/grundfakta/kulturmjolk_-_grundfakta
title = Kulturmjölk - grundfakta
date = 2005
accessdate = 2007-07-19
publisher = Mjölkfrämjandet
language = Swedish
] cite web
url = http://www.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17372
title = Filmjölk: Filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] The first filmjölk was unflavoured and contained 3% milkfat. Since the 1960s, different varieties of unflavoured filmjölk has been marketed in Swedish grocery stores. Långfil, a more elastic variant of filmjölk was introduced in 1965; lättfil, filmjölk with 0.5% milkfat was introduced in 1967; and mellanfil, filmjölk with 1.5% milkfat was introduced in 1990.cite web
url = http://www3.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17375
title = Filmjölk: Långfil
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] cite web
url = http://www.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17372
title = Filmjölk: Filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] In 1997, Arla introduced its first flavoured filmjölk: strawberry flavoured filmjölk.cite web
url = http://www.arlafoods.se/templates/PlainPage2.aspx?id=6530
title = Arla genom åren
accessdate = 2007-07-19
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] The flavoured filmjölk was so popular that different flavours soon followed. By 2001, almost one third of the filmjölk sold in Sweden was flavoured filmjölk.cite web
url = http://storkok.arla.se/upload/UngaKockar/pdf/grav_djupt/gravdjupt_fil.pdf
title = Mjölkkultur och kulturmjölk
accessdate = 2007-07-19
publisher = Arla Foods
format = PDF
language = Swedish
] Since 2007, variations of filmjölk include filmjölk with various fat content, filmjölk flavoured with fruit, vanilla, or honey, as well as filmjölk with probiotic bacteria that is claimed to be extra healthy, such as Onaka fil which contains Bifidobacterium lactis (a strain of bacteria popular in Japan)cite web
url = http://www4.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17285
title = Filmjölk: Onaka
accessdate = 2007-06-29
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] and Verum Hälsofil which contains "Lactococcus lactis" L1A in quantities of at least 10 billion live bacteria per deciliter.cite web
url = http://www.verum.se/default0.asp?varpresentdomain=www.verum.se&varpresenturl=/vehalsofil.asp&varpresentqs=mnu%3D106%26mnu2%3D361%26mnu3%3D532&redir=1
title = Verum Hälsofil 0,5 % och 4,0 %
accessdate = 2007-06-29
publisher = Norrmejerier
language = Swedish
]

In English

There is currently no accepted English term for fil or filmjölk. Fil and/or filmjölk has been translated to English as "sour milk",cite web
url = http://lexin.nada.kth.se/cgi-bin/swe-eng
title = Translation of: fil
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Language Council of Sweden: Institute for Language and Folklore
] "soured milk",cite web
url = http://lexin.nada.kth.se/cgi-bin/swe-eng
title = Translation of: fil
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Language Council of Sweden: Institute for Language and Folklore
] cite web
url = http://www.skanemejerier.com/cmcore.asp?c=ourbrands-widechoice&sm=414&tm=414&pid=420
title = A wide choice: Products for its own specific purpose
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Skånemejerier
language = Swedish
] "acidulated milk",cite web
url = http://www.skanemejerier.com/cmcore.asp?c=functionalfood-proviva&sm=408&tm=408&pid=412
title = What is Proviva: The probiotic bacteria LP 299v
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Skånemejerier
language = Swedish
] "fermented milk", [cite web
url = http://www.arlafoods.com/appl/HJ/HJ202COM/HJ202D01.NSF/O/59559AE2472D3B1BC1257068003E8E8E
title = Milk-based drinks provide strong competition to fizzy drinks
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
date = 2003-02-28
] and "curdled milk", [cite web
url = http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&lng1=en,sv&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,ga,hu,it,lt,lv,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=419375:cs&page=3&hwords=filmj%C3%B6lk~
title = Commission Regulation (EC) No 2091/2005 of 15 December 2005 publishing, for 2006, the agricultural product nomenclature for export refunds introduced by Regulation (EEC) No 3846/87
accessdate = 2007-07-03
publisher = Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
date = 2005-12-15
] all of which are nearly synonymous and describe filmjölk but do not differentiate filmjölk from other types of soured/fermented milk. Filmjölk has also been described as "viscous fermented milk"cite journal
title = The World of Fermented Milks, Part 4: Viili and Långfil – exotic fermented products from Scandinavia
journal = Valio Foods & Functionals
volume = 2003
issue = 2
url = http://www.valio.fi/portal/page/portal/valiocom/Valio_Today/Publications/valio_foods___functionals05102006130335/2003.pdf#page=3
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date = 2003
format = PDF
publisher = Valio
pages = 3–5
] and "viscous mesophilic fermented milk",cite journal
title = The World of Fermented Milks, Part 4: Viili and Långfil – exotic fermented products from Scandinavia
journal = Valio Foods & Functionals
volume = 2003
issue = 2
url = http://www.valio.fi/portal/page/portal/valiocom/Valio_Today/Publications/valio_foods___functionals05102006130335/2003.pdf#page=3
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date = 2003
format = PDF
publisher = Valio
pages = 3–5
] as well as incorrectly translated to "junket". [cite web
url = http://www.arlafoods.com/appl/HJ/HJ202COM/HJ202D01.NSF/O/E80A78AFEB953991C1257068003E647F
title = New Gaio products in Sweden
date = 2001-08-20
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
] Furthermore, articles written in English can be found that use the Swedish term "filmjölk",cite web
url = http://www.milkingredients.ca/dcp/article_e.asp?catid=145&page=2568
title = Fermented Milk Products
accessdate = 2007-06-29
date = 2007-06-06
publisher = Canadian Dairy Commission
] [cite journal
last = Carlsson
first = P.
authorlink =
coauthors = D. Bratthall
date =
year = 1985
month = July
title = Secretory and serum antibodies against Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in relation to ingestion of fermented milk products
journal = Acta Odontol Scand
volume = 43
issue = 3
pages = 147–53
issn =
pmid = 3933276
doi =
id =
url =
language =
] as well as the incorrect spellings "filmjolk", [cite news
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3301/is_n2_v94/ai_13995750
title = All about Arla - Arla Ekonomisk Forening gears up for European Common Market
first = Gail Rosenbaum
last = Doeff
author = Gail Rosenbaum Doeff
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date = 1993-02-01
publisher = Dairy Foods
] "fil mjölk", [cite web
url = http://www.gemcultures.com/dairy_cultures.htm
title = Self-Renewing DAIRY Cultures: FRESH FIL MJÖLK (from Sweden)
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date =
publisher = gemcultures.com
] [cite web
url = http://store.anahatabalance.com/filmjstcu.html
title = Fil Mjölk Dairy/Soy Starter Culture
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date =
publisher = Anahata Balance
] and "fil mjolk".cite web
url = http://www.fermentedtreasures.com/yogurt.html
title = Fermented Treasures: Cultured Food and Beverage Starter Cultures
accessdate = 2007-06-30
date =
publisher = fermentedtreasures.com
]

In Finland Swedish

In Finland Swedish, a dialect of Swedish spoken by Swedish-speaking Finns, "fil" in Finland is the equivalent of "filbunke" in Sweden.cite web
url = http://www.kotus.fi/index.phtml?l=sv&s=666#FrmanfiliSverige
title = Får man fil i Sverige?
accessdate = 2007-08-21
date = 1997-04
language = Finland Swedish
publisher = Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
quote = Vår härliga fil motsvaras i Sverige av filbunke som filvännerna får laga hemma eftersom den inte saluförs av de svenska mejerierna. Surmjölk kan svensken missförstå som mjölk som förfarits eller förskämts (inte farit illa), så säg hellre filmjölk i Sverige även om det inte är riktigt samma sak.
] Not all variants of filmjölk are found in Finland, normally only "filbunke" and "långfil". Swedish-speaking Finns usually use the word "surmjölk", which is the older name for "filmjölk" (also in Sweden) or "piimä" (in Finnish),cite web
url = http://www.kotus.fi/index.phtml?l=sv&s=666#FrmanfiliSverige
title = Får man fil i Sverige?
accessdate = 2007-08-21
date = 1997-04
language = Finland Swedish
publisher = Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
quote = Vår härliga fil motsvaras i Sverige av filbunke som filvännerna får laga hemma eftersom den inte saluförs av de svenska mejerierna. Surmjölk kan svensken missförstå som mjölk som förfarits eller förskämts (inte farit illa), så säg hellre filmjölk i Sverige även om det inte är riktigt samma sak.
] which is a fermented milk product that is thinner than filmjölk and resembles cultured buttermilk.

Types of filmjölk in Sweden

In Sweden, there are six Swedish dairy cooperatives that produce filmjölk: Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, and Skånemejerier. In addition, Wapnö AB, a Swedish dairy company, and Valio, a Finnish dairy company, also sell a limited variety of filmjölk in Sweden. Prior to the manufacture of filmjölk, many families made filmjölk at home.

Fil culture is a variety of bacteria from the species "Lactococcus lactis" and "Leuconostoc mesenteroides", e.g., Arla's fil culture contains "Lactococcus lactis" subsp. "lactis", "Lactococcus lactis" subsp. "cremoris", "Lactococcus lactis" biovar. "diacetylactis", and "Leuconostoc mesenteroides" subsp. "cremoris".cite web
url = http://www.arla.se/Default____17791.aspx?SelectedMenuItem=17372
title = Filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-29
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] cite web
url = http://storkok.arla.se/Sites/Storkok/Templates/Product____997.aspx
title = Ekologisk filmjölk
accessdate = 2007-06-30
publisher = Arla Foods
language = Swedish
] cite web
url = http://storkok.arla.se/upload/UngaKockar/pdf/grav_djupt/gravdjupt_fil.pdf
title = Mjölkkultur och kulturmjölk
accessdate = 2007-07-19
publisher = Arla Foods
format = PDF
language = Swedish
]

Classical filmjölk variants

Probiotic filmjölk variants

Homemade filmjölk

To make filmjölk, a small amount of bacteria from an active batch of filmjölk is normally transferred to pasteurised milk and then left one to two days to ferment at room temperature or in a cool cellar. Pasteurised milk must be mixed with fil culture to create filmjölk because the naturally occurring bacteria in milk is killed during the pasteurization process.

A variant of filmjölk called "tätmjölk", "filtäte", "täte" or "långmjölk" is made by rubbing the inside of a container with plants of the genus "Drosera" (called "sileshår" in Swedish)cite web
url = http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/drosera/drose/welcome.html
title = Den virtuella floran: Drosera L.: Sileshår
accessdate = 2007-07-18
author = Arne and Anna-Lena Anderberg
last = Anderberg
first = Arne
authorlink =
coauthors = Anna-Lena Anderberg
date = 1999-10-13
publisher = Naturhistoriska riksmuseet
language = Swedish
] or with leaves from plants of the genus "Pinguicula" (Common name: Butterworts, called "tätört" in Swedish).cite journal
year = 2002
title = Filmjölk från Linnés tid
journal = Verumjournalen
volume = 2002
pages = 10
url = http://www.verum.se/verumjournalen/Verumjournalen_2002.pdf#page=10
language = Swedish
format = PDF
accessdate = 2007-07-18
] cite book
last = Östman
first = Elisabeth
title = Iduns kokbok
origyear = 1911
url = http://runeberg.org/idunskok/0165.html
accessdate = 2007-07-18
publisher = Aktiebolaget Ljus, Isaac Marcus' Boktryckeriaktiebolag
location = Stockholm
language = Swedish
pages = 161
chapter = Recept på filmjölk, filbunke och långmjölk
] cite web
url = http://www.jarnriket.com/bergsman/ramdokument/21-051_mjoelken.htm
title = Vad gjorde man med mjölken?
accessdate = 2007-08-05
publisher = Järnriket Gästrikland, Länsmuseet Gävleborg
language = Swedish
] Lukewarm milk is added to the container and left to ferment for one to two days. More "tätmjölk" can then be made by adding completed "tätmjölk" to milk. Carl von Linné described in Flora Lapponica (1737) a recipe for "tätmjölk" and wrote that any species of "Pinguicula" could be used to make "tätmjölk".cite journal
year = 2002
title = Filmjölk från Linnés tid
journal = Verumjournalen
volume = 2002
pages = 10
url = http://www.verum.se/verumjournalen/Verumjournalen_2002.pdf#page=10
language = Swedish
format = PDF
accessdate = 2007-07-18
]

"Drosera" and "Pinguicula" are carnivorous plants that have enzymes that degrade proteins,cite web
url = http://www.splammo.net/ppproj/litrev2.html
title = Pitcher Plant Project: Literature Review: Part II: Digestive Activities of Carnivorous Plants
last = Lindquist
first = John A.
date = 1975
accessdate = 2007-11-12
] which make the milk thick. How "Pinguicula" influences the production of "tätmjölk" is not completely understood; lactic acid bacteria have not been isolated during analyses of "Pinguicula".cite journal
year = 2002
title = Filmjölk från Linnés tid
journal = Verumjournalen
volume = 2002
pages = 10
url = http://www.verum.se/verumjournalen/Verumjournalen_2002.pdf#page=10
language = Swedish
format = PDF
accessdate = 2007-07-18
]

There is a common belief that "tätmjölk" can not be made when there is a thunderstorm.cite web
url = http://www.jarnriket.com/bergsman/ramdokument/21-051_mjoelken.htm
title = Vad gjorde man med mjölken?
accessdate = 2007-08-05
publisher = Järnriket Gästrikland, Länsmuseet Gävleborg
language = Swedish
]

References

External links

* [http://www.arla.se/ Arla Foods]
* [http://www.falkopingsmejeri.se/ Falköpings Mejeri]
* [http://www.gefleortensmejeri.se/ Gefleortens Mejeri]
* [http://www.milko.se Milko]
* [http://www.norrmejerier.se/ Norrmejerier]
* [http://www.skanemejerier.se/ Skånemejerier]
* [http://www.valio.se/ Valio]
* [http://www.wapno.se/ Wapnö AB]

See also

* Cuisine of Sweden
* Fermented milk products


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